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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806495

RESUMEN

Since March 2020, the Cameroonian government implemented nationwide measures to stall COVID-19 transmission. However, little is known about how well these unprecedented measures are being observed as the pandemic evolves. We conducted a six-month online survey to assess the preventive behaviour of Cameroonian adults during the COVID-19 outbreak. A five-point adherence score was constructed based on self-reported observance of the following preventive measures: physical distancing, face mask use, hand hygiene, not touching one's face, and covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing. Predictors of adherence were investigated using ordinal logistic regression models. Of the 7381 responses received from all ten regions, 73.3% were from male respondents and overall mean age was 32.8 ± 10.8 years. Overall mean adherence score was 3.96 ± 1.11 on a scale of 0-5. Mean weekly adherence scores were initially high, but gradually decreased over time accompanied by increasing incidence of COVID-19 during the last study weeks. Predictors for higher adherence included higher age, receiving COVID-19 information from health personnel, and agreeing with the necessity of lockdown measures. Meanwhile, experiencing flu-like symptoms was associated with poor adherence. Continuous observance of preventive measures should be encouraged among Cameroonians in the medium- to long-term to avoid a resurgence in COVID-19 infections.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Camerún/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Zootaxa ; 4915(1): zootaxa.4915.1.6, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756586

RESUMEN

The specimens studied were collected with sweep net and pitfall in the forests, agro-forests, herbaceous fallows, and crop fields of 14 localities in the southern part of Cameroon, from August 2015 to February 2018. The results show that Heteracris hannai sp. nov. and Heteracris lecoqi sp. nov. differ from previously known species of the same genus by the pattern of coloration and the details or shape of the phallic complex. H. lecoqi sp. nov. is characterized by light brownish body; male cercus with flattened, downcurved and obtuse apex; lophus strongly curved; interlophal space with V shape; apodeme of cingulum bow, convergent, with V-shape; valve of cingulum in lateral view longer than apical valve of penis; ramus in ventral view joined. H. hannai sp. nov. is distinct to other species by brown to grey body; male cercus with apex rounded, curved inside; lophus curved; interlophal space with U-shape; apodeme of cingulum thick, slightly parallel, with U shape; valve of cingulum in lateral view hardly longer than apical valve of penis; ramus in ventral view opened. The characteristics of H. guineensis are closer to H. hannai sp. nov. than to H. lecoqi sp. nov. H. lecoqi sp. nov. was collected only in the fallows while H. hannai sp. nov. was collected in the forests, agro-forests, fallows, and crop fields. Compared to H. guineensis, both new species are scarce in the natural vegetation and their distribution area is limited to two and four localities respectively for H. lecoqi sp. nov. and H. hannai sp. nov. All these three grasshopper's species were recorded as accidental species in all types of vegetation.


Asunto(s)
Saltamontes , Ortópteros , Distribución Animal , Animales , Camerún , Masculino
3.
Zootaxa ; 4908(4): zootaxa.4908.4.2, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756599

RESUMEN

The genus Cryncus Gorochov, 1983 composed of African crickets is reported for the first time in Cameroon by the description of two new species collected at Zamakoe, Ongot and Engout'Adjap in the southern Cameroonian plateau during an inventory study of crickets carried out from March 2014 to September 2015. These new species are: Cryncus camerounensis Um Nyobe, Kekeunou Bilong Bilong sp. nov. and Cryncus desutterae Um Nyobe, Kekeunou Ma sp. nov. These descriptions bring the total number of species of this genus to 25. Cryncus camerounensis is distinguished by an irregularly shaped mirror, without a dividing vein, with a short apical field, while Cryncus desutterae is characterized by a divided oval mirror and a long apical field. Cryncus camerounensis was more abundant in the forest environment while Cryncus desutterae would exclusively colonize fallow land. This article is divided into two parts. The first part presents a description of the two new species, followed by a revised diagnosis of the genus Cryncus using both male and female characters and an identification key. The second part presents some bioecological data of these new species and a map of the geographical distribution of all known species of this genus.


Asunto(s)
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Camerún , Femenino , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos
4.
Parasite ; 28: 8, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528357

RESUMEN

In Cameroon, pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are still largely used for malaria control. The present study assessed the efficacy of such LLINs against a multiple-resistant population of the major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in the city of Yaoundé via a cone bioassay and release-recapture experimental hut trial. Susceptibility of field mosquitoes in Yaoundé to pyrethroids, DDT, carbamates and organophosphate insecticides was investigated using World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tube tests. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance were characterised molecularly. Efficacy of unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 was evaluated against untreated control nets using a resistant colonised strain of An. coluzzii. Mortality, exophily and blood feeding inhibition were estimated. Field collected An. coluzzii displayed high resistance with mortality rates of 3.5% for propoxur (0.1%), 4.16% for DDT (4%), 26.9% for permethrin (0.75%), 50.8% for deltamethrin (0.05%), and 80% for bendiocarb (0.1%). High frequency of the 1014F west-Africa kdr allele was recorded in addition to the overexpression of several detoxification genes, such as Cyp6P3, Cyp6M2, Cyp9K1, Cyp6P4 Cyp6Z1 and GSTe2. A low mortality rate (23.2%) and high blood feeding inhibition rate (65%) were observed when resistant An. coluzzii were exposed to unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 net compared to control untreated net (p < 0.001). Furthermore, low personal protection (52.4%) was observed with the resistant strain, indicating reduction of efficacy. The study highlights the loss of efficacy of pyrethroid-only nets against mosquitoes exhibiting high insecticide resistance and suggests a switch to new generation bed nets to improve control of malaria vector populations in Yaoundé.


Asunto(s)
Anopheles , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Control de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vectores , Piretrinas , África Occidental , Animales , Anopheles/efectos de los fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Camerún , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida/normas , Insecticidas/farmacología , Malaria/prevención & control , Malaria/transmisión , Control de Mosquitos/normas , Mosquitos Vectores/efectos de los fármacos , Prevalencia , Piretrinas/farmacología
5.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 137-150, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538240

RESUMEN

Self-medication is an important initial response to illness in Africa. This mode of medication is often done with the help of African traditional medicines. Because of the misconception that African traditional medicines can cure/prevent all diseases, some Africans may opt for COVID-19 prevention and management by self-medicating. Thus to efficiently predict the dynamics of COVID-19 in Africa, the role of the self-medicated population needs to be taken into account. In this paper, we formulate and analyse a mathematical model for the dynamics of COVID-19 in Cameroon. The model is represented by a system of compartmental age-structured ODEs that takes into account the self-medicated population and subdivides the human population into two age classes relative to their current immune system strength. We use our model to propose policy measures that could be implemented in the course of an epidemic in order to better handle cases of self-medication.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Modelos Estadísticos , Automedicación , /epidemiología , Camerún , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , /aislamiento & purificación
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 135, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594454

RESUMEN

A light absorbing reflectometer was used to calculate black carbon (BC) mass concentrations contained in both fine and coarse particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) collected in an urban area of Yaoundé from 1st March 2018 to 26th February 2019 to highlight BC fluctuation and determine its potential predominant sources. The highest BC concentrations were obtained on 14/02/2019 (5.37 µg/m3) and 17/01/2019 (3.90 µg/m3) whereas the cleanest days were 28/06/2018 (0.01 µg/m3) and 30/06/2018 (0.21 µg/m3) for BC content of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively. While BC values for BC2.5-10 were only obtained from November 2018 to February 2019 and in the long dry season, those of BC2.5 were obtained for all the seasons. Months, which were most polluted with BC, were January with an average value of 2.34 ± 1.71 µg/m3 and December with 1.65 ± 0.82 µg/m3 whilst the least polluted were September with 0.54 ± 0.33 µg/m3 and August with 0.21 ± 0.10 µg/m3 for BC2.5 and BC2.5-10, respectively. The BC2.5 and BC2.5-10 annual average values were 1.18 ± 0.98 µg/m3 and 0.66 ± 0.39 µg/m3. The annual mean BC contributions were 8.27 ± 5.00% and 6.63 ± 4.49%, respectively, in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. The BC2.5/PM2.5 percentages varied widely; thus, a complete identification of potential sources of BC was very complex. However, by analogy with other studies, predominant sources were agricultural burn, light-duty gasoline, household wood and charcoal burning sources.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Camerún , Carbono/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 144, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been established as a leading cause of acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) in infants and children. In 2015, the global disease burden (GBD) study estimated that the overall RSV-ALRI mortality could be as high as 118,200, with most death occurring in low- and middle-incomes countries (LMIC). This study aimed to assess the burden of RSV infection among children less than 2 years with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the Littoral region of Cameroon. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in seven health centres in the Littoral region of Cameroon. Venous blood was collected using serum separation tubes from eligible children who visited these health centres with acute respiratory infections. ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) testing was used to assess the seroprevalence of anti-IgM RSV for the total population and by selected demographic and health parameters and potential risk factors. RESULTS: The overall RSV-associated ARI seroprevalence was 33% (95%CI:23.6-42.3; 33/100 children). The only demographic factor significantly associated with RSV acquisition was age of 6 months and below (odds ratio: 7.54 (2.62, 23.36); p = 0.000). Children who were clinically diagnosed to be concomitantly infected with malaria had a lower risk of RSV infection (odds ratio: 0.38 (0.14, 0.95; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The RSV burden is high among children less than 2 years with ARI in the Littoral region of Cameroon. There is a need for an effective public health RSV surveillance system with standard laboratory techniques and equipment to better understand the RSV disease age-specific incidence, seasonality, risk factors and RSV burden among patients in communities in Cameroon.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/complicaciones , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/etiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Camerún/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD004529, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459345

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015 stated atovaquone-proguanil can be used in travellers, and is an option in malaria-endemic areas in combination with artesunate, as an alternative treatment where first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is not available or effective. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review undertaken in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of atovaquone-proguanil (alone and in combination with artemisinin drugs) versus other antimalarial drugs for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: The date of the last trial search was 30 January 2020. Search locations for published trials included the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. To include recently published and unpublished trials, we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy and safety data for atovaquone-proguanil or atovaquone-proguanil with a partner drug compared with at least one other antimalarial drug for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update, two review authors re-extracted data and assessed certainty of evidence. We meta-analyzed data to calculate risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for treatment failures between comparisons, and for safety outcomes between and across comparisons. Outcome measures include unadjusted treatment failures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted treatment failures. PCR adjustment differentiates new infection from recrudescent infection. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen RCTs met our inclusion criteria providing 4763 adults and children from Africa, South-America, and South-East Asia. Eight trials reported PCR-adjusted data to distinguish between new and recrudescent infection during the follow-up period. In this abstract, we report only the comparisons against the three WHO-recommended antimalarials which were included within these trials. There were two comparisons with artemether-lumefantrine, one trial from 2008 in Ethiopia with 60 participants had two failures with atovaquone-proguanil compared to none with artemether-lumefantrine (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 28). A second trial from 2012 in Colombia with 208 participants had one failure in each arm (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 42). There was only one comparison with artesunate-amodiaquine from a 2014 trial conducted in Cameroon. There were six failures with atovaquone-proguanil at day 28 and two with artesunate-amodiaquine (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 28: 9.4% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 2.9% with artesunate-amodiaquine; RR 3.19, 95% CI 0.67 to 15.22; 1 RCT, 132 participants; low-certainty evidence), although there was a similar number of PCR-unadjusted treatment failures (9 (14.1%) with atovaquone-proguanil and 8 (11.8%) with artesunate-amodiaquine; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.49 to 2.91; 1 RCT, 132 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were two comparisons with artesunate-mefloquine from a 2012 trial in Colombia and a 2002 trial in Thailand where there are high levels of multi-resistant malaria. There were similar numbers of PCR-adjusted treatment failures between groups at day 42 (2.7% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 2.4% with artesunate-mefloquine; RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.34; 2 RCTs, 1168 participants; high-certainty evidence). There were also similar PCR-unadjusted treatment failures between groups (5.3% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 6.6% with artesunate-mefloquine; RR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.3; 1 RCT, 1063 participants; low-certainty evidence). When atovaquone-proguanil was combined with artesunate, there were fewer treatment failures with and without PCR-adjustment at day 28 (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 28: 2.16% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to no failures with artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil; RR 5.14, 95% CI 0.61 to 43.52; 2 RCTs, 375 participants, low-certainty evidence) and day 42 (PCR-adjusted treatment failures at day 42: 3.82% with atovaquone-proguanil compared to 2.05% with artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil (RR 1.84, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.56; 2 RCTs, 1258 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). In the 2002 trial in Thailand, there were fewer treatment failures in the artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil group compared to the atovaquone-proguanil group at day 42 with PCR-adjustment. Whilst there were some small differences in which adverse events were more frequent in the atovaquone-proguanil groups compared to comparator drugs, there were no recurrent associations to suggest that atovaquone-proguanil is strongly associated with any specific adverse event. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Atovaquone-proguanil was effective against uncomplicated P falciparum malaria, although in some instances treatment failure rates were between 5% and 10%. The addition of artesunate to atovaquone-proguanil may reduce treatment failure rates. Artesunate-atovaquone-proguanil and the development of parasite resistance may represent an area for further research.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Atovacuona/uso terapéutico , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Proguanil/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Amodiaquina/uso terapéutico , Combinación Arteméter y Lumefantrina/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Camerún , Niño , Colombia , Combinación de Medicamentos , Etiopía , Humanos , Mefloquina/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Tailandia , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466768

RESUMEN

Urban air pollution, despite its dangerous health impact, is poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Epidemiological data on this silent killer are almost non-existent for cities of Cameroon, which seems to be one of the sSA countries where populations are highly exposed to air pollutants. Objective: The present study was conducted in Douala city, and aimed at determining the association of urban air quality degradation with respiratory and systemic health in active populations exposed to air pollutants on a daily basis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2019 in 1182 active people consisting of motorbikes drivers (MD), outdoor urban workers (UW), and fuel station sellers (FSS). A standardized questionnaire was used to document participants' data. One hundred and twenty-six (126) motorbike drivers were selected to evaluate the relationship between haematological (white blood cells, platelets) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein-CRP) biomarkers, and air pollution; compared with those of a sixty-five (65) motorbike drivers' control group enrolled in Dschang, another town situated at about 216.3 km from Douala. Results: Among those recruited in urban Douala, some respiratory disorders such as running nostrils, colds, common fever, sore throats, dry cough, wheezing, chest pain, shortness of breath and systemic symptoms such as headaches, eye irritation, conjunctivitis, watery eyes and general tiredness were very common among MD, UW, and FSS. Regarding biological data, blood monocytes, lymphocytes and CRP were found to be significantly increased among selected MD in Douala, compared to control groups in Dschang. Conversely, a more significant decrease in blood neutrophil level was observed among MD in Douala than control groups in Dschang. These changes of haematological markers were significantly associated with place of residence, site of activity, and daily duration. Conclusion: Our results suggest the risk of suffering from respiratory impairments and systemic symptoms with exposure to urban air pollution among active people working near highways in Douala.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Biomarcadores , Camerún/epidemiología , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 36, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409600

RESUMEN

The study highlights the presence of pathogenic strains of microorganisms in two swimming pools, highly frequented in the city of Yaounde. Thus, the water samples from these swimming pools have undergone physicochemical and biological treatments using conventional techniques. Three groups of microorganisms (Bacteria, Protozoa, and Helminths) were identified and quantified in these swimming pools with weakly acidic waters (6.79 ± 0.35) with an average temperature of 26.63 ± 0.53 °C and suspended matter ranging from 2 to 150 mg.l-1. The total bacterial load varies between 8 × 103 and 6000 × 103 CFU/100 ml. It consists of mesophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, fecal coliforms, total coliforms, fecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protozoan cysts and oocysts range from 122 to 505 per liter of water. These values are slightly lower for helminth eggs and larvae (0 to 108 eggs and larvae/l). In both swimming pools, significant correlations were observed between some abiotic and biotic parameters. The waters of the studied swimming pools are subject to fecal pollution. Swimmers would therefore be exposed to biological contaminations, responsible for pathologies. The most common diseases are linked to gastroenteritis (diarrhea), but infections of all kinds may be overgrown (conjunctivitis, ear infections, dermatitis, respiratory infections).


Asunto(s)
Piscinas , Animales , Camerún , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microbiología del Agua
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 14, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343793

RESUMEN

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization on January 11, 2020. As of early May 2020, the disease has affected more than 3 million people worldwide, killing around 230,000 of them. In Cameroon, the response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been gradually organized, with a strategic emphasis on dedicated treatment centers in the referral hospitals of the main cities. As the fight against the pandemic rages on, signs of running out of steam are becoming manifest, yet the pandemic is likely to last for many more months. This article analyzes the situation and suggests some solutions to help stem the current health crisis and improve the public health emergency management system in Cameroon.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Salud Pública , /terapia , Camerún/epidemiología , Humanos
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 16, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343795

RESUMEN

Introduction: few studies have assessed risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within African countries. Here we examine differences in vulnerability to COVID-19 among the ten administrative regions and two major cities of Cameroon based on epidemiological risk factors and access to healthcare resources. Methods: regional epidemiological and healthcare access vulnerability indices were created and compared with cumulative COVID-19 cases, case fatality rates, co-morbidities, and healthcare resources in Cameroon. Results: based on epidemiological risk factors, populations in the East Region, Douala (in the Littoral Region), West Region, and Yaoundé (in the Center Region) are at highest risk for COVID-19. Meanwhile, the North, Far North, East, and Adamawa Regions had the most healthcare access vulnerability. COVID-19 cases per population were highest in the Center, Littoral, and East Regions. Case fatality rates were greatest in the North Region. Potential co-morbidities with greater prevalence among COVID-19 patients included male sex, hypertension, and diabetes. Conclusion: epidemiological risk factors for COVID-19 and access to healthcare varies between the regions of Cameroon. These discrepancies are potentially reflected in regional differences of COVID-19 cases and case fatality rates. In particular, the East Region has high epidemiological risk factors and low healthcare accessibility compared to other regions. Understanding the relationships between epidemiological risk factors, access to healthcare resources, and COVID-19 cases in Cameroon could aid decision-making among national policymakers and inform further research.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Camerún/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 19, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343798

RESUMEN

Introduction: WHO warned against a dramatic impact of COVID-19 in Africa unless adequate response strategies are implemented. Whatever the strategy, the role of health staff is pivotal. Objective: Assess knowledge and perception of the response to COVID-19 among health staff. Methods: we used a convenience non probabilistic sample to conduct a survey with a self-administered questionnaire from April 14 - 29, 2020 at the Bafoussam Regional Hospital (BRH). All the staff was invited to participate. Analyses were done with Microsoft Excel 2010 and Epi-Info version 7.1.5.2. Results: response rate was 76.1% (464/610). Mean age (SD) was 35.0 (8.9) years. Sex ratio (M/F) was 101/356. Nursing/midwifery staff (56.8%) and in-patients units (49.94%) were predominant. Origin and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 were poorly known while knowledge of clinical signs and the role of laboratory tests were good. For 53.2% of respondents all therapeutic regimens are supportive and only 31.6% trusted state-recommended drugs. For 169 of respondents (36.9%), herbal remedies prevent/cure COVID-19. Seventy percent (70%) felt they were not knowledgeable enough to handle COVID-19 cases. Eighty-five point six percent (85.6%) thought the BRH had insufficient resources to fight COVID-19 and 55.6% were dissatisfied with its response (weaknesses: medicines/technologies (74.5%), service delivery (28.1%), staff (10.9%)). Sixty-eight percent (68%) reported insufficient protection on duty. Seventy-six point five percent (76.5%) reported a drop in non-COVID-19 services. Eighty-five point five (85.5%) percent said they complied with community preventive measures. For 44% of respondents, regulations on COVID-19 corpses should be made more culture-sensitive. Fifty one point two percent (51.2%) of respondents were against vaccine trial in their community. Conclusion: knowledge was poor and perception of the response to COVID-19 was unfavourable.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Camerún , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(4): 269-275, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337976

RESUMEN

Aim: Globally, there were over 250 000 new HIV infections among adolescents in 2017, with a higher proportion of these in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, UNICEF estimated over 4 200 new HIV infections in adolescents in 2015; by 2016, there were over 40 000 adolescents who had HIV. Given that the number of adolescents living with HIV in Cameroon is on the increase, there is a need to better understand the factors influencing adherence to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with adherence among adolescents in Cameroon. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 460 HIV+ adolescents who were receiving antiretroviral therapy were sampled randomly from nine health facilities. Questionnaires and data extraction forms were used to collect data. Descriptive (frequencies and proportions) and inferential (chi-square and multivariate logistic regression) statistical analyses methods were used to analyse the data. Statistical significance was set at p = 0.05 and 95% confidence level. Results: The level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among the adolescents was 83%. Twelve out of 30 independent variables examined showed significant statistical association with adherence at the bivariate level. In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, however, only two variables significantly predicted adherence - experiencing side effects (AOR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.14, 6.09; p = 0.02), and internalized stigma (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.04, 6.04; p = 0.04). Conclusion: Adherence to treatment among adolescents in Cameroon was found to be suboptimal. There is a need for more individualized, targeted medication counselling for adolescents and their guardians as well as strategies to reduce internalized stigma and improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/psicología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 359, 2020 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308188

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated to different oral manifestations (including periodontal diseases), which have decreased with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, the occurrence of periodontitis is still consistent among patients with HIV living in sub Saharan-Africa, with limited evidence on the driven factors and mitigating measures in these settings. We aimed at evaluating the occurrence of periodontitis and its associated immunological and virological factors in patients with HIV living in Yaoundé, Cameroon. METHODS: We included 165 (44 ART-naïve and 121 ART-experienced) patients > 18 years old attending the Yaoundé Central Hospital and the Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre, from January-April 2018. The periodontal status was assessed by measuring the clinical attachment loss, periodontal pocket depth, plaques index and gingival bleeding index. CD4+/CD8+ cells and viremia were measured using the fluorescence-activated cell sorting method (FACS Calibur) and the Abbott m2000 RT HIV-1 RNA kit respectively. A standard-questionnaire concerning participants' medical records and oral hygiene methods was filled. Data was analyzed and p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was a significantly high prevalence of periodontitis in the ART-naïve (53.2%) compared to the ART-experienced group (37.3%), with a twofold increased risk of the ART-naïve population presenting with periodontitis than the ART-experienced population (OR 2.06, p = 0.03). More importantly, ART-naïve, patients with CD4 < 200 cells presented with higher risk of having periodontitis compared to those with higher CD4-values, with a threefold difference (OR 3.21). Worth noting, males presented with a higher risk of having clinical attachment loss (OR 6.07). There was no significant association between the occurrence of periodontitis and the CD8 (p = 0.45) or viremia (p = 0.10). CONCLUSION: In the Cameroonian context, a considerable number of adults infected with HIV suffer from periodontitis regardless of their treatment profile. Nonetheless, ART-naïve patients have a higher risk, indicating the protective role of ART. Interestingly, severely immune-compromised patients and men are vulnerable to periodontitis, thereby highlighting the need for clinicians to refer patients for regular periodontal screening especially male patients and those with low CD4. Such measures could greatly improve the quality of life of the population living with HIV in Cameroon.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Periodontitis , Adolescente , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Camerún/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Bolsa Periodontal/epidemiología , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Carga Viral
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242510, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382730

RESUMEN

The specific immune response to the Anopheles salivary peptide could be a pertinent and complementary tool to assess the risk of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control strategies. This study aimed to obtain first reliable data on the current state of the Anopheles gSG6-P1 biomarker for assess the level of exposure to Anopheles bites in high malaria endemic areas in Cameroon. Blood smears were collected from people living in the neighborhoods of Youpwe (suburban area, continental) and Manoka (rural area, Island), both areas in the coastal region of Cameroon. Malaria infection was determined using thick blood smear microscopy, whereas the level of specific IgG response to gSG-P1 peptide was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from the dried blood spots. Of 266 (153 from Youpwe, 113 from Manoka) malaria endemic residents (mean age: 22.8±19.8 years, age range: 6 months-94 years, male/female sex ratio: 1/1.2, with Manoka mean age: 23.71±20.53, male/female sex ratio:1/1.13 and Youpwe mean age: 22.12±19.22, male/female sex ratio 1/0.67) randomly included in the study, Plasmodium infection prevalence was significantly higher in Manoka than in Youpwe (64.6% vs 12,4%, p = 0.0001). The anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response showed a high inter-individual heterogeneity and was significantly higher among individuals from Manoka than those from Youpwe (p = 0.023). Malaria infected individuals presented a higher anti-gSG6-P1 IgG antibody response than non-infected (p = 0.0004). No significant difference in the level of specific IgG response to gSG-P1 was observed according to long lasting insecticidal nets use. Taken together, the data revealed that human IgG antibody response to Anopheles gSG-P1 salivary peptide could be also used to assess human exposure to malaria vectors in Central African region. This finding strengthens the relevance of this candidate biomarker to be used for measuring human exposure to malaria vectors worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Anopheles/parasitología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Proteínas de Insectos/inmunología , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Mosquitos Vectores/parasitología , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Proteínas y Péptidos Salivales/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Pruebas con Sangre Seca , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/biosíntesis , Lactante , Proteínas de Insectos/sangre , Malaria Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Proteínas y Péptidos Salivales/sangre , Población Urbana
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0235583, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320853

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157 is an emerging foodborne pathogen of great public health concern. It has been associated with bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Most human infections have been traced to cattle and the consumption of contaminated cattle products. In order to understand the risk associated with the consumption of cattle products, this study sought to investigate the prevalence and identify virulence genes in E. coli O157 from cattle in Cameroon. METHOD: A total of 512 rectal samples were obtained and analysed using conventional bacteriological methods (enrichment on modified Tryptone Soy Broth and selective plating on Cefixime-Tellurite Sorbitol Mac-Conkey Agar) for the isolation of E. coli O157. Presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were confirmed serologically using E. COLIPROTM O157 latex agglutination test and molecularly using PCR targeting the rfb gene in the isolates. Characterisation of the confirmed E. coli O157 strains was done by amplification of stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA virulence genes using both singleplex and multiplex PCR. RESULTS: E. coli O157 was detected in 56 (10.9%) of the 512 samples examined. The presence of the virulence genes stx2, eaeA and hylA was demonstrated in 96.4% (54/56) of the isolates and stx1 in 40 (71.4%) of the 54. The isolates exhibited three genetic profiles (I-III) with I (stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA) being the most prevalent (40/56; 71.4%) while two isolates had none of the virulence genes tested. CONCLUSION: A proportion of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in Buea are infected with pathogenic E. coli O157 and could be a potential source of human infections. We recommend proper animal food processing measures and proper hygiene be prescribed and implemented to reduce the risk of beef contamination.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Virulencia/genética , Animales , Camerún , Bovinos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Perfil Genético , Carne/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Prevalencia
18.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 339, 2020 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334340

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) of low-income countries function below the globally expected standard, characterised by the production and use of poor-quality data, or the non-use of good quality data for informed decision making. This has negatively influenced the health service delivery and uptake. This study focuses on identifying the factors associated with the performance of RHIS of the health facilities (HF) in Yaoundé, so as to guide targeted RHIS strengthening. METHODS: A HF-based cross-sectional study in the 6 health districts (HDs) of Yaoundé was conducted. HFs were chosen using stratified sampling with probability proportional to size per HD. Data were collected, entered into Microsoft Excel 2013 and analysed with IBM- SPSS version 25. Consistency of the questionnaire was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Pearson's chi-square (and Fisher exact where relevant) tests were used to establish relationships between qualitative variables. Associations were further quantified using unadjusted Odd ratio (OR) for univariable analysis and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for multivariable analysis with 95% confidence interval (CI). A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 111 selected HFs; 16 (14.4%) were public and 95 (85.6%) private. Respondents aged 24-60 years with an average of 38.3 ± 9.3 years; 58 (52.3%) males and 53(47.7%) females. Cronbach's alpha was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.95-0.98, p < 0.001), proving that the questionnaire was reliable in measuring RHIS performances. At univariable level, the following factors were positively associated with good performances: supportive supervision (OR = 3.03 (1.1, 8.3); p = 0.02), receiving feedback from hierarchy (OR = 3.6 (0.99, 13.2); p = 0.05), having received training on health information (OR = 5.0 (1.6, 16.0); p = 0.003), and presence of a performance evaluation plan (OR = 3.3 (1.4, 8.2), p = 0.007). At multivariable level, the only significantly associated factor was having received training on health information (aOR = 3.3 (1.01, 11.1), p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Training of health staff in the RHIS favors RHIS good performance. Hence, emphasis should be laid on training and empowering staff, frequent and regular RHIS supervision, and frequent and regular feedback, for an efficient RHIS strengthening in Yaoundé.


Asunto(s)
Exactitud de los Datos , Instituciones de Salud/normas , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Adulto , Camerún , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 148, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193963

RESUMEN

Sub-Saharan African countries have been hit by the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) since March 2020. Besides the resulting health and economic disasters is the psycho-socio-cultural problem related with the management of corpses of people dead from the disease, which might hinder the implementation of the response strategy. In Cameroon for instance, the current corpse management policy is very disputed. In fact, although they were recently made more flexible, the restrictions applied to burials still ban any transfer of dead bodies between cities. In light of the African cultural considerations of dead persons, the disputes observed between the families and the health personnel, the legislation and the available scientific evidence, this article analyses the risks and benefits of allowing families to bury their relatives. It thereafter suggests solutions that reconcile dignity (by allowing families to bury their dead relatives in their homes) and safety (by ensuring a sealed handling and the surveillance by a judiciary police officer). Applying these solutions could improve the population's trust towards the health system, and positively contribute to COVID-19 case prevention, identification and management.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Betacoronavirus , Entierro , Cadáver , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ritos Fúnebres , Prácticas Mortuorias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Entierro/ética , Entierro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Camerún , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cultura , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Familia , Humanos , Prácticas Mortuorias/ética , Prácticas Mortuorias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personeidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Opinión Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Administración de la Seguridad/ética , Administración de la Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111542, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181915

RESUMEN

The anthropogenic impact in the Wouri Estuary Mangrove located in the rapidly developing urban area of Douala, Cameroon, Africa, was studied. A set of 45 Persistent Organic Pollutant were analysed in surficial mangrove sediments at 21 stations. Chlorinated Pesticides (CLPs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have concentrations ranging from 2.2 - 27.4, and 83 - 544 ng/g, respectively. The most abundant CLPs were endosulfan, alachlor, heptachlor, lindane (γ-HCH) and DDT, which metabolites pattern revealed recent use. Selected PAHs diagnostic ratios show pyrolytic input predominantly. The sum of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (ΣC-PAHs) represented 30 to 50% of Total PAHs (TPAHs). According to effect-based sediment quality guidelines, the studied POPs levels imply low to moderate predictive biological toxicity. This study contributes to depict how far water resources are shifting within what is now termed the Anthropocene due to increasing local pressures in developing countries or African countries.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Hidrocarburos Clorados , Plaguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Camerún , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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