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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 236-245, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016366

RESUMEN

Antimicrobials used in livestock production can be present in manure via excretion in the feces and/or urine. Application of raw or processed (composted or stockpiled) manure to crop and pasture land as a plant nutrient source can result in antimicrobial transport to surface waters via rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Little is known regarding antimicrobial persistence in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, dissipation of environmentally relevant concentrations of three veterinary antimicrobials (lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and sulfamethazine) was studied in three wetlands on the Canadian Prairies. Study wetlands were fortified in the fall to simulate antimicrobial transport via rainfall runoff from fall manure applications to the wetland catchments. After fortification, water column concentrations of all three antimicrobials decreased through September and October. Plotting natural logarithm values of antimicrobial concentration against time resulted in linear relationships for all three antimicrobials, indicating that the summation of all dissipation processes for each antimicrobial could be described by first-order kinetics. The slopes of the three plots were significantly different, indicating that the order of dissipation was lincomycin < sulfamethazine < chlortetracycline. Consequently, the dissipation DT50 (time required for 50% antimicrobial dissipation) values for lincomycin (14.0 d), sulfamethazine (7.0 d), and chlortetracycline (3.3 d) were significantly different. The longer DT50 values of lincomycin and sulfamethazine suggest that environmentally relevant concentrations of these antimicrobials may affect bacterial production in prairie wetlands.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Clortetraciclina , Canadá , Ecosistema , Pradera , Lincomicina , Sulfametazina , Humedales
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 700-711, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016390

RESUMEN

Increased phosphorus (P) availability under flooded, anaerobic conditions may accelerate P loss from soils to water bodies. Existing knowledge on P release to floodwater from flooded soils is limited to summer conditions and/or room temperatures. Spring snowmelt runoff, which occurs under cold temperatures with frequent freeze-thaw events, is the dominant mode of P loss from agricultural lands to water bodies in the Canadian Prairies. This research examined the effects of temperature on P dynamics under flooded conditions in a laboratory study using five agricultural soils from Manitoba, Canada. The treatments were (a) freezing for 1 wk at -20 °C, thawing and flooding at 4 ± 1 °C (frozen, cold); (b) flooding unfrozen soil at 4 ± 1 °C (unfrozen, cold); and (c) flooding unfrozen soil at 20 ± 2 °C (warm). Pore water and surface water were collected weekly over 8 wk and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), pH, calcium, magnesium, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Soils under warm flooding showed enhanced P release with significantly higher DRP concentrations in pore and surface floodwater compared with cold flooding of frozen and unfrozen soils. The development of anaerobic conditions was slow under cold flooding with only a slight decrease in Eh, whereas under warm flooding Eh declined sharply, favoring reductive dissolution reactions releasing P, Fe, and Mn. Pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations were similar between frozen and unfrozen soil under cold flooding, suggesting that one freeze-thaw event prior to flooding had minimal effect on P release under simulated snowmelt conditions.


Asunto(s)
Fósforo/análisis , Suelo , Anaerobiosis , Canadá , Congelación , Temperatura
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 688-699, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016403

RESUMEN

Ecosystem reconstruction after mining disturbance is a challenge considering the multitude of factors that affect soil formation and revegetation. In the boreal forest of western Canada, peat material is often used as the organic amendment for land reclamation to upland forest. Carbon and water dynamics of peat-dominated ecosystems differ from natural upland forest soils. The objective of this work was to evaluate the evolution of soils reconstructed after mining disturbance using 13 C and 2 H analyses of n-alkane tracers. Ten soils from natural ecosystems were sampled (0-10 cm) and compared with 11 soils from novel ecosystems ranging in age from 0 to 30 yr, as well as a fresh peat sample. Soils supported different vegetation, including pine (Pinus spp.), aspen (Populus spp.), and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]. Despite overlaps for some individual n-alkanes, we found a dominance of n-C25 in reconstructed soils, also dominant in the peat material, and a dominance of n-C27 in natural soils, one of the dominant n-alkanes in natural forest vegetation. In addition, there was a significant difference in odd n-alkane δ2 H and δ13 C values between natural and reconstructed soils (p < .05). Differences in δ2 H values, more negative for reconstructed soils than for natural soils, were attributed to changes in soil moisture, from wetter peat-dominated soils to drier upland forests; among forest types, δ2 H values were most negative under pine vegetation. The δ13 C composition of odd n-alkanes, in particular n-C27 , was significantly related to tree age (p < .05). Overall, both 2 H and 13 C isotopic signatures of odd n-alkanes exhibited differences between natural and reconstructed soils. However, within the reconstructed soils, neither isotopic signature showed a clear evolution with age since reclamation.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Alcanos , Canadá , Ecosistema , Hidrógeno , Isótopos
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1435-1444, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016451

RESUMEN

Chlortetracycline (CTC), an antimicrobial administered as a feed additive to cattle, swine, and poultry, is present in the corresponding manure. Land application of raw or processed (composted or stockpiled) manure provides a mechanism by which CTC (and other antimicrobials) enters the environment and becomes available for transport to surface receiving waters via rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Chlortetracycline has been detected in Canadian surface waters, but little has been reported on its fate in aquatic ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, the dissipation of CTC-enol was monitored in deionized water and water typical of wetlands within the prairie region of Canada. In deionized water, CTC-enol tautomerized to CTC-keto, and both tautomers epimerized to 4-epi-CTC-enol and 4-epi-CTC-keto, respectively. Irreversible isomerization to iso-CTC occurred, which then epimerized to 4-epi-iso-CTC. In wetland water, although tauterization of CTC-enol to CTC-keto occurred, there was no evidence of the formation of the 4-epimers of either CTC-enol or CTC-keto. The major product formed in the wetland water was iso-CTC, some of which epimerized to 4-epi-iso-CTC. Although CTC-enol was shown to tautomerize to CTC-keto, the concentration of CTC-keto remained low in both deionized and wetland water, suggesting that the isomerization of CTC-enol to iso-CTC most likely occurred via CTC-keto. The dissipation of CTC-enol in wetland water was described by pseudo first-order kinetics with a DT50 (time required for 50% dissipation) value of 4.8 h. The short DT50 value of CTC and reduced antimicrobial activity of iso-CTC and 4-epi-iso-CTC suggest a lower probability for selection for CTC-resistant bacteria in Canadian Prairie aquatic ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Clortetraciclina , Animales , Canadá , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Pradera , Isomerismo , Porcinos , Humedales
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 882-895, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016498

RESUMEN

Farmers, food supply companies, and policymakers need practical yet scientifically robust methods to quantify how improved nitrogen (N) fertilizer management can reduce nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. To meet this need, we developed an empirical model based on published field data for predicting N2 O emission from rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) fields managed with inorganic N fertilizer in the United States and Canada. Nitrous oxide emissions ranged widely on an area basis (0.03-32.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 ) and a yield-scaled basis (0.006-4.8 kg N Mg-1 grain yr-1 ). We evaluated multiple modeling approaches and variables using three metrics of model fit (Akaike information criteria corrected for small sample sizes [AICc], RMSE, and R2 ). Our model explains 32.8% of the total observed variation and 50% of observed site-level variation. Soil clay content was very important for predicting N2 O emission and predicting the change in N2 O emission due to a change in N balance, with the addition of a clay fixed effect explaining 37% of site-level variation. Sites with higher clay content showed greater reductions in N2 O emission for a given reduction in N balance. Therefore, high-clay sites are particularly important targets for reducing N2 O emissions. Our linear mixed model is more suitable for predicting the effect of improved N management on N2 O emission in maize fields than other published models because it (a) requires only input data readily available on working farms, (b) is derived from field observations, (c) correctly represents differences among sites using a mixed modeling approach, and (d) includes soil texture because it strongly influences N2 O emissions.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Zea mays , Agricultura , Canadá , Nitrógeno , Estados Unidos
6.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E393-E394, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009900

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: The impact of waiting for surgery on the mental health of patients usually receives little attention. Because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the waits for elective surgery have been lengthening, potentially inducing or exacerbating mental health burdens. Provinces' health systems need to provide better support to assess not only patients' physical health, but also their mental health, and provide them with timely access to care based on need. A stepped care approach is needed to mitigate negative mental health effects associated with prolonged waits for elective operations. To provide the best care possible, we need to recognize and address both the physical and mental health problems of our waiting patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/psicología , Control de Infecciones/normas , Salud Mental , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Canadá/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Factores de Tiempo , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Listas de Espera
7.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Congresos como Asunto/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Curriculum , Cirugía General/educación , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Canadá/epidemiología , Congresos como Asunto/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Cirugía General/métodos , Guyana/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones/normas , Kenia/epidemiología , Nigeria/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Suiza/epidemiología , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/normas , Heridas y Traumatismos/cirugía
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239886, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance through web or phone-based polling has been used to track the course of infectious diseases worldwide. Our study objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms, and self-reported testing rates of respondents in three different COVID-19 symptom surveys in Canada. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using three distinct Canada-wide web-based surveys, and phone polling in Ontario. All three sources contained self-reported information on COVID-19 symptoms and testing. In addition to describing respondent characteristics, we examined symptom frequency and the testing rate among the symptomatic, as well as rates of symptoms and testing across respondent groups. RESULTS: We found that over March- April 2020, 1.6% of respondents experienced a symptom on the day of their survey, 15% of Ontario households had a symptom in the previous week, and 44% of Canada-wide respondents had a symptom in the previous month. Across the three surveys, SARS-CoV-2-testing was reported in 2-9% of symptomatic responses. Women, younger and middle-aged adults (versus older adults) and Indigenous/First nations/Inuit/Métis were more likely to report at least one symptom, and visible minorities were more likely to report the combination of fever with cough or shortness of breath. INTERPRETATION: The low rate of testing among those reporting symptoms suggests significant opportunity to expand testing among community-dwelling residents of Canada. Syndromic surveillance data can supplement public health reports and provide much-needed context to gauge the adequacy of SARS-CoV-2 testing rates.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de Guardia , Adulto , Anciano , Canadá/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Teléfono
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22623, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019485

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To identify the 100 most cited research articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: The Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched to identify the 100 most cited articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy as of September 29, 2019. Articles were ranked based on the total citations received from 2 databases. One hundred articles about radiotherapy for cervical cancer were identified. The following important information was extracted: author, journal, year and month of publication, country or region, and radiotherapy technologies. RESULTS: The 100 most cited articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy were published between 1964 and 2016, and the total citations from 2 databases ranged from 3478 to 211, including a total of 49,262 citations as of September 29, 2019. The index of citations per year ranged from 170.4 to 13.1. These articles were from 16 countries or regions, with most publications being from the United States (n = 38), followed by Austria (n = 15), Canada (n = 8), France (n = 8) and the United Kingdom (n = 7). The International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics produced the most articles (n = 42), followed by Radiotherapy and Oncology (n = 13), Cancer (n = 8) and Journal of Clinical Oncology (n = 7). These articles were categorized as original studies (n = 86), recommendations (n = 5), guidelines (n = 5) and reviews (n = 4). Of the 100 most cited articles, intracavitary brachytherapy (n = 50) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (n = 34) were the most commonly used treatment techniques. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report and analysis of the most cited articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy. This bibliographic study presents the history of technological development in external radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Brachytherapy is an indispensable part of radiotherapy for cervical cancer. The International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics is the journal with the most publications related to cervical cancer radiotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia/métodos , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/radioterapia , Austria/epidemiología , Bibliometría , Biología/estadística & datos numéricos , Canadá/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Oncología Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Física/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones/tendencias , Oncología por Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
BMJ ; 370: m3342, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967856

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of cardiovascular events between sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among people with type 2 diabetes in a real world context of clinical practice. DESIGN: Multi-database retrospective cohort study using a prevalent new user design with subsequent meta-analysis. SETTING: Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES), with administrative healthcare databases from seven Canadian provinces and the United Kingdom, 2013-18. POPULATION: 209 867 new users of a SGLT2 inhibitor matched to 209 867 users of a DPP-4 inhibitor on time conditional propensity score and followed for a mean of 0.9 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death). Secondary outcomes were the individual components of MACE, heart failure, and all cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate site specific adjusted hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals, comparing use of SGLT2 inhibitors with use of DPP-4 inhibitors in an as treated approach. Site specific results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Compared with DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with decreased risks of MACE (incidence rate per 1000 person years: 11.4 v 16.5; hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.84), myocardial infarction (5.1 v 6.4; 0.82, 0.70 to 0.96), cardiovascular death (3.9 v 7.7; 0.60, 0.54 to 0.67), heart failure (3.1 v 7.7; 0.43, 0.37 to 0.51), and all cause mortality (8.7 v 17.3; 0.60, 0.54 to 0.67). SGLT2 inhibitors had more modest benefits for ischaemic stroke (2.6 v 3.5; 0.85, 0.72 to 1.01). Similar benefits for MACE were observed with canagliflozin (0.79, 0.66 to 0.94), dapagliflozin (0.73, 0.63 to 0.85), and empagliflozin (0.77, 0.68 to 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational study conducted in a real world clinical practice context, the short term use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular events compared with the use of DPP-4 inhibitors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03939624.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá , Bases de Datos Factuales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1453, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationships between childhood food allergy and parental unhealthy food choices for their children across attitudes towards childhood obesity as mediators and parental gender, income and education as potential moderators. METHODS: We surveyed parents with at least one child between the ages of 6 and 12 living in Canada and the United States. We received 483 valid responses that were analysed using structural equation modelling approach with bootstrapping to test the hypothetical path model and its invariance across the moderators. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that pressure to eat fully mediated the effects of childhood food allergy and restriction on parental unhealthy food choices for their children. Finally, we found that parental gender moderated the relationship between childhood food allergy and the pressure to eat. CONCLUSIONS: The paper contributes to the literature on food allergies among children and the marginalisation of families with allergies. Our explorative model is a first of its kind and offers a fresh perspective on complex relationships between variables under consideration. Although our data collection took place prior to Covid-19 outbreak, this paper bears yet particular significance as it casts light on how families with allergies should be part of the priority groups to have access to food supply during crisis periods.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/epidemiología , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Canadá/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Can J Nurs Res ; 52(3): 176-184, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893691

RESUMEN

The Canadian Nurses Association has a long-standing history of strengthening the nursing profession and the health system, supporting professional practice, and advocating for healthy public policy at the local, national, and global level. Historical writings have typically focused on the significant milestones achieved throughout the past century, and the various social, political, and economic contexts that have shaped the evolution of the association. While historical sources illustrate an organization with a strong track record of policy advocacy leadership and presence, there is little literature that has examined how the association's policy advocacy agenda has evolved overtime. Using Shamian's emerging "Bubble" Theory and Spheres of Policy Influence Model as an analytical framework, the authors use historical archives and documents to examine the internal and external drivers that have shaped the association's policy advocacy agenda over the past century and conclude that the Canadian Nurses Association has established itself as a credible leader in shaping not only nursing but also health-care and public policy at the local, national, and global level.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Consumidor , Política , Sociedades de Enfermería , Canadá , Humanos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140188, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886981

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: A number of studies have shown that cold has an important impact on human health. However, almost no studies focused on cold warning systems to prevent those health effects. For Nordic regions, like the province of Quebec in Canada, winter is long and usually very cold with an observed increase in mortality and hospitalizations throughout the season. However, there is no existing system specifically designed to follow in real-time this mortality increase throughout the season and to alert public health authorities prior to cold waves. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to establish a watch and warning system specifically for health impacts of cold, applied to different climatic regions of the province of Quebec. METHODOLOGY: A methodology previously used to establish the health-heat warning system in Quebec is adapted to cold. The approach identifies cold weather indicators and establishes thresholds related to extreme over-mortality or over-hospitalization events in the province of Quebec, Canada. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The final health-related thresholds proposed are between (-15 °C, -23 °C) and (-20 °C, -29 °C) according to the climatic region for excesses of mortality, and between (-13 °C, -23 °C) and (-17 °C, -30 °C) for excesses of hospitalization. These results suggest that the system model has a high sensitivity and an acceptable number of false alarms. This could lead to the establishment of a cold-health watch and warning system with valid indicators and thresholds for each climatic region of Quebec. It can be seen as a complementary system to the existing one for heat warnings, in order to help the public health authorities to be well prepared during an extreme cold event.


Asunto(s)
Frío , Calor , Canadá , Humanos , Quebec , Estaciones del Año
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 614, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875389

RESUMEN

This review identifies strengths and weaknesses of water monitoring programs selected by Canadian water managers. We used 22 criteria, guided by outcomes of an exploratory study and supported by 21 semi-structured key informant interviews. The highest-scoring programs include the Slave Watershed Environmental Effects Program (Canada), the Government of Canada's Environmental Effects Monitoring Program, and Healthy Land and Water (Australia). We describe five recommendations for improving future freshwater monitoring frameworks: (1) recognize different knowledge approaches (especially Indigenous), (2) use multiple reporting formats, (3) clarify monitoring and management roles, (4) apply a whole-watershed approach, and (5) link monitoring to management and decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Australia , Canadá
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 613, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875407

RESUMEN

Many environmental monitoring programs include an assessment of the health of fish populations using a sentinel species and include an indicator of reproductive potential. Knowledge of the reproductive strategy of the fish species is critical for data interpretation but is not always known. The reproductive strategy of a species can be determined from detailed histological analyses of ovaries throughout the reproductive cycle; however, these studies can be costly and can delay the implementation of a monitoring program. Three quick and cost-effective methods of predicting the reproductive strategy (annual single spawning or annual multiple spawning) are evaluated in this study using predicted probabilities from binary logistic regression models as a means of classifying the reproductive strategies of 18 different fish species in Atlantic Canada. The first method was based on the hypothesis that the variability in the ovary weight-body weight relationship in prespawning females is higher in multiple spawners. This method did not have a good classification rate due to some multiple spawners having low variability. The other two methods involved predictor variables representing the proportion of oocytes in different stages of development and predictor variables representing the distribution of oocyte sizes during the prespawning season for 111 fish (25 different samples for species). Predicted probabilities from these regression models could be used to correctly classify the reproductive strategies of all 25 samples (development stage model) and all but one sample (oocyte size distribution model). These models can be used to estimate the reproductive strategy of a species from a single sample of fish collected during the prespawning period to support species selection and data interpretation in environmental monitoring programs.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Reproducción , Animales , Canadá , Femenino , Peces , Ovario
16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720953680, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic spinal pain is one of the most common diseases in the United States. Underserved patients are most affected, and disproportionately may use opioid medications as they lack access to other therapies. It is therefore important to develop systems to treat spinal pain within the primary medical home. METHODS: We designed a prospective observational pilot study at a community health center to measure the effectiveness of two interventions among an underserved population: a multidisciplinary pain team and chiropractic care. Study outcomes were pain and functional disability measured by the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ), and reduction of opioid dose at baseline and 6-12 months. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine associating factors for change in PDQ scores. RESULTS: Thirty-five individuals completed baseline and follow-up PDQs from August 2018 to May 2020. Overall, the mean baseline PDQ was 92.4 +/- 6.1 and the mean follow-up PDQ was 81.9 +/- 7.7, resulting in a mean improvement of -10.6 (95% CI 1.2 - -22.3, P = .08). Participants in the chiropractic team (mean change -25.0, P = .01) and those completing the study before COVID-19 (mean change = -22.6, P < .01) were found to have significantly greater improvement at follow-up. CONCLUSION: This observational study within a community health center resulted in improvement in spinal pain and disability with chiropractic care versus a multidisciplinary pain team. Offering similar services in primary care may help to address pain and disability, and hopefully limit external referrals, advanced imaging, and opioid prescriptions.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico/terapia , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Manipulación Quiropráctica , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Centros Comunitarios de Salud , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
17.
Curr Oncol ; 27(4): e420-e432, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905290

RESUMEN

Because of the global coronavirus pandemic, the 2020 annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology took place virtually, 29-30 May. At the meeting, results from key studies about the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (cll) were disseminated. Studies examined the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib, acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib, and venetoclax as monotherapy or in combination with novel agents for patients with treatment-naïve and relapsed or refractory cll. Our meeting report describes the foregoing studies and presents interviews with investigators and commentaries by Canadian hematologists about potential effects on Canadian practice.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Congresos como Asunto , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/tratamiento farmacológico , Oncología Médica/métodos , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Canadá , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Oncología Médica/organización & administración , Oncología Médica/tendencias , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Sociedades Médicas , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983415

RESUMEN

Launched in 2000 and held every year since, the Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a volunteer-run meeting coordinated by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF) that covers open source software development and open science in bioinformatics. Most years, BOSC has been part of the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference, but in 2018, and again in 2020, BOSC partnered with the Galaxy Community Conference (GCC). This year's combined BOSC + GCC conference was called the Bioinformatics Community Conference (BCC2020, bcc2020.github.io). Originally slated to take place in Toronto, Canada, BCC2020 was moved online due to COVID-19. The meeting started with a wide array of training sessions; continued with a main program of keynote presentations, talks, posters, Birds of a Feather, and more; and ended with four days of collaboration (CoFest). Efforts to make the meeting accessible and inclusive included very low registration fees, talks presented twice a day, and closed captioning for all videos. More than 800 people from 61 countries registered for at least one part of the meeting, which was held mostly in the Remo.co video-conferencing platform.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional , Congresos como Asunto , Canadá , Humanos
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(10): 1365-1370.e7, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981662

RESUMEN

During the first few months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Canadian nursing homes implemented strict no-visitor policies to reduce the risk of introducing COVID-19 in these settings. There are now growing concerns that the risks associated with restricted access to family caregivers and visitors have started to outweigh the potential benefits associated with preventing COVID-19 infections. Many residents have sustained severe and potentially irreversible physical, functional, cognitive, and mental health declines. As Canada emerges from its first wave of the pandemic, nursing homes across the country have cautiously started to reopen these settings, yet there is broad criticism that emerging visitor policies are overly restrictive, inequitable, and potentially harmful. We reviewed the nursing home visitor policies for Canada's 10 provinces and 3 territories as well as international policies and reports on the topic to develop 10 provi-informed, data-driven, and expert-reviewed guidance for the re-opening of Canadian nursing homes to family caregivers and visitors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Soledad/psicología , Casas de Salud/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Canadá , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Política de Salud , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987764

RESUMEN

Background: This cross-sectional online survey investigates the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms at an early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Methods: OCD symptoms, moderate/high stress, likely generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and likely major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed with the Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (BOCS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale, respectively. Results: Out of 32,805 individuals subscribed to Text4Hope, 6041 completed an online survey; the response rate was 18.4%. Overall, 60.3% of respondents reported onset of OCD symptoms and 53.8% had compulsions to wash hands during the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents who showed OCD symptoms only since the start of COVID-19 were significantly more likely to have moderate/high stress (z = 6.4, p < 0.001), likely GAD (z = 6.0, p < 0.001), and likely MDD (z = 2.7, p < 0.01). Similarly, respondents who engaged in compulsive hand washing were significantly more likely to have moderate/high stress (z = 4.6, p < 0.001) and likely GAD (z = 4.6 p < 0.001), but not likely MDD (z = 1.4, p = 0.16). Conclusion: The prevalence of OCD symptoms increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, at a rate significantly higher than pre-pandemic rates reported for the sample population. Presenting with OCD symptoms increased the likelihood of presenting with elevated stress, likely GAD, and likely MDD.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
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