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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769861

RESUMEN

The current study examined how neighborhood environments are related to older adults' perceived control over time. A longitudinal study design was employed using data sampled from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2014 and 2018. In total, 3170 older adults, whose age ranged between 60 and 99 years at the baseline, were followed up with a 4-year lag. Measures included two domains of neighborhood characteristics: social cohesion and physical disorder (at baseline and follow-up) and perceived control (at follow-up). Path coefficients between the latent factors were examined using structural equation modeling. Results showed that there was a significant cross-sectional and longitudinal association between neighborhood social cohesion and older adults' perceived control, while neighborhood physical disorder was cross-sectionally associated with perceived control. Study findings provide evidence for promoting social integration and social capital in their neighborhood that might contribute to older adults' perceived competence and beliefs in control.


Asunto(s)
Jubilación , Capital Social , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Longitudinales , Características de la Residencia
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4919-4932, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787186

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to analyze the association between social capital and bullying among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, in high schools in the Greater Vitória Metropolitan Area in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out at the school base, with a sample of 2293 students, stratified by municipality of school location. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using two instruments: Integrated Questionnaire to Measure Social Capital of the World Bank and adapted versions of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The results showed that victims of bullying were more likely to present low level of cognitive social capital (p = 0.001; OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.29-2.68), underlying (p = 0.002; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.20-2.38) and total (p < 0.001; OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.32-2.59). Bullying offenders were associated with low levels of cognitive social capital (p < 0.001; OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 2.34-4.44) and total (p = 0.042; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.24-2.27). High levels of social capital are related to the reduction of bullying and victimization behaviors. Therefore, healthy social relationships should be promoted in the spaces of mutual coexistence of adolescents to stimulate other positive reactions in school environments.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Medio Social , Adulto Joven
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769781

RESUMEN

This study examined the association between neighborhood-based social capital (NSC) and depressive symptoms in the context of urban neighborhoods in China, with special attention given to the association heterogeneity across socioeconomic groups. Drawing on cross-sectional data collected from 39 neighborhoods in Guangzhou, this research demonstrated that adults' depressive symptoms were higher among those with lower cognitive (trustworthiness, reciprocity, and cohesion within a neighborhood) and structural (social network and participation) dimensions of NSC. Further analysis showed that the negative association between NSC and depressive symptoms was significantly heterogeneous across socioeconomic groups. Specifically, this negative relationship was more prominent in the lower socioeconomic classes than in the upper socioeconomic classes, indicating that the lower accumulation of NSC among disadvantaged groups may aggravate depression unequally across social classes. In addition, the negative association between social participation and depressive symptoms was stronger for people who are older or unemployed. The findings of this study not only provide new evidence concerning the significance of the beneficial effects of NSC in the Chinese context, but also, more importantly, highlight that NSC plays a crucial role in creating mental health inequality across social classes. Thus, the relevant social interventions including fostering neighborhood relationships and social activities should be carefully tailored against the backdrop of community building during the urbanization process. The implications of our study for urban governance to promote healthy cities are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Capital Social , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Apoyo Social
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769798

RESUMEN

Mental health promotion of economically disadvantaged youths is a popular issue in current China. Economically disadvantaged youths are at greater risk of depression. Ostracism may be an important predictor of depression for them. However, no consensus has been reached on the underlying mechanism between ostracism and depression. A total of 1207 economically disadvantaged youths were recruited from six universities in China. These youths were asked to complete questionnaires measuring depression, ostracism, psychological capital, and perceived social support. A moderated mediation model was examined by using IBM SPSS STATISTICS 27macro program PROCESS version 3.5, in which psychological capital was a mediating variable, and perceived social support was a moderating variable. Lack of causal inferences and self-report bias due to the cross-sectional and self-report survey need to be considered when interpreting results. The results revealed that ostracism was positively associated with depression among economically disadvantaged youths. Psychological capital partially mediated the association. Perceived social support moderated the indirect association between ostracism and depression via psychological capital among economically disadvantaged females. Training and intentional practice of psychological capital could be the core to develop the depression interventions targeting economically disadvantaged youths with experience of ostracism. Gender and perceived social support need to be considered in developing the interventions.


Asunto(s)
Capital Social , Aislamiento Social , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Apoyo Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 763246, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790646

RESUMEN

Background: Leisure provides opportunities for urban and rural residents to relax, recover their vitality, and improve their personal growth, development, and well-being. However, the impact of the leisure participation process, types, obstacles, participation motivation, and satisfaction on health is not very clear, especially the impact of leisure behavior on health, and is worthy of in-depth discussion. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of social capital and leisure participation on the self-rated health of urban residents in China so as to provide an important reference for national health promotion activities. Methods: the questionnaire on the relationship between social capital, leisure behavior, and self-rated health was compiled by ourselves. The residents participating in leisure and fitness in 25 residential fitness centers in Chengdu were investigated in the morning and evening, and the obtained data were processed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: (1) Social capital had no direct influence on leisure hindrance; leisure motivation and leisure participation had no direct influence on self-rated health. (2) Leisure satisfaction has a direct positive impact on self-rated health, while leisure hindrance has a significant negative impact on self-rated health. (3) Social capital has a direct positive impact on leisure satisfaction, and social capital has a direct positive impact on self-rated health. Leisure satisfaction plays an intermediary role in the path of social capital affecting self-rated health, and the intermediary force exceeds the direct impact of social capital on self-rated health. Conclusion: The effect of leisure satisfaction on self-rated health is higher than that of social capital, and it plays an intermediary role in the impact path of social capital on self-rated health. Therefore, how to make urban community residents with different backgrounds obtain leisure satisfaction through leisure activities is an important topic of national health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Capital Social , China , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Población Urbana
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769674

RESUMEN

Social distancing restrictions for COVID-19 epidemic prevention have substantially changed the field of youths' social activities. Many studies have focused on the impact of epidemic-preventative social distancing on individual physical and mental health. However, in the field of social distancing for epidemic prevention, what are the changes in youth anti-epidemic action and states caused by their interpersonal resources and interactions? Responding to this question by studying the impact of the elements of social capital in youths' anti-epidemic actions and anti-epidemic states could help identify an effective mechanism for balancing social distancing for effective epidemic prevention and sustainable social-participation development among youth. Bourdieu's field theory holds that the elements of social capital change with a change in the field. Therefore, we introduced the specific elements of social capital as independent variables and used a multinomal logistic model to analyze and predict the levels of youth anti-epidemic action through an empirical investigation of 1043 young people in Guangdong Province, China. The results show that, first, level of social distancing for epidemic prevention shows differences by occupation status and income level and correlates with social support. Second, social support and social norms play positive roles in promoting youth participation in anti-epidemic activities when social distance is certain. Third, social capital has a significant positive effect on youth social satisfaction and core relationships; however, social trust has a significant negative effect on youth physical and mental health. This study emphasized that social distancing for epidemic prevention is a special social situational state, which is a field where social capital has an impact on the differential changes in the public-participating actions and habitus of youth.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Capital Social , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Epidemias/prevención & control , Humanos , Distanciamiento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 778-782, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622592

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the influence of social capital on the quality of life of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases. Methods: A multi-phase stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to select the survey respondents. Professionally trained surveyors made home visits in order to conduct face-to-face questionnaire surveys in person. European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale (EQ-5D-5L) and a self-developed social capital scale were used to investigate the quality of life and social capital of the respondents. Factor analysis and Cronbach's α coefficient test were done to verify the reliability and validity of the self-developed social capital scale. The χ 2 test and robust Tobit regression model were used to analyze the impact of social capital on the quality of life of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases. Results: The self-developed social capital scale showed excellent performance. The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.728, the KMO value was 0.716, and the result of Bartlett's test of sphericity was statistically significant ( P<0.001), indicating that the data were well suited for factor analysis. The four common factors cumulatively explained 68.27% of the total variation. The health utility value of the survey respondents was 0.869±0.181. Those who could walk around, shower and dress themselves, and perform usual activities without any problem accounted for 75.70%, 80.10%, and 74.1% of the respondents, respectively. Those who had pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression, with no self-perceived problem were 43.40% and 58.90%, respectively. In the EQ-5D-5L scale, the self-rated health influencing factors of the physical health dimension were community safety and interpersonal network relationships. The influencing factors of social function health was community safety and mental health was affected by community safety, community trust and interpersonal network relationships. When community safety improved by one level, the health utility value of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases increased by 0.046, and when interpersonal network relationships improved by an additional level, their health utility value increased by 0.037. Conclusion: The main problem of the quality of life of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases was found in the mental health dimension. In the process of treating chronic non-communicable diseases, attention should also be given to psychological counseling. Community safety and interpersonal network relationships are the protective factors for self-rated health status. Providing a safe community environment and expanding interpersonal networks help improve the health of patients.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Capital Social , Enfermedad Crónica , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 584916, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616240

RESUMEN

Objective: Much of the extensive quantitative research linking socio-economic position (SEP) and health utilizes three common indicators: income, occupation and education. Existing survey data may enable researchers to include indicators of additional forms of capital in their analyses, permitting more nuanced consideration of the relationship between SEP and health. Our objective was to identify the breadth of survey questions related to economic, cultural, and social capital available through Statistics Canada surveys, and the extent to which those surveys also include health measures. Methods: We compiled a list of all population-based Statistics Canada surveys, and developed a broad list of potential indicators of forms of capital. We systematically searched the surveys for those indicators and health measures, analyzing their co-occurrence. Results: Traditional SEP indicators were present in 73% of surveys containing health measures, while additional indicators of social and cultural capital were available in 57%. Conclusion: Existing national survey data represent an under-exploited opportunity for research examining the relationship between various forms of capital and health in Canada. Future empirical explorations of these data could enrich our theoretical understanding of health inequities.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Canadá , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Capital Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682727

RESUMEN

Social contextual factors could determine mortality by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with social capital as a potential determinant. This study aimed to examine the association between prefecture-level social capital and COVID-19 deaths in Japan. Data on the cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals between 1 October 2020 and 30 June 2021 in 47 prefectures were obtained from the government open-access database. Prefecture-level social capital was collected from a large-scale web-based nationwide survey conducted between August and September 2020. We included trust in neighbors, norm of reciprocity in the neighborhood, and trust in the national government as cognitive social capital, and neighborhood ties and social participation as structural social capital. The cumulative COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals (1 October 2020 to 30 June 2021) ranged from 0.15 to 27.98 in 47 prefectures. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates showed that a greater norm of reciprocity and government trust were associated with fewer COVID-19 deaths during the first and second 3-month periods of observation. In the third 3-month period, the association between COVID-19 deaths and government trust became nonsignificant. Trust in neighbors, neighborhood ties, and social participation were not related to COVID-19 deaths during any time period. The disparity of COVID-19 deaths by prefecture in Japan can be explained by cognitive social capital. This study suggests that the association between social capital and COVID-19 deaths may vary according to the dimension of social capital and time period.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Capital Social , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoyo Social , Confianza
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1142, 2021 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686185

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social capital has become an important concept in the field of public health, and is associated with improved health services uptake. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the role of social capital on the utilization of maternal and child health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Mixed-methods research review and synthesis using three databases PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct for peer-reviewed literature and Google Scholar and Google search engines for gray literature were performed. Both quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in LMICs, published in English and in grey literature were considered. Prior to inclusion in the review methodological quality was assessed using a standardized critical appraisal instrument. RESULTS: A total of 1,545 studies were identified, of which 13 records were included after exclusions of studies due to duplicates, reading titles, abstracts, and full-text reviews. Of these eligible studies, six studies were included for quantitative synthesis, and seven were included for qualitative synthesis. Of the six quantitative studies, five of them addressed the association between social capital and health facility delivery. Women who lived in communities with higher membership in groups that helps to form intergroup bridging ties had higher odds of using antenatal care services. Synthesized qualitative findings revealed that women received some form of emotional, informational, and instrumental support from their network members. Receiving health information from trusted people and socio-cultural factors influenced the use of maternal and child health services. CONCLUSIONS: Social capital has a great contribution to improve maternal and child health services. Countries aiming at improving maternal and child health services can be benefited from adapting existing context-specific social networks in the community. This review identified limited available evidence examining the role of social capital on maternal and child health services uptake and future studies may be required for an in-depth understanding of how social capital could improve maternal and child health services. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021226923.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Niño , Capital Social , Niño , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Pobreza , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639278

RESUMEN

Promoting physical activity (PA) is a long-standing public health initiative to improve overall health and wellbeing. Innovative strategies such as Play Streets, temporary activation of public spaces to provide safe places for active play, are being adopted in urban and rural communities to increase PA among children. As part of these strategies, aspects of social and community connectedness may be strengthened. This study analyzes focus groups and interviews from rural Play Street implementation team members (n = 14) as well as adults (n = 7) and children (n = 25) who attended Play Streets hosted in rural North Carolina, Maryland, Oklahoma, and Texas to better understand the added benefits of Play Streets in community connectedness. Overall, elements of social support and social cohesion are mentioned most frequently with instrumental and conditional support; however, concepts of social capital, collective-efficacy, and social identification are also presented. Participants expressed that Play Streets provided more than just PA; they provided opportunities to access and share resources, build perceptions of safety and trust in the community, and develop relationships with others. Fostering community connection through Play Streets may reduce health inequities in rural communities by building community resilience. Community-based PA programming that enhance and capitalize on community connectedness could be effective ways to improving the overall health and wellbeing of residents.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural , Capital Social , Adulto , Niño , Ejercicio Físico , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Oklahoma
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1036, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The commitment of hospital managers plays a key role in decisions regarding investments in quality improvement (QI) and the implementation of quality improvement systems (QIS). With regard to the concept of social capital, successful cooperation and coordination among hospital management board members is strongly influenced by commonly shared values and mutual trust. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of a survey scale designed to assess Social Capital within hospital management boards (SOCAPO-B) in European hospitals. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the EU funded mixed-method project "Deepening our understanding of quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE)" from 210 hospitals in 7 European countries (France, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey). The Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) completed the SOCAPO-B scale (six-item survey, numeric scale, 1='strongly disagree' to 4='strongly agree') regarding their perceptions of social capital within the hospital management board. We investigated the factor structure of the social capital scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, while construct validity was assessed through Pearson's correlation coefficients between the scale items. RESULTS: A total of 188 hospitals participated in the DUQuE-study. Of these, 177 CEOs completed the questionnaire(172 observations for social capital) Hospital CEOs perceive relatively high social capital among hospital management boards (average SOCAPO-B mean of 3.2, SD = 0.61). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 1-factor-model with Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the single scale items ranged from 0.48 to 0.68. CONCLUSIONS: The SOCAPO-B-scale can be used to obtain reliable and valid measurements of social capital in European hospital management boards, at least from the CEO's point of view. The brevity of the scale enables it to be a cost-effective and tool for measuring social capital in hospital management boards. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This validation study was not registered.


Asunto(s)
Capital Social , Hospitales , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258417, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637477

RESUMEN

Our study takes advantage of unique data to quantify deficits in the psychosocial and cognitive resources of an extremely vulnerable subpopulation-those experiencing housing vulnerability-in an advanced, high-income country (Australia). Groups such as these are often impossible to study using nationally representative data sources because they make up a small share of the overall population. We show that those experiencing housing vulnerability sleep less well, have more limited cognitive functioning, and less social capital than do those in the general population. They are also less emotionally stable, less conscientious, more external, and more risk tolerant. Collectively, these deficits in psychosocial and cognitive resources account for between 24-42% of their reduced life satisfaction and their increased mental distress and loneliness. These traits also account for a large proportion of the gap in mental wellbeing across different levels of housing vulnerability.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Pobreza/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Adulto , Australia , Humanos , Soledad/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Sueño , Capital Social
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54991

RESUMEN

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have produced this second joint report to update the situation on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications for health, society and the economy. This report defines potential scenarios for control of the pandemic in the short term as well as long-term action recommended to strengthen the response capacity of countries with regard to the health needs of their populations and determinants in the context of a transformative recovery.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
15.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMEN

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Salud , Salud Pública , Economía , Economía y Organizaciones para la Atención de la Salud , Problemas Sociales , Bienestar Social , Capital Social
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1918, 2021 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686175

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social capital, the potential for individuals to access resources through group memberships, is linked to a constellation of health outcomes. We modified a previously evaluated Constructed Family Social Capital Scale for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men who belong to constructed families to create a new measure of social capital within sexual minority men and gender minority individuals' social networks. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Pride festival in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2018 to complete a cross-sectional survey. This analysis is restricted to 383 participants who identified as sexual minority men or gender minority individuals and completed nine items measuring social capital within their social networks. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess factor structure. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: Reliability was high, indicating the scale's utility to assess Network Social Capital among sexual minority men and gender minority individuals. A single-factor solution with high factor loadings was found for the nine-item scale. CONCLUSIONS: This study extended the psychometric properties of a preliminary social capital instrument modified from a prior study in a different population and context. The modified measure has implications for use among sexual minority men and gender minority individuals to measure social capital within social networks. Previous studies suggest that interventions to enhance social capital among sexual minority men and gender minority individuals may be beneficial for HIV prevention interventions. This tool may be relevant for the evaluation of social capital interventions within networks of sexual minority men and gender minority individuals.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Capital Social , Estudios Transversales , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Conducta Sexual , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3103-3113, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618277

RESUMEN

Social capital has been positively associated with reduced HIV risk. However, few studies have investigated if associations vary between men who have sex with men (MSM) or heterosexual alters (possessors of actual resources embedded within social capital networks) and HIV risk-taking behaviors. In a cross-sectional survey of 1564 MSM in Greater Tokyo, we investigated whether social capital ascertained from MSM or heterosexual alters influenced HIV risk-taking behaviors (i.e., consistent condom use and lifetime HIV testing). Multiple logistic regression revealed that MSM with high levels of social capital from heterosexual networks were twice as likely to report consistent condom use with casual male partners, while MSM who reported high levels of social capital from MSM networks were over twice as likely to have tested for HIV yet were half as likely to use condoms consistently with regular male partners. Associations between MSM, social capital, and HIV testing indicate the potential for integrating social capital enhancement programs into current HIV interventions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Capital Social , Condones , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114361, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530221

RESUMEN

This paper explores the role of social capital in mitigating the mental health harms of social/mobility restrictions instigated in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. We test whether: (a) social capital continued to predict lower mental distress during the pandemic; and (b) whether social capital buffered (moderated) the harm of social/mobility restrictions on psychological distress. In addition, we test the level at which social capital mitigation effects operated, i.e., at the individual- and/or contextual-level. To do so, we apply multilevel models to three waves of the COVID-19 Household Impact Survey consisting of probability samples of U.S. adults (with the average interview completion rate of 93%). In a novel approach, we explore two modes of capturing contextual social capital: aggregated individual-level survey responses and independently measured social capital indices (SCIs). Findings show that at the individual level social capital was associated with lower psychological distress. It also buffered the harm of restrictions: increasing restrictions had a weaker effect on distress among individuals interacting with neighbors more frequently. Importantly, mitigating processes of contextual social capital appeared conditional on how it was measured. Using aggregated survey responses, contextual social capital had no direct effect on distress but exerted an additional buffering role: individuals in counties with higher average neighbor-interaction experienced a weaker impact of restrictions. Using the independent SCI measures, we found county social capital reduced distress. However, its negative effect on distress becomes increasingly weaker the more restrictions an individual reported: where individuals reported lower restrictions, higher county SCI reduced distress; however, where individuals reported higher restrictions, higher county SCI had no effect on distress. More restrictive environments thus cut individuals off from the benefits of higher county social capital as measured using the SCI.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Distrés Psicológico , Capital Social , Adulto , Humanos , Análisis Multinivel , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
20.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 42, 2021 09 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rurality can reflect many aspects of the community, including community characteristics that may be associated with mental health. In this study, we focused on geographical units to address multiple layers of a rural environment. By evaluating rurality at both the municipality and neighborhood (i.e., a smaller unit within a municipality) levels in Japan, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between depression and rurality. To explore the mechanisms linking rurality and depression, we examined how the association between rurality and depression can be explained by community social capital according to geographical units. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2016 wave of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study involving 144,822 respondents aged 65 years or older residing in 937 neighborhoods across 39 municipalities. The population density quintile for municipality-level rurality and the quintile for the time required to reach densely inhabited districts for neighborhood-level rurality were used. We calculated the prevalence ratios of depressive symptoms by gender using a three-level (individual, neighborhood, and municipality) Poisson regression. Community social capital was assessed using three components: civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in municipalities with lower population density than those with the highest population density; the ratios were 1.22 (95% confidence intervals: 1.15, 1.30) for men and 1.22 (1.13, 1.31) for women. In contrast, when evaluating rurality at the neighborhood level, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 0.9 times lower for men in rural areas; no such association was observed for women. In rural municipalities, community civic participation was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. In rural neighborhoods, community social cohesion and reciprocity were linked to a lower risk of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The association between rurality and depression varied according to geographical unit. In rural municipalities, the risk of depression may be higher for both men and women, and the presence of an environment conducive to civic participation may contribute to a higher risk of depression, as observed in this study. The risk of depression in men may be lower in rural neighborhoods in Japan, which may be related to high social cohesion and reciprocity.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Capital Social , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Características de la Residencia
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