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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50968, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1122751

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as práticas culturais de cuidado no puerpério de mulheres quilombolas. Método: estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa e delineado por meio da Teoria da Diversidade e Universalidade do Cuidado de Madeleine Leininger. Participaram do estudo quatorze mulheres quilombolas que já tinham vivenciado o período puerperal. A coleta das informações ocorreu de junho a setembro de 2018. Projeto aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: observou-se a manutenção das crenças e valores, considerando a cultura local relacionada às práticas de cuidado de puérperas quilombolas. Considerações finais: as práticas de cuidado desenvolvidas por mulheres quilombolas no pós-parto se caracterizam por receber influência das crenças, valores e modos de vida que foram transmitidas por meio da oralidade por outras mulheres que já tinham vivenciado esse período.


Objective: to describe cultural practices of health care for quilombola women in puerperium. Method: this qualitative, descriptive study was framed by Madeleine Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. Fourteen quilombola women who had already experienced the puerperal period participated in the study. Information was collected from June to September 2018. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: beliefs and values were observed to be maintained in the local culture as regards practices of care for puerperal quilombola women. Final considerations: the postpartum care practices applied by quilombola women were characteristically influenced by the beliefs, values and ways of life transmitted orally by other women who had already experienced puerperium.


Objetivo: describir las prácticas culturales de atención a la salud de las mujeres quilombolas en el puerperio. Método: este estudio cualitativo y descriptivo fue enmarcado por la Teoría de la Cultura Cuidado de la Diversidad y Universalidad de Madeleine Leininger. Participaron del estudio catorce mujeres quilombolas que ya habían pasado por el puerperio. La información se recopiló de junio a septiembre de 2018. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación. Resultados: se observó el mantenimiento de creencias y valores en la cultura local en cuanto a prácticas de cuidado de las puérperas quilombolas. Consideraciones finales: las prácticas de atención posparto aplicadas por las mujeres quilombolas estuvieron característicamente influenciadas por las creencias, valores y formas de vida transmitidas oralmente por otras mujeres que ya habían experimentado el puerperio.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Grupos Étnicos , Características Culturales , Periodo Posparto , Salud Materna , Reposo en Cama , Brasil , Higiene , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Alimentaria , Normas Sociales
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239139, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001994

RESUMEN

Studies have documented that traditional motor skills (i.e. motor habits) are part of the cultural way of life that characterises each society. Yet, it is still unclear to what extent motor skills are inherited through culture. Drawing on ethnology and motor behaviour, we addressed this issue through a detailed description of traditional pottery skills. Our goal was to quantify the influence of three kinds of constraints: the transcultural constraints of wheel-throwing, the cultural constraints induced via cultural transmission, and the potters' individual constraints. Five expert Nepalese potters were invited to produce three familiar pottery types, each in five specimens. A total of 31 different fashioning hand positions were identified. Most of them (14) were cross-cultural, ten positions were cultural, five positions were individual, and two positions were unique. Statistical tests indicated that the subset of positions used by the participants in this study were distinct from those of other cultural groups. Behaviours described in terms of fashioning duration, number of gestures, and hand position repertoires size highlighted both individual and cross-cultural traits. We also analysed the time series of the successive hand positions used throughout the fashioning of each vessel. Results showed, for each pottery type, strong reproducible sequences at the individual level and a clearly higher level of variability between potters. Overall, our findings confirm the existence of a cultural transmission in craft skills but also demonstrated that the skill is not fully determined by a cultural marking. We conclude that the influence of culture on craft skills should not be overstated, even if its role is significant given the fact that it reflects the socially transmitted part of the skill. Such research offers insights into archaeological problems in providing a representative view of how cultural constraints influence the motor skills implied in artefact manufacturing.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Características Culturales , Destreza Motora , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Gestos , Mano , Hinduismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal
3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1142-1148, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051431

RESUMEN

Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a somatic disorder characterized by excessive anxiety over various somatic symptoms for a long time, which makes patients feel very painful and the quality of personal life significantly decreased. Previous studies have shown that there is a connection between the clinical manifestations of SSD patients and their cultural background. The patient in this case report was highly affected by Chinese yin-yang culture, displaying obvious Chinese characteristics.We report a patient with SSD, whose clinical manifestations were mainly sexual dysfunction and mood symptoms which were closely related to the Traditional Chinese culture of Yin and Yang. In this case, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale, and International Erectile Function Questionnaire were used to evaluate the patients' anxiety, depression, and sexual function, and the scores were 32, 33, and 9, respectively. The patient was treated with a combination of venlafaxine and mirtazapine. After 5 weeks of treatment, the patient's clinical symptoms improved significantly.The clinical manifestations of some Chinese SSD patients have obvious characteristic relevance to Chinese theory of Yin and Yang, making SSD easily to be misdiagnosed. Therefore, clinicians should pay atlention to this situation. In addition, the combination of venlafaxine and mirtazapine may have a better effect on SSD patients with chronic pain and sexual dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas sin Explicación Médica , Yin-Yang , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , China , Características Culturales , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina China Tradicional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(41): e375, 2020 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction has been reported as characteristic symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study evaluated olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in mild COVID-19 patients using validated assessment methods. METHODS: A prospective surveillance study was conducted for mild COVID-19 patients who were isolated at the Gyeonggi International Living and Treatment Support Center (LTSC), Korea. Olfactory function was assessed using the Korean version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD) and Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT). Gustatory function was assessed using an 11-point Likert scale and 6-n-propylthiouracil, phenylthiocarbamide, and control strips. All patients underwent nasal and oral cavity endoscopic examination. RESULTS: Of the 62 patients at the LTSC, 15 patients (24.2%) complained of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction on admission. Four of 10 patients who underwent functional evaluation did not have general symptoms and 2 were asymptomatic. The mean short version of QOD-negative statements and QOD-visual analogue scale scores were 13 ± 6 and 4.7 ± 3.6, respectively. The mean CC-SIT score was 8 ± 2. No patients showed anatomical abnormalities associated with olfactory dysfunction on endoscopic examination. The mean Likert scale score for function was 8 ± 2, and there were no abnormal lesions in the oral cavity of any patient. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was 24.2% in mild COVID-19 patients. All patients had hyposmia due to sensorineural olfactory dysfunction, which was confirmed using validated olfactory and gustatory evaluation methods and endoscopic examination. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction may be characteristic indicators of mild COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Trastornos del Olfato/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Trastornos del Gusto/fisiopatología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Características Culturales , Endoscopía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Cuarentena , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , República de Corea , Olfato , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239278, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Education on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices is usually given in the form of health talks by health workers (HWs). The need for HWs to be well-informed about cultural practices and misconceptions that act as barriers to EBF has been documented in literature. This information can guide HWs in developing interventions such as health talks which are culturally sensitive. However, this has not been explored from the perspectives of HWs in Ghana. In this paper, we report mothers' and grandmothers' misconceptions and cultural practices that are barriers to EBF in two rural districts in Ghana from the perspectives of Community Health Workers and Community Health Volunteers. METHODS: We used qualitative data collected in the Kwahu Afram Plains South and North Districts of Ghana through nine focus group discussions (FGDs) among HWs and followed the data saturation principle. All FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated from local dialects to English. The emerging themes were used in writing a narrative account, guided by the principles of the thematic analysis. RESULTS: Our main findings included mothers' and grandmothers' perceptions that HWs themselves do not practice EBF. Mothers had the perception that grandmothers did not practice EBF but their children grew well, and gestures of babies suggested their readiness to start eating. Misconceptions revealed included beliefs that breastmilk is watery in nature and does not satisfy infants. Another misconception was that babies gain weight faster when not exclusively breastfed but fed on infant formulas. A custom of giving corn flour mixed with water or light porridge during the first few days after birth to welcome newborns was also reported. CONCLUSIONS: The reports of the HWs revealed that several socio-cultural factors and misconceptions of mothers and grandmothers negatively influence EBF practices of mothers. Findings from this study highlight the need for HWs to provide culturally appropriate counselling services on breastfeeding not only to mothers but also to grandmothers and fathers in order to promote EBF and reap its benefits.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Abuelos/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Madres/psicología , Adulto , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Características Culturales , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Malentendido Terapéutico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239186, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941501

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Stigma Scale of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC-SS) is a useful option to investigate leprosy-related stigma, but its psychometric qualities are unknown in Brazil. This study investigated the factor structure, the convergent and known-groups validity, and the reliability of the EMIC-SS for Brazilians affected by leprosy. METHODOLOGY: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the EMIC-SS was validated in 180 persons affected by leprosy at a Reference Center in Rio de Janeiro. Confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) and Cronbach alpha were used to assess the EMIC-SS internal consistency. The Construct validity was tested using Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests comparing with the Participation Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and a Sociodemographic Questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was evaluated with intra-class correlation (ICC). MAIN FINDINGS: CFA confirmed the one- and two-dimensional models of the scale after retaining 12 of the 15 EMIC-SS items. The 12-item EMIC-SS was consistent (α = 0.78) and reproducible (ICC = 0.751, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.657-0.822, p < 0.0001). A significant correlation was observed between the EMIC-SS and the other scales confirming convergent validity. The EMIC-SS and its factors were able to differentiate several hypothesized groups (age, change of occupation, monthly family income, communicating others about the disease, and perception of difficulty to follow treatment) confirming the scale known-groups validity, both in its one and two-dimensional models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study found support for the construct validity and reliability of the EMIC-SS as a measure of stigma experienced by people affected by leprosy in Brazil. However, future studies are necessary in other samples and populations with stigmatizing conditions to determine the optimal factor structure and to strengthen the indications of the validated scale.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/psicología , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría/métodos , Psicometría/normas , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239276, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941520

RESUMEN

Good Participatory Practice (GPP) guidelines support and direct community engagement practices in biomedical HIV prevention trials, however no standardized metrics define the implementation and evaluation of these practices. Collaboratively, the Community Program staff of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) created a metric to describe, monitor, and evaluate one component of GPP, recruitment practices, in two HIV monoclonal Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) clinical trials, HVTN 703/HPTN 081 and HVTN 704/HPTN 085. Through consultation with community representatives from each clinical research site (hereafter "site(s)"), who made up the study Community Working Groups, recruitment strategy descriptors were developed for both trials to characterize responses to "How did you hear about the AMP study?" The Community Working Groups also helped to define and establish time points that were selected to allow comparisons across sites. Data were collected by 43 of 46 clinical research sites from January 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018. All 43 sites used multiple recruitment strategies successfully, but strategies varied by region. Globally, referrals was the most efficient and effective recruitment strategy as evidenced by the screening: enrollment ratio of 2.2:1 in Africa, and 2.1:1 in the Americas/Switzerland. Print materials were also valuable globally (3:1 Africa, 4.2:1 Americas/Switzerland). In Africa, in-person outreach was also quite effective (2.3:1) and led to the most enrollments (748 of 1186, 63%). In the Americas/Switzerland, outreach was also effective (2.6:1), but internet use resulted in the most screens (1893 of 4275, 44%) and enrollments (677 of 1531, 44%), compared to 12 of 2887 (0.4%) and 2 of 1204 (0.1%) in Africa, respectively. Standardized metrics and data collection aid meaningful comparisons of optimal community engagement methods for trial enrollment. Internet strategies had better success in the Americas/Switzerland than in sub-Saharan African countries. Data are essential in outreach staff efforts to improve screening-to-enrollment ratios. Because the effectiveness of recruitment strategies varies by region, it is critical that clinical research sites tailor community engagement and recruitment strategies to their local environment, and that they are supported with resources enabling use of a range of approaches.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Características Culturales , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Participación de los Interesados , África del Sur del Sahara , Américas , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Selección de Paciente , Selección de Personal/métodos , Suiza , Vacunación/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239588, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966345

RESUMEN

Despite a growing body of evidence concerning accelerated organic degradation at archaeological sites, there have been few follow-up investigations to examine the status of the remaining archaeological materials in the ground. To address the question of archaeo-organic preservation, we revisited the Swedish, Mesolithic key-site Ageröd and could show that the bone material had been subjected to an accelerated deterioration during the last 75 years, which had destroyed the bones in the areas where they had previously been best preserved. To understand why this has happened and to quantify and qualify the extent of the organic degradation, we here analyse the soil chemistry, bone histology, collagen preservation and palaeobotany at the site. Our results show that the soil at Ageröd is losing, or has already lost, its preservative and buffering qualities, and that pH-values in the still wet areas of the site have dropped to levels where no bone preservation is possible. Our results suggest that this acidification process is enhanced by the release of sulphuric acid as pyrite in the bones oxidizes. While we are still able to find well-preserved palaeobotanical remains, they are also starting to corrode through re-introduced oxygen into the archaeological layers. While some areas of the site have been more protected through redeposited soil on top of the archaeological layers, all areas of Ageröd are rapidly deteriorating. Lastly, while it is still possible to perform molecular analyses on the best-preserved bones from the most protected areas, this opportunity will likely be lost within a few decades. In conclusion, we find that if we, as a society, wish to keep this valuable climatic, environmental and cultural archive, both at Ageröd and elsewhere, the time to act is now and if we wait we will soon be in a situation where this record will be irretrievably lost forever.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología/métodos , Fósiles/historia , Animales , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Huesos/química , Botánica , Colágeno/análisis , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Características Culturales/historia , Fósiles/anatomía & histología , Historia Antigua , Paleontología , Plantas/anatomía & histología , Preservación Biológica/historia , Datación Radiométrica , Suelo/química , Suecia , Humedales
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238287, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956363

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Compared to other OECD countries, Switzerland has the highest rates of hip (HA) and knee arthroplasty (KA). OBJECTIVE: We assessed the regional variation in HA/KA rates and potential determinants of variation in Switzerland. METHODS: We conducted a population-based analysis using discharge data from all Swiss hospitals during 2013-2016. We derived hospital service areas (HSAs) by analyzing patient flows. We calculated age-/sex-standardized procedure rates and measures of variation (the extremal quotient [EQ, highest divided by lowest rate] and the systemic component of variation [SCV]). We estimated the reduction in variance of HA/KA rates across HSAs in multilevel regression models, with incremental adjustment for procedure year, age, sex, language, urbanization, socioeconomic factors, burden of disease, and the number of orthopedic surgeons. RESULTS: Overall, 69,578 HA and 69,899 KA from 55 HSAs were analyzed. The mean age-/sex-standardized HA rate was 265 (range 179-342) and KA rate was 256 (range 186-378) per 100,000 persons and increased over time. The EQ was 1.9 for HA and 2.5 for KA. The SCV was 2.0 for HA and 2.2 for KA, indicating a low variation across HSAs. When adjusted for procedure year and demographic, cultural, and sociodemographic factors, the models explained 75% of the variance in HA and 63% in KA across Swiss HSAs. CONCLUSION: Switzerland has high HA/KA rates with a modest regional variation, suggesting that the threshold to perform HA/KA may be uniformly low across regions. One third of the variation remained unexplained and may, at least in part, represent differing physician beliefs and attitudes towards joint arthroplasty.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/estadística & datos numéricos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Análisis de Área Pequeña , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Características Culturales , Demografía , Femenino , Fracturas de Cadera/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural , Suiza/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Rev Infirm ; 69(263): 26-27, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993900

RESUMEN

Body and culture, nursing approach in home care. Working extremely closely with patients' bodies when they provide care in the home, nurses interact with households' private spheres. The intercultural dimension of their competencies enables them to approach the references and beliefs of their patients and to create with them the conditions favourable to the provision of care and relief for their unhealthy bodies.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Cuerpo Humano , Características Culturales , Humanos
12.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(315): 31-37, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951694

RESUMEN

Being parents is an adventure in itself. Being parents in a cross-cultural situation, in exile, away from family and friends, is a double challenge. Today, we know more about the risks and the potential. Let's explore the key ingredients for early childhood: how to live through pregnancy, welcoming the child, being father and mother, building a family in our own way by blending it with local ways of doing things, a more or less hospitable land of welcome. This is followed by a set of guidelines for all the professionals who intervene at this crucial period to build the parent-child bond.


Asunto(s)
Características Culturales , Padres/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo
13.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 299-305, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764950

RESUMEN

Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors of adherence to the hypertension control therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations in a sample of Iranian patients based on the constructs of Pender's health promotion model. Patients and Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed on the 380 hypertensive patients who were referred to the health centers, the emergency and internal diseases departments of the Bagheralolom Hospital, and the cardiologists' offices in the city of Ahar, North West of Iran. Data were collected using a researcher designed questionnaire based on the Pender's health promotion model. The Pearson correlation test, multivariate linear regression, and independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Mean age of the recruited patients was 52.94 (SD=12.8). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, situational influences, and interpersonal influences (adjusted R2= 0.525) explained 52.5% of the observed variation in adherence to hypertension control recommendations. Conclusion: Successful hypertension control in patients with chronic morbidity need to be based on sound data about major determinants of the relevant health/illness behaviors. The study findings revealed that the Pender's health promotion model could be applicable as a theoretical framework to identify major determinants of adherence to hypertension control recommendations. Future cross-cultural validation of the study findings in more representative and larger sample sizes could add to the legitimacy of the evidence surrounding self-care practices in hypertensive patients.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Hipertensión/terapia , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Modelos Teóricos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adulto , Anciano , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Características Culturales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/psicología , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748869

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare illness concepts and coping strategies among native German cancer patients and those with a Turkish migration background. METHODS: Guideline-based, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 German (♂: 8, ♀: 3) and 11 Turkish (♂: 2, ♀: 9) cancer patients. The transcripts were evaluated using a qualitative content analysis in accordance with Mayring. RESULTS: We identified eight categories of illness concepts: stressful life events, environmental influences, the will of God, medical factors, fate, trauma, health behaviour, and psychological causes. German patients frequently attributed their illness to environmental influences, persistent stress, or medical factors, whereas Turkish patients blamed persistent stress, the will of God, or trauma. The last two categories are not found among German patients. We classified the coping strategies into 11 main categories: social support, activity, patient competence, fighting spirit/positive thinking, use of health services/alternative healing methods, lifestyle, emotional coping, cognitive coping, religious coping, spiritual coping, and culture-specific methods for patients of Turkish origin. For German patients, activities as well as social support played primary roles in coping. Turkish patients also often used social support. However, in contrast to the German patients, they are less active and use much more religious coping and culture-specific means. In addition, negative emotions occur more often when processing the illness than in the German patients. CONCLUSION: Common illness representations and coping strategies could be found for Turkish and German patients, but also specific ones for the respective group. It is particularly noticeable that German patients attach more importance to medical factors and try more actively to cope with the illness. For Turkish patients, cultural and religious factors play an important role, which should also be considered in treatment.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Neoplasias/psicología , Características Culturales , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/etnología , Religión , Apoyo Social , Turquia/etnología
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237578, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797104

RESUMEN

Although rurality is often treated as an aspect of diversity, researchers disagree regarding whether the traditional rural values of self-reliance, distrust of outsiders, religiosity, centrality of family, and fatalism continue to differentiate rural versus urban undergraduates. The present study examined 1) whether differences in these values exist between rural and urban college students in the United States and 2) whether these rural values might mediate the association between geographic remoteness and posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity. College undergraduates in the United States who reported experiencing traumatic and/or stressful events (N = 213) completed measures of these constructs through an online survey. T-test results indicated that rural respondents had significantly higher levels of PTSS severity and distrust of outsiders and significantly lower levels of religiosity when compared with urban participants. After controlling for gender, distrust of outsiders and religiosity also emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between geographic remoteness and PTSS severity. Thus, despite research that highlights differences based on geographic location, similarities and differences exist for rural and urban undergraduates in the United States with regard to traditionally rural values. For rural undergraduate clients presenting with trauma symptoms, our results suggest that building trust and religious and/or spiritual self-care may be particularly critical.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Religión , Autocuidado/psicología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estudiantes/clasificación , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003274, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810146

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with increased HIV risk and other adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. We assessed the impact of Unite for a Better Life (UBL), a gender-transformative, participatory intervention delivered to men, women, and couples in Ethiopia in the context of the coffee ceremony, a traditional community-based discussion forum. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Villages (n = 64) in 4 Ethiopian districts were randomly allocated to control, men's UBL, women's UBL, or couples' UBL, and approximately 106 households per village were randomly selected for inclusion in the trial. The intervention included 14 sessions delivered twice weekly by trained facilitators; control arm households were offered a short IPV educational session. Primary outcomes were women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV 24 months postintervention. Secondary outcomes included male perpetration of past-year physical or sexual IPV, comprehensive HIV knowledge, and condom use at last intercourse. Additional prespecified outcomes included experience and perpetration of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV and emotional IPV, HIV/AIDs knowledge and behaviors, decision-making, and gender norms. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was conducted, evaluating 6,770 households surveyed at baseline in 2014-2015 (1,680 households, 16 clusters in control; 1,692 households, 16 clusters in couples' UBL; 1,707 households, 16 clusters in women's UBL; 1,691 households, 16 clusters in men's UBL). Follow-up data were available from 88% of baseline respondents and 87% of baseline spouses surveyed in 2017-2018. Results from both unadjusted and adjusted specifications are reported, the latter adjusting for age, education level, marriage length, polygamy, socioeconomic status, and months between intervention and endline. For primary outcomes, there was no effect of any UBL intervention compared to control on women's past-year experience of physical (couples' UBL arm adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-1.30, p = 0.973; women's UBL arm AOR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.87-1.42, p = 0.414; men's UBL arm AOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.81-1.28, p = 0.865) or sexual IPV (couples' UBL arm AOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.62-1.20, p = 0.378; women's UBL arm AOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.89-1.50; p = 0.291; men's UBL arm AOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.63-1.01, p = 0.062). For the secondary outcomes, only the men's UBL intervention significantly reduced male perpetration of past-year sexual IPV (AOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.94, p = 0.014), and no intervention reduced perpetration of past-year physical IPV. Among women, the couples' UBL intervention significantly improved comprehensive HIV knowledge, and both couples' and women's UBL significantly increased reported condom use at last intercourse. Among additional outcomes of interest, the men's UBL intervention was associated with a significant reduction in women's experience of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99, p = 0.036) and men's perpetration of physical and/or sexual IPV (AOR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62-0.98, p = 0.037). UBL delivered to men and couples was associated with a significant reduction in HIV risk behaviors and more equitable intrahousehold decision-making and household task-sharing. The primary limitation is reliance on self-reported data. CONCLUSIONS: A gender-transformative intervention delivered to men was effective in reducing self-reported perpetration of sexual IPV but did not reduce IPV when delivered to couples or women. We found evidence of decreased sexual IPV with men's UBL across men's and women's reports and of increased HIV knowledge and condom use at last intercourse among women. The men's UBL intervention could help accelerate progress towards gender equality and combating HIV/AIDS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02311699) and in the American Economic Association registry (AEARCTR-0000211).


Asunto(s)
Características Culturales , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Violencia de Pareja/etnología , Población Rural , Parejas Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Etiopía/etnología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237113, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760157

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent migrants present psychological disorders more frequently than the corresponding host population but their access to care and to follow-up are less effective. The French method of transcultural psychotherapy (TPT) was conceived to respond to these problems. Our objective is to assess how these adolescents and their families perceive the experience and effectiveness of TPT. METHOD: We conducted semistructured interviews with the families of adolescents seen for TPT. The data were analyzed by a qualitative thematic methodology. RESULTS: We spoke to 21 participants in 8 families. The families came to TPT with a sense that the teen's current treatment was at an impasse. During the follow-up, they noted that family communication and relationships had improved, as had their connection to their culture of origin. Besides commenting on what they perceived as limitations, families identified specific elements of TPT as therapeutic. CONCLUSION: The pronounced diversity of the group and the use of both multiperspective narration and an interpreter were specific elements driving the construction of a good therapeutic alliance, despite the initial barriers. Pursuit of the evaluation of TPT is essential to advance the psychiatric care of adolescent migrants.


Asunto(s)
Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Migrantes/psicología , Aculturación , Adolescente , Niño , Características Culturales , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoterapia/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236941, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804984

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, different traditions of symbolic statements in graveyards can be found. However, studies on sub-Saharan Africa are rare. For BaKongo cemeteries, it is only known that they traditionally do not exhibit plants for decoration purposes. Our study wanted to inspect the influence of Portuguese culture due to the long shared colonial past. METHODS: During 2015 and 2019, plant use in 87 graveyards in 13 municipalities of the province Uíge was documented. Five expert interviews with the village eldest in five municipalities completed the data collection. RESULTS: While 24% of the graveyards didn´t have any planting, 27 plant species were found in the remaining ones, including a high percentage of alien species (59%), mainly from the Americas. The most abundant plant species are Euphorbia tirucalli (23%) and Agave sisalana (22%). With increasing distance from the city Uíge (especially towards the Democratic Republic of the Congo), the utilization of living plants in cemeteries is decreasing except along the road. In most of the cases, just one plant species per gravesite was found. CONCLUSIONS: This unexpected high number of plants might be interpreted as a strong evidence of outside influence. Cultural symbols of the BaKongo cosmology and Christianism appear to coexist or coalesce. Furthermore, plants are used as a marker for graveyards. Modern influences like the use of concrete in proximity to urban areas indicate a certain wealth.


Asunto(s)
Cementerios , Etnobotánica , Angola , Asparagaceae , Comparación Transcultural , Características Culturales , Euphorbiaceae , Ritos Fúnebres , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Especies Introducidas , Portugal/etnología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634154

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of non-Western immigrants with breast cancer in the Netherlands has increased over the past decades and is expected to triple by 2030. Due to insufficient representation in clinical studies, it is unclear what the specific experiences and needs of these women are. Understanding how culture and religion affect these women's experience of breast cancer and how they deal with chemotherapy and treatment-related changes in body weight and lifestyle is crucial for health care professionals to be able to provide effective support. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 28 immigrant women with a history of breast cancer treated with chemotherapy. RESULTS: Women often associated breast cancer with taboo, death or bad luck. Religion offered these women guidance, strength and meaning to the disease, but also limited the women to openly talk about their disease. Women perceived lifestyle factors to have little influence on the development and treatment of cancer. After treatment, however, their thinking changed and these lifestyle factors became of paramount importance to them. They realised that they missed out on information about managing their own diet, exercise and body weight and were eager to share their experiences with other women in their culture with newly diagnosed breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Women became aware during and after breast cancer treatment that it was difficult for them to actively deal with their illness under the influence of their culture and religion. Based on their own experiences and acquired knowledge, they would like to give advice to newly diagnosed women on how to deal with breast cancer within their own culture and religion. Their recommendations could be used by mosques, churches, support groups and health care professionals, to ensure interventions during breast cancer treatment meet their religious and cultural needs and thus improve their quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Quimioterapia/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Peso Corporal , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/etnología , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Investigación Cualitativa , Religión
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236733, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722707

RESUMEN

Studies on wife abuse in Bangladesh predominantly include the mainstream Bengali population, although there are at least 27 ethnic minority communities including a few 'female-centered' matrilineal groups living in the country. This study explored ethnic differences in the attitudinal acceptance of wife abuse among matrilineal ethnic minority Garo, patrilineal ethnic minority Santal, and mainstream patriarchal Bengali communities in rural Bangladesh. Adopting a cross-sectional design, the study included 1,929 women and men randomly selected from 24 Garo, Santal, and Bengali villages. Multivariate Poisson regression was performed to predict the number of contextual events, where the respondents attitudinally endorsed wife abuse. Of the sample, 33.2% were from Garo, 33.2% from Santal, and 33.6% from the Bengali communities. The acceptance of wife abuse was high in the sample; specifically, 34.1% of the respondents accepted physical wife abuse, 67.5% accepted emotional abuse, and 71.6% accepted any abuse (either physical or emotional) at least on one contextual reason provided in a 10-item scale. The mean for accepting any abuse was 3.0 (SD = 2.8), emotional abuse 2.3 (SD = 2.2), and physical abuse 0.8 (SD = 1.4). The study showed that the rates of accepting any abuse and physical abuse were respectively 16% and 56% lower among Garo as well as 14% and 33% lower among Santal than that of the Bengali community. Data also revealed that individual level factors like younger age, higher education, prestigious occupation as well as family level factors such as higher income, female mobility, and female family authority were inversely associated with the acceptance of wife abuse in the sample. It appears that the gender regime of a society has a great influence on the attitudes toward wife abuse. We argue that a comprehensive socio-cultural transformation of the patriarchal societies into a gender equal order is imperative for the prevention of widespread wife abuse in the country.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Mujeres Maltratadas/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Características Culturales , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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