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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802087

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cognitive function, the city's social environment, and individual characteristics of older adults. The individual data of older people were from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2013-2016. The participants who were aged 65 and above were included in the analysis (n = 1356). City-level data were obtained for twenty cities in Taiwan. The data of city-level indicators were from governmental open data and Taiwan's Age Friendly Environment Monitor Study. A multilevel mixed-effect model was applied in the analysis. Population density, median income, safety in the community, barrier-free sidewalks, high education rate of the population, low-income population rate, household income inequality, and elderly abuse rate were related to cognitive function in the bivariate analysis. When controlling for individual factors, the city's low-income population rate was still significantly related to lower cognitive function. In addition, the participants who were at younger age, had a higher education level, had a better financial satisfaction, had worse self-rated health, had higher numbers of disease, and had better physical function had better cognitive function. Social and built environments associated with cognitive function highlight the importance of income security and the age friendliness of the city for older adults. Income security for older people and age-friendly city policies are suggested.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Medio Social , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades , Cognición , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Taiwán/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803729

RESUMEN

The concept of neighborhood contagion focus is defined and justified as a basic spatial unit for epidemiological diagnosis and action, and a specific methodological procedure is provided to detect and map focuses and micro-focuses of contagion without using regular or artificial spatial units. The starting hypothesis is that the contagion in urban spaces manifests unevenly in the form of clusters of cases that are generated and developed by neighborhood contagion. Methodologically, the spatial distribution of those infected in the study area, the city of Málaga (Spain), is firstly analyzed from the disaggregated and anonymous address information. After defining the concept of neighborhood contagion focus and justifying its morphological parameters, a method to detect and map neighborhood contagion focus in urban settings is proposed and applied to the study case. As the main results, the existence of focuses and micro-focuses in the spatial pattern of contagion is verified. Focuses are considered as an ideal spatial analysis unit, and the advantages and potentialities of the use of mapping focus as a useful tool for health and territorial management in different phases of the epidemic are shown.


Asunto(s)
Ciudades , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , España/epidemiología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806787

RESUMEN

International data suggest that exposure to nature is beneficial for mental health and well-being. The restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic have created a setting that allows us to investigate the importance of greenness exposure on mental health during a period of increased isolation and worry. Based on 2060 responses from an online survey in Stockholm County, Sweden, we investigated: (1) whether the COVID-19 pandemic changed peoples' lifestyle and nature-related habits, and (2) if peoples' mental health differed depending on their exposure to greenness. Neighborhood greenness levels were quantified by using the average normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within 50 m, 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m buffers surrounding the participant's place of residence. We found that the number of individuals that reported that they visited natural areas "often" was significantly higher during the pandemic than before the pandemic. Higher levels of greenness surrounding one's location of residence were in general associated with higher mental health/well-being and vitality scores, and less symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived and cognitive stress, after adjustments for demographic variables and walkability. In conclusion, the results from the present study provided support to the suggestion that contact with nature may be important for mental health in extreme circumstances.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia , Suecia/epidemiología
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 514-518, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830985

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has disproportionately affected persons who identify as non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (1). The Blackfeet Tribal Reservation, the northern Montana home of the sovereign Blackfeet Nation, with an estimated population of 10,629 (2), detected the first COVID-19 case in the community on June 16, 2020. Following CDC guidance,* and with free testing widely available, the Indian Health Service and Blackfeet Tribal Health Department began investigating all confirmed cases and their contacts on June 25. The relationship between three community mitigation resolutions passed and enforced by the Blackfeet Tribal Business Council and changes in the daily COVID-19 incidence and in the distributions of new cases was assessed. After the September 28 issuance of a strictly enforced stay-at-home order and adoption of a mask use resolution, COVID-19 incidence in the Blackfeet Tribal Reservation decreased by a factor of 33 from its peak of 6.40 cases per 1,000 residents per day on October 5 to 0.19 on November 7. Other mitigation measures the Blackfeet Tribal Reservation used included closing the east gate of Glacier National Park for the summer tourism season, instituting remote learning for public school students throughout the fall semester, and providing a Thanksgiving meal to every household to reduce trips to grocery stores. CDC has recommended use of routine public health interventions for infectious diseases, including case investigation with prompt isolation, contact tracing, and immediate quarantine after exposure to prevent and control transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (3). Stay-at-home orders, physical distancing, and mask wearing indoors, outdoors when physical distancing is not possible, or when in close contact with infected or exposed persons are also recommended as nonpharmaceutical community mitigation measures (3,4). Implementation and strict enforcement of stay-at-home orders and a mask use mandate likely helped reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the Blackfeet Tribal Reservation.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Máscaras , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Montana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 728, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The available evidence of the health effects of urban regeneration is scarce In Latin America, and there are no studies focused on formal housing that longitudinally evaluate the impact of housing and neighborhood interventions on health. The "Regeneración Urbana, Calidad de Vida y Salud" (Urban Regeneration, Quality of Life, and Health) or RUCAS project is a longitudinal, multi-method study that will evaluate the impact of an intervention focused on dwellings, built environment and community on the health and wellbeing of the population in two social housing neighborhoods in Chile. METHODS: RUCAS consists of a longitudinal study where inhabitants exposed and unexposed to the intervention will be compared over time within the study neighborhoods (cohorts), capitalizing on interventions as a natural experiment. Researchers have developed a specific conceptual framework and identified potential causal mechanisms. Proximal and more distal intervention effects will be measured with five instruments, implemented pre- and post-interventions between 2018 and 2021: a household survey, an observation tool to evaluate dwelling conditions, hygrochrons for measuring temperature and humidity inside dwellings, systematic observation of recreational areas, and qualitative interviews. Survey baseline data (956 households, 3130 individuals) is presented to describe sociodemographics, housing and health characteristics of both cohorts, noting that neighborhoods studied show worse conditions than the Chilean population. DISCUSSION: RUCAS' design allows for a comprehensive evaluation of the effects that the intervention could have on various dimensions of health and health determinants. RUCAS will face some challenges, like changes in the intervention process due to adjustments of the master plan, exogenous factors -including COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns- and lost to follow-up. Given the stepped wedge design, that the study capitalizes on within household changes over time, the possibility of adjusting data collection process and complementarity of methods, RUCAS has the flexibility to adapt to these circumstances. Also, RUCAS' outreach and retention strategy has led to high retention rates. RUCAS will provide evidence to inform regeneration processes, highlighting the need to consider potential health effects of regeneration in designing such interventions and, more broadly, health as a key priority in urban and housing policies.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda Popular , Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Chile/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Planificación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , América Latina , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800952

RESUMEN

Unfavorable neighborhood conditions are linked to health disparities. Yet, a dearth of literature examines how neighborhood characteristics contribute to cognitive health in diverse samples of older adults. The present study uses an intersectional approach to examine how race/ethnicity, gender, and education moderate the association between neighborhood perceptions and cognitive functioning in later life. We used data from adults ≥65 years old (n = 8023) in the 2010-2016 waves of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We conducted race/ethnicity-stratified linear regression models where cognitive functioning, measured using the 35-point Telephone Interview Cognitive Screen (TICS), was regressed on three neighborhood characteristics-cleanliness, safety, and social cohesion. We examine whether there is heterogeneity within race/ethnicity by testing if and how the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive functioning differs by gender and education. Among White adults, worse neighborhood characteristics were associated with lower cognitive functioning among those with less education. However, for Black adults, poor perceived quality of one's neighborhood was associated with worse cognitive functioning among those with more years of education compared to those with fewer years of education. Among Mexicans, perceived neighborhood uncleanliness was associated with lower cognitive functioning among those with less education, but higher cognitive functioning for those with higher levels of education. Thus, this study contributes to the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive aging disparities by examining neighborhood contextual factors as determinants of cognitive functioning. In particular, we find that higher education in the context of less favorable neighborhood environments does not confer the same benefits to cognitive functioning among all older adults.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Características de la Residencia , Anciano , Cognición , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Humanos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801332

RESUMEN

Research on older adults' behaviors, living environments, and their quality of life (QoL) has grown rapidly. Viewing behaviors, although broadly acknowledged as critical for older adults' QoL, have not been systematically examined in situ. What affects the viewing behaviors of older adults in neighborhood open space (NOS) is still unclear. This study conducted unobtrusive continuous observations in NOS of two residential estates in Hong Kong. With spatio-temporal analyses with ArcGIS Pro and statistical analyses with SPSS, principal influential factors to viewing behaviors of older adults in NOS were identified, including distances for viewing, landscape attractiveness, body supporting elements, as well as moving and interactive behaviors. How these factors would affect older adults' well-being and QoL is discussed from the perspectives of supportive landscape design, sense of control, prospect and refuge, and social support, etc. Corresponding design implications are proposed to enrich existing NOS design knowledge for older adults' quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Estudios Transversales , Hong Kong , Apoyo Social
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802516

RESUMEN

The main objectives of this study were: to compare the barriers to active commuting to and from school (ACS) between children and their parents separately for children and adolescents; and to analyze the association between ACS and the children's and parents' barriers. A total of 401 child-parent pairs, from Granada, Jaén, Toledo and Valencia, self-reported, separately, their mode of commuting to school and work, respectively, and the children's barriers to ACS. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences by age for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Binary logistic regressions were performed to study the association between ACS barriers of children and parents and ACS. Both children and adolescents perceived higher physical and motivational barriers and social support barriers towards ACS than their parents (all p < 0.05). Additionally, the parents perceived higher distance, traffic safety, convenience, built environment, crime-related safety and weather as barriers towards ACS, than their children (all p < 0.05). Moreover, a higher perception of barriers was related to lower ACS. The results of our study showed the necessity of attenuating the perceptions of children and their parents in order to increase ACS. This is relevant to develop interventions in the specific contexts of each barrier and involving both populations.


Asunto(s)
Transportes , Caminata , Adolescente , Entorno Construido , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Motivación , Características de la Residencia , Instituciones Académicas
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806987

RESUMEN

Neighborhood greenspace may attract new residents and lead to sociodemographic or housing cost changes. We estimated relationships between greenspace and gentrification-related changes in the 43 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) of the United States (US). We used the US National Land Cover and Brown University Longitudinal Tracts databases, as well as spatial lag models, to estimate census tract-level associations between percentage greenspace (years 1990, 2000) and subsequent changes (1990-2000, 2000-2010) in percentage college-educated, percentage working professional jobs, race/ethnic composition, household income, percentage living in poverty, household rent, and home value. We also investigated effect modification by racial/ethnic composition. We ran models for each MSA and time period and used random-effects meta-analyses to derive summary estimates for each period. Estimates were modest in magnitude and heterogeneous across MSAs. After adjusting for census-tract level population density in 1990, compared to tracts with low percentage greenspace in 1992 (defined as ≤50th percentile of the MSA-specific distribution in 1992), those with high percentage greenspace (defined as >75th percentile of the MSA-specific distribution) experienced higher 1990-2000 increases in percentage of the employed civilian aged 16+ population working professional jobs (ß: 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11, 0.26) and in median household income (ß: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.31). Adjusted estimates for the 2000-2010 period were near the null. We did not observe evidence of effect modification by race/ethnic composition. We observed evidence of modest associations between greenspace and gentrification trends. Further research is needed to explore reasons for heterogeneity and to quantify health implications.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda , Parques Recreativos , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Densidad de Población , Características de la Residencia , Estados Unidos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808014

RESUMEN

In order to develop tailored interventions aiming to encourage active transport among older adults, it is important to gain insights into the modifiable moderators affecting active transport behavior considering the neighborhood in which one lives. Therefore, this study aimed to determine which objective physical environmental factors have an impact on the active transport behavior of Belgian older adults (≥65 years old) and which psychosocial and social environmental moderators influence those relationships. Data from 503 independent living older adults who participated the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in Seniors were included. Multilevel negative binominal regression models (participants nested in neighborhoods) with log link function were fitted for the analyses. Our resulted indicated that older adults living in an environment with higher residential density, higher park density, lower public transport density, and more entropy index had higher active transport levels. Furthermore, different types of neighborhood in which older adults live can lead to different moderators that are decisive for increasing older adults' active transport behavior. Therefore, based on our results some recommendations towards tailored interventions could be given to increase older adults' active transport behavior depending on the environment in which one lives.


Asunto(s)
Transportes , Caminata , Anciano , Bélgica , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Características de la Residencia
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808019

RESUMEN

Neighborhood characteristics are important when raising children. Traditional approaches to parental stress research have focused on the impacts of daily hassles and how individual factors, such as children's temperament, family resources, and social support from friends and family reduce or exacerbate parental stress. There have been few studies on neighborhood characteristics and parental stress, and even fewer studies have examined the association longitudinally. The goal of the present study was to explore the association between mothers' parental stress and neighborhood characteristics longitudinally across early childhood (ages 0-4). Using the 2008-2012 Panel Study on Korean Children, we followed 1536 mothers. The results showed that mothers' parenting stress was highest when children were aged two to three, and neighborhood characteristics had significant associations with parenting stress. The study indicated that mothers who reported that their neighborhoods had sufficient childcare facilities, were convenient to access public recreational and cultural facilities, and those who reported that their neighborhoods were good places to raise children, exhibited significantly lower levels of parenting stress. Further, the effects of neighborhoods on mothers' parenting stress were greatest when children were aged one and four. Hence, such findings should be incorporated when designing and developing communities.


Asunto(s)
Madres , Responsabilidad Parental , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Características de la Residencia , Apoyo Social , Temperamento
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(5): 872-892, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829400

RESUMEN

Because the demographic composition of neighborhoods and schools overlaps, their effects on educational attainment are not independent of each other. Throughout the early teenage years, the timing and duration of exposure to neighborhood and school contexts can vary, advocating for a longitudinal approach when studying schooling outcomes. This study uses Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children data (N = 4502; 49% female) to examine how exposure to poverty between ages 10-16 predicts educational attainment. The results indicate that enduring exposure to neighborhood poverty relates to educational attainment, while timing does not. For school poverty, longer exposure is related to lower attainment, but earlier exposure has a stronger impact than later exposure. Adolescents who were exposed to poverty in both contexts for the full observation period had the lowest educational attainment. The findings highlight the importance of understanding when and how long adolescents are exposed to contextual poverty.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Características de la Residencia
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807261

RESUMEN

As the Internet evolves in urban communities, its consequences on mental distress have drawn significant research attention. We examine the relationships of mental distress with neighborhood environment and Internet use among older adults, using data from a representative sample of 2036 adults aged older than 60 years in Shanghai, China. We assess mental health with a 10-item scale from the Symptom Checklist 90 and Internet use with a 4-item scale and obtain information of neighborhood environment from an online map platform. Results from multilevel models show that both neighborhood environment and Internet use are significantly related to mental distress. Moreover, a worse neighborhood environment may strengthen the correlation between Internet use and mental distress, indicating the strong moderating role of the neighborhood environment. Thus, promoting Internet use among elderly people might result in a reduction in the prevalence of mental distress in disadvantaged neighborhoods.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807263

RESUMEN

Outdoor play and independent, neighborhood activity, both linked with healthy childhood development, have declined dramatically among Western children in recent decades. This study examines how social, cultural and environmental factors may be hindering children's outdoor and community-based play. A comprehensive survey was completed by 826 children (aged 10-13 years) and their parents from 12 schools (four each urban, suburban and rural) from a large county in Ontario, Canada. Five multilevel regression models, controlling for any school clustering effect, examined associations between outdoor play time per week and variable sets representing five prevalent factors cited in the literature as influencing children's outdoor play (OP). Models predicted that younger children and boys were more likely to spend time playing outdoors; involvement in organized physical activities, other children nearby to play with, higher perception of benefits of outdoor play, and higher parental perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion also predicted more time in outdoor play. Time outdoors was less likely among children not allowed to play beyond home without supervision, felt they were 'too busy' with screen-based activities, and who reported higher fears related to playing outdoors. Study findings have important implications for targeting environmental, cultural and policy changes to foster child-friendly communities which effectively support healthy outdoor play.


Asunto(s)
Juego e Implementos de Juego , Características de la Residencia , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Ontario
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807466

RESUMEN

The design and/or remodelling of urban parks is a good health strategy to alleviate the lack of physical activity (PA) in children and, consequently, the different health problems derived from this. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a systematic review of the design features and characteristics that influence users' visits to urban parks and the PA engagement in them. A literature search was carried out in the Web of Science (WOS) and Scopus databases during the months of June and July 2020. After considering and applying inclusion criteria, the final review sample was formed of 31 scientific papers published between 2010-2020. The results obtained in the review lead us to conclude that the needs of the population (children and family members who care for them) and socio-economic context of the area in which they are built must be considered when constructing and/or remodelling parks. Involving community members in playground renovations can have a positive effect on park use and PA engagement in children.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Características de la Residencia , Niño , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Recreación
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799939

RESUMEN

This research examines the consumer nutrition environment in the selected neighborhoods identified as food deserts, food swamps, and food oases in Austin, Texas, by considering food availability, food price, food quality, and food labeling. A food auditing instrument M-TxNEA-S (He Jin, San Marcos, TX, USA) was developed to capture the unique dietary culture and food preferences in Texas. A total of 93 food items in 14 grocery stores and supermarkets (GS) and 32 convenience stores (CS) were surveyed. The GS in food swamps and food oases were found to offer significantly more healthy foods than the CS. The availability of healthy food in the GS in the food swamps and food oases is significantly higher than that of the GS from the food deserts; CS in the three neighborhoods did not exhibit a significant difference in healthy food availability. There was no significant difference between the price for the healthy items (lower fat, lower calorie, and whole grain) and that for the regular food options. No significant difference was found for food quality or food labeling between the stores from the different types of neighborhoods. The GS in food deserts are small grocery stores carrying limited ranges of foods. The establishment of larger food stores in the food deserts might not be very rewarding, but opening more small grocery stores with healthier options may alleviate food issues.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Texas , Humedales
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800159

RESUMEN

Physical activity would bring in plenty of health benefits, especially recreational physical activity (RPA). Previous studies have suggested that built environment would affect older people's recreational walking (RW) and RPA, but how the effects exist in a small-scale Chinese city remains unclear. Two hundred and fifty-two older participants were recruited in the city of Yiwu using cross-sectional survey of random samples in 2019. RW and RPA level of participants and perceived scores of built environments were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, respectively. Linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association of built environment with older people's RW and RPA. The results showed that two main factors affecting older people's RW and RPA were residential density and aesthetics. Additionally, access to services was related to RW, and street connectivity was correlated with RPA. The associations of RW with built environment varied slightly with demographic variables included in the regression model. All the results suggested that lower residential density, better aesthetics environment, and higher street connectivity would motivate older people to engage more in RW and RPA. The better access to services encourages only RW, not RPA, in older people. These findings would be helpful for policy decision makers in the urban construction process in Yiwu. More studies are needed to enlarge the scientific evidence base about small-scale cities in China.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Caminata , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Características de la Residencia
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800525

RESUMEN

This research investigates the relationships between airborne and depositional industrial lead emission concentrations modeled using Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) and childhood blood lead levels (BLL) in the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) 2006-2013. Linear and mediation interaction regression models estimated the effects of older housing and airborne and depositional lead emission concentrations on black and white childhood BLLs, controlling for neighborhood levels of racial isolation and poverty-important social structures in the DMA. The results showed a direct relationship between airborne and depositional lead emissions and higher childhood BLL, after controlling for median housing age. Lead emissions also exacerbated the effect of older housing on black and white children's BLLs (indirect relationship), after controlling for social structures. Findings from this research indicate that black and white children exposed to lead-based paint/pipes in older housing are further impacted by industrial lead pollution that may lead to permanent neurological damage.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Plomo , Plomo , Anciano , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Vivienda , Humanos , Intoxicación por Plomo/epidemiología , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803686

RESUMEN

The primary aim of this paper was to assess the association of after-school club characteristics with changes in physical activity, nutrition, and attitudes in students of color after participating in the "YEAH!" Advocacy-based Physical Activity Program. We examine the strengths of school-based vs. non-school based programs in promoting feelings of self-efficacy and empowerment among students learning to become more physically active-and importantly, also test the strength of how programs that are more connected (to community-based partners) may contribute to students' optimism around policy and public health as it directly affects them. This study examined differences in the youth advocacy training impact across four after-school club types: school-based with community partnerships, school-based without partnerships, non-school-based with community partners, and non-school-based clubs without partnerships. We measured improvements in youth's "optimism for change", "assertiveness" and "decision-making" as related to after school activities and found that non-school-based programs with community partners showed highest positive impact.


Asunto(s)
Características de la Residencia , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Salud Pública , Estudiantes
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805614

RESUMEN

This study examined the life-motivating values of residents in underserved minority communities to inform the development of community engagement strategies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the main research questions: (1) what were the values of research participants, and (2) what did they consider important in their lives? The participants included twenty-seven ethnically diverse individuals living in low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). Thematic analysis was performed to identify common themes and patterns related to the values that participants considered important in their lives. Three broad themes were identified: (1) benevolence; (2) universalism, and (3) self-direction. Benevolence implies a sense of belonging as the central meaning in life; community engagement strategies focused on this value emphasize concern for the welfare of loved ones. Community engagement strategies focused on universalism emphasize social justice and concern for the environment and the world. Finally, community engagement strategies focused on self-direction seek to satisfy participants' needs for control, autonomy, and mastery. This study introduces the Value-Based Framework for Community-Centered Research. It illustrates how value exploration is central to a community-centered approach to public health research and can be an important first step for designing studies that are better aligned with community needs and contexts. Such an approach can also help to co-create a "research identity" with community members and integrate their values into a project's purpose, thereby increasing community ownership and engagement in the study.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Salud Pública , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia
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