Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 59.885
Filtrar
1.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114102, 2023 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089101

RESUMEN

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that presents sex differences in the severity and presentation of symptoms, whose neurobiological basis is still unknown. Both Growth-associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) are considered essential proteins for the appropriate brain development, but their participation in ADHD neurobiology have not been investigated yet. In this study, we hypothesized that alterations in these proteins could be related to behavioral traits to ADHD phenotype. Thus, both sexes of infant Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, used as ADHD animal model) were evaluated for developmental milestones, locomotor activity, olfactory and recognition memory. Both GAP-43 and Shh were assessed in the olfactory bulb, frontal cortex and hippocampus in early and late infancy. During early infancy, SHR reached three developmental milestones later, and females showed olfactory memory impairment accompanied by increased levels of Shh in the olfactory bulb. In later infancy, hyperlocomotion, impaired recognition memory, and decreased Shh in the hippocampus were observed in SHR from both sexes. While in early infancy GAP-43 was not altered, it was decreased in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of female SHR in late infancy. Therefore, both Shh and GAP-43 are involved in the sex-dependent behavioral alterations showed by infant SHR. Despite the disorder's complexity and heterogeneity, our findings reveal important developmental parameters during SHR development and also emphasizes the relevance of studying sex differences in the ADHD context.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Proteínas Hedgehog , Animales , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Proteína GAP-43/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Masculino , Trastornos de la Memoria/metabolismo , Odorantes , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas SHR , Ratas Endogámicas WKY , Caracteres Sexuales
2.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107462, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084413

RESUMEN

AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that females respond more favourably to baclofen treatment for alcohol use disorder. Females are generally more likely to drink to regulate stress reactivity and negative affect. This study thus aimed to evaluate the role of sex on the effect of baclofen on the relationship between daily alcohol consumption, stress and craving. METHODS: A network analysis of fluctuations using vectorized autoregressive modelling was used to explore the relationship between daily surveys of alcohol consumption, stress and craving from daily diary data over 84 days from a randomised controlled trial of baclofen (30 mg or 75 mg per day) versus placebo in 104 participants with alcohol dependence (1, 2). Symptom interrelations across patients and across time were examined including temporal networks (time lagged), contemporaneous and between-subjects networks, and were examined for placebo and baclofen stratified by sex. RESULTS: Overall, between persons, there was a significant relationship between stress and drinking in placebo treated individuals in females (r = -0.70, p < 0.001) but not males (r = 0.32, p = 0.054) that was not observed in baclofen treated individuals. No relationship was observed between stress and drinking in the baclofen group for either sex (p's < 0.45). DISCUSSION: There appears to be some sex-specific differences whereby baclofen abolishes an overall association between stress and drinking in females, but this is not observed in males. Network analyses may assist in elucidating the mechanism of action of alcohol pharmacotherapies such as baclofen and understanding which symptoms and mechanisms are key for effective interventions.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Baclofeno , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Alcoholismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Baclofeno/farmacología , Baclofeno/uso terapéutico , Ansia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191805

RESUMEN

Dopamine is a modulating factor in effort-based decision-making, and emerging evidence from pharmacological research suggests that the dopamine D1 receptor is the primary regulator. Given the limited selectivity of pharmacological tools, we further explored this hypothesis using dopamine D1 mutant (DAD1-/-) rats which have a specific genetic reduction in functional D1 receptors. Moreover, given the strong focus on males in neuroscience research in general and in the role of D1 receptors in effort-based learning, we compared both sexes in the present study. Adult male and female DAD1-/- mutant rats and wild type controls were trained to press a lever for a reinforcer. Once trained, subjects completed multiple fixed ratio, progressive ratio, and operant effort-choice (concurrent progressive ratio/chow feeding task [PROG/chow]) experiments. We predicted that DAD1-/- mutant rats would press the lever significantly less than controls across all experiments, have lower breakpoints, and consume more freely available food. As predicted, DAD1-/- mutant rats (regardless of sex) pressed the lever significantly less than controls and had lower breakpoints. Interestingly, there was a sex * genotype interaction for acquisition rates of lever pressing and change in breakpoints with free food available. Only 31% of DAD1-/- mutant males acquired lever pressing while 73% of DAD1-/- mutant females acquired lever pressing. Additionally, DAD1-/- mutant males had significantly larger decreases in breakpoints when free food was available. These findings extend the pharmacological research suggesting that the dopamine D1 receptor modulates decisions based on effort, which has implications for the development of treatment targeting amotivation in neuropsychiatric disorders. The sex * genotype interaction highlights the importance of including both sexes in future research, especially when there are sex differences in incidences and severity of neuropsychiatric disorders.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Dopamina , Receptores de Dopamina D1 , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Ratas , Condicionamiento Operante , Toma de Decisiones , Dopamina/farmacología , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacología , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Caracteres Sexuales
4.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 56(1): 55-63, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266107

RESUMEN

It is evident that sex and gender differences impact pathophysiology, disease burden, and treatment outcomes for a variety of systems and major illnesses including those affecting the unified airway. Important male-female differences in unified airway disease are driven by various intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms including anatomic, morphometric, hormonal, genetic (and epigenetic), environmental, psycho-social, and comorbidity-related factors. This review highlights current knowledge of how patient sex influences epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for diseases affecting the unified airway.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Respiratorio , Caracteres Sexuales , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Factores Sexuales , Comorbilidad
5.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(1): 101393, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100096

RESUMEN

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) often goes unrecognized as a cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is paucity of contemporary data evaluating the trends of CA diagnosis and associated sex differences. Adult heart failure hospitalizations were identified from the National Inpatient Sample between 2016 and 2019. Hospitalizations with heart failure other than HFpEF were excluded. Hospitalizations with a diagnosis of CA were identified. A Linear regression was utilized to calculate the trend of CA diagnosis over time. A multivariate logistic regressions analysis was performed to analyze sex differences. There was an increasing trend of CA from 1.2 to 2.3 per 1000 HFpEF admission in the first quarter of 2016 to the fourth quarter of 2019 (Ptrend <0.001). In females, as compared to males, there was an increased risk of AIS (6% vs 3%, aOR: 1.68[1.24-2.27], P=0.001) and major bleeding events (10% vs 5%, aOR: 1.97[1.53-2.52], P<0.001). No difference was observed in the in-hospital mortality outcome (8% vs 7%, aOR: 1.2[0.95-1.53], P=0.12) between both groups. Our real-world contemporary analysis showed an increase in CA diagnosis from 2016 to 2019. Despite similar in-hospital mortality, females were associated with higher AIS and major bleeding events rates. Further prospective studies are needed to validate these results.


Asunto(s)
Amiloidosis , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Volumen Sistólico , Pacientes Internos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuales , Hospitalización , Amiloidosis/diagnóstico , Amiloidosis/epidemiología
6.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 605-609, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has an important role in neurons and is closely associated with psychiatric disorders. The development of bipolar disorder (BD) may differ between genders. Existing studies have shown that plasma GDNF levels are altered in patients with BD. In this study, we investigate whether the GDNF levels in patients with BD differ in terms of gender. METHODS: Participants were divided into the BD group (n = 76, with 26 males and 50 females) and healthy control (HC) group (n = 89, with 35 males and 54 females). Plasma GDNF levels were detected via multifactor assay. Clinical symptoms of patients with BD were collected and assessed using the Hamilton Depression-17 Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety-17 Inventory, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. RESULTS: The GDNF levels were significantly higher in all participants in the HC group (F = 4.262, p < 0.05) compared with those in the BD group. In the HC group, the males (t = 4.814, p < 0.001) presented significantly higher levels than the females. The plasma GDNF levels in males in the BD group (t = 3.022, p < 0.05) were significantly lower than those in males in the HC group. CONCLUSION: Differences in plasma GDNF levels are associated with the gender of patients with BD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado de la Línea Celular Glial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado de la Línea Celular Glial/sangre , Caracteres Sexuales
7.
Neuropharmacology ; 222: 109298, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328063

RESUMEN

Women have increased vulnerability to PTSD and anxiety disorders compared to men. Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of these disorders is critical for identifying risk factors and developing appropriate sex-specific interventions. Despite the clear clinical relevance of an examination of sex differences in fear responses, the vast majority of pre-clinical research on fear learning and memory formation has exclusively used male animals. This review highlights sex differences in context and cued fear conditioning, fear extinction and fear generalization with a focus on the neural circuits underlying these behaviors in rodents. There are mixed reports of behavioral sex differences in context and cued fear conditioning paradigms, which can depend upon the behavioral indices of fear. However, there is greater evidence of differential activation of the hippocampus, amygdalar nuclei and the prefrontal cortical regions in male and female rodents during context and cued fear conditioning. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a sexually dimorphic structure, is of particular interest as it differentially contributes to fear responses in males and females. In addition, while the influence of the estrous cycle on different phases of fear conditioning is delineated, the clearest modulatory effect of estrogen is on fear extinction processes. Examining the variability in neural responses and behavior in both sexes should increase our understanding of how that variability contributes to the neurobiology of affective disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue on 'Fear, anxiety and PTSD'.


Asunto(s)
Miedo , Caracteres Sexuales , Femenino , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Extinción Psicológica , Amígdala del Cerebelo , Generalización Psicológica
8.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 241-246, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162686

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence of associations between psychological symptoms and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level is scant, as is evidence on sex differences in associations for children and adolescents with obesity. This study examined sex differences in associations between psychological symptoms (self-concept, anxiety, depression, anger, and disruptive behavior) and TNF-α level in Taiwanese children and adolescents with healthy weight, overweight, or obesity. METHODS: In 2010, 564 first, fourth, and seventh graders-comprising 250 children with overweight or obesity (44.3 %), 330 adolescents (58.5 %), and 303 males (53.7 %)-underwent a health examination and blood sampling and completed a questionnaire. RESULTS: A significantly higher TNF-α level was found in children and adolescents with healthy weight than in those with overweight or obesity (median: 14.5 vs. 4.1 (pg/mL); p < 0.001). In multiple linear regression models, anxiety was significantly positively associated with TNF-α level in female participants with healthy weight (ß = 0.11 per 10 increments in anxiety, 95 % confidence interval = 0.01-0.22). LIMITATIONS: Given the cross-sectional nature of the study, no inferences of causal relationships among TNF-α level, obesity, and psychological symptoms could be made. CONCLUSIONS: The findings enrich the literature on the TNF-α-psychological symptom association. Sex differences were found in children and adolescents without obesity rather than in those without obesity, and a higher TNF-α level was associated with increased anxiety in girls without obesity. The role of sex differences in the complex associations among psychological symptoms, TNF-α level, and overweight or obesity requires further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Sobrepeso , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Femenino , Masculino , Sobrepeso/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Caracteres Sexuales , Taiwán/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal
9.
Heart Fail Clin ; 19(1): 11-24, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435566

RESUMEN

Biological sex and sociocultural gender are emerging as pivotal modifiers of health and diseases. Sex-based differences exist in the development, pathogenesis, and management of individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The interplay between gender domains (ie, identity, roles, relations, and institutionalized gender) and PAH has been barely investigated. The aim of this narrative review is to describe up-to-date evidence on the integration of sex and gender in PAH research, highlighting areas for future investigation.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Pulmonar , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Hipertensión Pulmonar/terapia , Caracteres Sexuales
10.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP311-NP335, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466765

RESUMEN

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to a host of subsequent negative health and behavioral problems. However, the role of sex in the ramifications of early ACEs remains unclear, particularly for delinquency and substance use initiation in adolescence. A small body of research has produced mixed findings on sex differences in the relationship between ACEs and antisocial outcomes in adolescence, resulting in uncertainty about whether and how ACEs may operate differently for boys and girls. The current study drew on a high-risk group of adolescents (N=2455; Mage=15.4; 48% female; 50% Black, 23% Hispanic) from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the associations between accumulated ACEs across early childhood, and delinquency and substance use initiation of alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis in adolescence. We utilized mother and father reports on the exposure to seven different types of ACEs (i.e., physical abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, parental substance misuse, parental mental illness, parental intimate partner violence, and parental criminal behavior) when adolescents were ages 1, 3, and 5. Total ACEs scores and their relationships with delinquency, and lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis were assessed separately for girls and boys. Results suggested that accumulated ACEs during early childhood may be implicated in boys' delinquency, while ACEs were not significantly associated with girls' self-reported delinquency or for boys' and girls' substance use initiation. Findings suggest that the enduring consequences of ACEs may be sex-specific, and have implications for the development of policies to mitigate ACEs and their harms.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Niño , Adolescente , Femenino , Preescolar , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales , Abuso Físico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
11.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 138: 117-127, 2023 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469676

RESUMEN

Adult females and males of most species differ in many aspects of their morphology, physiology and behavior, in response to sex-specific selective pressures that maximize fitness. While we have an increasingly good understanding of the genetic mechanisms that initiate these differences, the sex-specific developmental trajectories that generate them are much less well understood. Here we review recent advances in the sex-specific regulation of development focusing on two models where this development is increasingly well understood: Sexual dimorphism of body size in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and sexual dimorphism of horns in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. Because growth and development are also supported by metabolism, the regulation of sex-specific metabolism during and after development is an important aspect of the generation of female and male phenotypes. Hitherto, the study of sex-specific development has largely been independent of the study of sex-specific metabolism. Nevertheless, as we discuss in this review, recent research has begun to reveal considerable overlap in the cellular and physiological mechanisms that regulate sex-specific development and metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Drosophila melanogaster , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Escarabajos/genética , Tamaño Corporal , Caracteres Sexuales
12.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114146, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270337

RESUMEN

Since practically a century ago, the insulin pathway was discovered in both vertebrates and invertebrates, implying an evolutionarily ancient origin. After a century of research, it is now clear that the insulin signal transduction pathway is a critical, flexible and pleiotropic pathway, evolving into multiple anabolic functions besides glucose homeostasis. It regulates paramount aspects of organismal well-being like growth, longevity, intermediate metabolism, and reproduction. Part of this diversification has been attained by duplications and divergence of both ligands and receptors riding on a common general signal transduction system. One of the aspects that is strikingly different is its usage in reproduction, particularly in male versus female development and fertility within the same species. This review highlights sexual divergence in metabolism and reproductive tract differences, the occurrence of sexually "exaggerated" traits, and sex size differences that are due to the sexes' differential activity/response to the insulin signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Insulina , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Insulina/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Reproducción/fisiología
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210426, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440559

RESUMEN

In group-living species, cooperative tactics can offset asymmetries in resource-holding potential between individuals and alter the outcome of intragroup conflicts. Differences in the kinds of competitive pressures that males and females face might influence the benefits they gain from forming intragroup coalitions. We predicted that there would be a female bias in intragroup coalitions because females (1) are more like to live with kin than males are, and (2) compete over resources that are more readily shared than resources males compete over. We tested this main prediction using information about coalition formation across mammalian species and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that for nearly all species in which intragroup coalitions occur, members of both sexes participate, making this the typical mammalian pattern. The presence and frequency of female or male coalitions were not strongly associated with key socio-ecological factors like resource defensibility, sexual dimorphism or philopatry. This suggests that once the ability to form intragroup coalitions emerges in one sex, it is likely to emerge in the other sex as well and that there is no strong phylogenetic legacy of sex differences in this form of cooperation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Asunto(s)
Mamíferos , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia
14.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210425, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440565

RESUMEN

Women and girls cooperate with each other across many domains and at many scales. However, much of this information is buried in the ethnographic record and has been overlooked in theoretic constructions of the evolution of human sociality and cooperation. The assumed primacy of male bonding, hunting, patrilocality and philopatry has dominated the discussion of cooperation without balanced consideration. A closer look at the ethnographic record reveals that in addition to cooperative childcare and food production, women and girls collectively form coalitions, have their own cooperative political, ceremonial, economic and social institutions, and develop female-based exchange and support networks. The numerous ethnographic examples of female cooperation urge reconsideration of gender stereotypes and the limits of female cooperation. This review brings together theoretic, cross-cultural and cross-lifespan research on female cooperation to present a more even and empirically supported view of female sociality. Following the lead from trends in evolutionary biology and sexual selection theory, the hope going forward is that the focus shifts from rote characterizations of sex differences to highlighting sources of variation and conditions that enhance or constrain female cooperative engagement. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Comparación Transcultural , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Conducta Social , Caracteres Sexuales , Selección Sexual
15.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 14(1): 160, 2022 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported higher plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite evidence that MMP-9 activity and its influence on AD pathophysiology may be modulated by sex hormones, sex differences in the association between MMP-9 and AD biomarkers and cognition have not been explored. METHODS: Our sample included 238 amyloid-ß (Aß)-positive participants with MCI or AD dementia from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (37.4% women, 74.6 ± 7.3 years). We used linear regression models to examine whether sex modified free and total plasma MMP-9 associations with CSF t-tau, p-tau181, and Aß42. We used linear mixed effects models to examine whether sex modified total and free plasma MMP-9 associations with cognition, using longitudinal Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) data. RESULTS: Total and free MMP-9 levels did not differ by sex, but AD dementia patients had higher total MMP-9 levels than participants with MCI (ß = 0.06 [-0.11 to -0.01], p = 0.031). Sex modified the association of CSF t-tau with total (ß = 128.68 [55.37 to 201.99], p < 0.001) and free MMP-9 (ß = 98.61 [33.61 to 163.62], p = 0.003), whereby higher total and free MMP-9 correlated with higher CSF t-tau in women and lower CSF t-tau in men. Higher free MMP-9 correlated with lower CSF p-tau181 among men (ß = -14.98 [-27.37 to -2.58], p = 0.018), but not women. In participants with MCI, higher free MMP-9 levels were associated with higher CSF Aß42 among men (ß = 26.88 [4.03 to 49.73], p = 0.022) but not women. In the overall sample, higher free and total MMP-9 at baseline predicted worsening MMSE scores in women (ß = -2.10 [-3.97 to -0.27], p = 0.027 and ß = -2.24 [-4.32 to -0.18], p = 0.035) but not men. Higher free MMP-9 correlated with worse ADAS-cog scores (ß = 12.34 [3.02 to 21.65], p = 0.011) in women (ß = 12.34 [3.02 to 21.65], p = 0.011) but not men with AD dementia cross-sectionally but correlated with worsening ADAS-cog scores longitudinally only in men (ß = 8.98 [0.27 to 17.68], p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9 may have more detrimental effects on AD-related pathological and cognitive changes in women. If replicated, our findings could help uncover potential mechanisms contributing to women's elevated susceptibility to AD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Péptidos beta-Amiloides , Biomarcadores , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz , Fragmentos de Péptidos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Caracteres Sexuales , Proteínas tau , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano
16.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1186, 2022 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333427

RESUMEN

Reference-quality genomes of both sexes are essential for studying sex determination and sex-chromosome evolution, as their gene contents and expression profiles differ. Here, we present independent chromosome-level genome assemblies for the female (XX) and male (XY) genomes of desert poplar (Populus euphratica), resolving a 22.7-Mb X and 24.8-Mb Y chromosome. We also identified a relatively complete 761-kb sex-linked region (SLR) in the peritelomeric region on chromosome 14 (Y). Within the SLR, recombination around the partial repeats for the feminizing factor ARR17 (ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 17) was potentially suppressed by flanking palindromic arms and the dense accumulation of retrotransposons. The inverted small segments S1 and S2 of ARR17 exhibited relaxed selective pressure and triggered sex determination by generating 24-nt small interfering RNAs that induce male-specific hyper-methylation at the promoter of the autosomal targeted ARR17. We also detected two male-specific fusion genes encoding proteins with NB-ARC domains at the breakpoint region of an inversion in the SLR that may be responsible for the observed sexual dimorphism in immune responses. Our results show that the SLR appears to follow proposed evolutionary dynamics for sex chromosomes and advance our understanding of sex determination and the evolution of sex chromosomes in Populus.


Asunto(s)
Populus , Populus/genética , Caracteres Sexuales , Cromosomas Sexuales/genética , Genoma de Planta
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18821, 2022 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335259

RESUMEN

Ankle landing strategies affects the biomechanical characteristics of the knee joint, especially knee frontal plane loading. However, no studies have investigated whether the association between ankle landing biomechanics in sagittal plane and the knee frontal plane loading differs between sexes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a sex difference in the effect of ankle plantar flexion at the contact angle, ankle range of motion (ROM), and ankle plantar flexion moment on knee valgus loading during single-leg landing. Twenty-five females and twenty-four males performed a single-leg landing. Joint kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremities were measured. The relationship between ankle biomechanics in the sagittal plane (ankle plantar flexion angle at contact, ROM, and peak ankle plantar flexion moment) and peak knee valgus moment were analyzed. In males, the larger ankle plantarflexion angle at contact and ROM were significantly associated with lower peak knee valgus moment. In addition, in males only, a greater peak ankle plantar flexion moment was significantly associated with a lower peak knee valgus moment and greater peak ankle inversion moment. Altering ankle landing strategies in the sagittal plane during single-leg landing may reduce the knee valgus moment, which is one of risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury, in males only.


Asunto(s)
Tobillo , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Pierna , Caracteres Sexuales , Articulación de la Rodilla , Extremidad Inferior
19.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 70, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382163

RESUMEN

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a serious health concern worldwide, and half of the cases of CVD occur in Asia. Because hypertension or high blood pressure has been confirmed to be an important risk factor for CVD, controlling blood pressure is helpful for CVD prevention. Although many studies have shown a sex difference in the impact of blood pressure on the risk of CVD, the risk threshold of blood pressure remained the same for both sexes in the latest global guidelines. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate sex differences in the effect of increased blood pressure on the risk of CVD in Asian populations. Methods: In this study, we performed a systematic review via PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE to select studies conducted with Asian populations published before 30 June 2021. Results: Six female and eleven male effect sizes for CVD risk from six articles were identified. The unadjusted pooled effect size for CVD risk per 10-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure was estimated to be 1.20 for females (95% confidence interval: [1.10, 1.32]) and 1.19 for males (95% confidence interval: [1.11, 1.27]). Furthermore, using meta-regression to adjust for the significant effect of smoking, we showed that the impact of a 10-mmHg systolic blood pressure increase on CVD risk among females was 1.232 times that among males, corresponding to a significant sex difference (95% confidence interval: [1.065, 1.426]; P = 0.02). In summary, the effect of an increased systolic blood pressure on the risk of CVD in females was significantly higher than that in males in the Asian population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hipertensión , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Presión Sanguínea , Prevención Primaria , Caracteres Sexuales , Fumar , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1987): 20221283, 2022 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416043

RESUMEN

Birds are highly visually oriented and use plumage coloration as an important signalling trait in social communication. Hence, males and females may have different patterns of plumage coloration, a phenomenon known as sexual dichromatism. Because males tend to have more complex plumages, sexual dichromatism is usually attributed to female choice. However, plumage coloration is partly condition-dependent; therefore, other selective pressures affecting individuals' success may also drive the evolution of this trait. Here, we used tanagers as model organisms to study the relationships between dichromatism and plumage coloration complexity in tanagers with parasitism by haemosporidians, investment in reproduction and life-history traits. We screened blood samples from 2849 individual birds belonging to 52 tanager species to detect haemosporidian parasites. We used publicly available data for plumage coloration, bird phylogeny and life-history traits to run phylogenetic generalized least-square models of plumage dichromatism and complexity in male and female tanagers. We found that plumage dichromatism was more pronounced in bird species with a higher prevalence of haemosporidian parasites. Lastly, high plumage coloration complexity in female tanagers was associated with a longer incubation period. Our results indicate an association between haemosporidian parasites and plumage coloration suggesting that parasites impact mechanisms of sexual selection, increasing differences between the sexes, and social (non-sexual) selection, driving females to develop more complex coloration.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Passeriformes , Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Filogenia , Pigmentación , Caracteres Sexuales
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...