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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18786, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011475

RESUMEN

Insomnia patients with different gender and age usually had different sleep experience. Primary insomnia (PI) has been considered to be a disorder of hyper-arousal in the physiologic, emotional, or cognitive network. Although the hyper-arousal brain regions can be shown by comparing the brain activity of PI patients with normal people at rest, whether the brain activity of PI patients varied according to age and gender and whether age and gender could affect the distribution of hyper-arousal brain regions are still worthy of further exploration. Hence, a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study (No. NCT02448602) was designed to observe the brain activity of thirty PI patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs). The brain activity in resting state was measured by calculating the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), which reflected the idiopathic activity level of neurons. Multiple regression was performed to investigate the age and gender-related differences of brain activity in PI patients (P < .001, Family Wise Error (FWE) correct P = .05, cluster size >50) with age and gender as covariates. The hyper-arousal brain regions were measured by comparing the fALFF of PI patients and HCs. Multiple regression (P < .001, FWE correct P = .05, cluster size >50) was also performed for PI patients and HCs with group, age, and gender as covariates.The results suggested that the gender-related difference of brain activity mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum posterior lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and the age-related difference mainly existed in cerebellum anterior lobe, superior temporal gyrus, brainstem, parahippocampa gyrus, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus. In addition, the altered fALFF regions between PI and HCs mainly existed in superior temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the gender factor could not influence the distribution of the altered regions. While the age factor could affect the distribution of the altered regions.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Caracteres Sexuales , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Descanso , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
2.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 16(2): 84-96, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900464

RESUMEN

In a range of neurological conditions, including movement disorders, sex-related differences are emerging not only in brain anatomy and function, but also in pathogenesis, clinical features and response to treatment. In Parkinson disease (PD), for example, oestrogens can influence the severity of motor symptoms, whereas elevation of androgens can exacerbate tic disorders. Nevertheless, the real impact of sex differences in movement disorders remains under-recognized. In this article, we provide an up-to-date review of sex-related differences in PD and the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders, namely, essential tremor, dystonia, Huntington disease and other chorea syndromes, and Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders. We highlight the most relevant clinical aspects of movement disorders that differ between men and women. Increased recognition of these differences and their impact on patient care could aid the development of tailored approaches to the management of movement disorders and enable the optimization of preclinical research and clinical studies.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Movimiento/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos del Movimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Movimiento/terapia , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Insect Sci ; 27(2): 202-211, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203565

RESUMEN

Eusocial insects display a caste system in which different castes are morphologically and physiologically specialized for different tasks. Recent studies have revealed that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modification, mediate caste determination and differentiation, longevity, and polyethism in eusocial insects. Although there has been a growing interest in the relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and phenotypic plasticity in termites, there is little information about differential expression levels among castes and expression sites for these genes in termites. Here we show royal-tissue-specific expression of epigenetic modification genes in the termite Reticulitermes speratus. Using RNA-seq, we identified 74 genes, including three DNA methyltransferases, seven sirtuins, 48 Trithorax group proteins, and 16 Polycomb group proteins. Among these genes, 15 showed king-specific expression, and 52 showed age-dependent differential expression in kings and queens. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DNA methyltransferase 3 is expressed specifically in the king's testis and fat body, whereas some histone modification genes are remarkably expressed in the king's testis and queen's ovary. These findings imply that epigenetic modification plays important roles in the gamete production process in termite kings and queens.


Asunto(s)
Epigénesis Genética , Isópteros/genética , Animales , Cuerpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Femenino , Isópteros/metabolismo , Masculino , Ovario/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuales , Testículo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 40-47, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808076

RESUMEN

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are the main components of the epicuticular wax layer that in many insects functions as a barrier against desiccation. CHCs also play many other roles, including serving as sex pheromones, kairomones, primer pheromones, and colony-, caste-, species- and sex-recognition signals. In insects, CHC profiles can vary depending upon age, species, sex, and strain. Understanding factors associated with variation in hydrocarbon profiles is important for identifying potential vulnerabilities relating to pest ecology and life histories and for developing tools for pest monitoring and management strategies. In this study, we assessed potential sources of variation in CHC profiles in the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized and compared CHC profiles between adults of pyrethroid-resistant (R347) and susceptible (ALMOND) strains. We further compared CHC profiles from adults differing in age (1, 3, 5, and 7 d post-eclosion) and sex. Hydrocarbon profiles comprised 47 different CHCs in detectable quantities that ranged from C17 to C43 in chain length and included straight-chain alkanes and a variety of mono-, di-, and tri-methylalkanes. Adults from resistant populations had greater quantities of CHCs in total than those from susceptible strains, but relative quantities of individual components were similar. The six most abundant compounds were n-pentacosane, n-heptacosane, n-nonacosane, n-hentriacontane, 11,25 + 13,23 + 15,21-dimethylpentatriacontane, and 13,23 + 11,25 + 9,17-dimethylheptatriacontane. Post-eclosion, total CHCs increased with adult age, with males producing greater quantities than females at all ages. Our results show that CHC profiles vary depending on age, sex, and strain and suggest that CHC profiles may be useful as biomarkers to differentiate between insecticide- resistant and susceptible populations.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos/química , Mariposas Nocturnas/química , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Femenino , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Mariposas Nocturnas/metabolismo , Análisis de Componente Principal , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(1): 53-66, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741042

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) are part of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) and may contribute to gastric cancer (GC) biology. We hypothesized that TAN are enriched in the TIME, show sex-specific differences, and correlate with patient outcome. METHODS: We analyzed the distribution and putative tumor biological significance of TANs in a well-characterized, therapy-naïve, European GC cohort using immunohistochemical staining of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and digital image analysis using Definiens Tissue Studio®. RESULTS: Different tumor compartments were examined, and TAN densities were correlated with various clinicopathological patient characteristics. TAN density showed a large interindividual variability ranging from 0 to 6711.0 TANs/mm2. Intratumoral distribution patterns were inhomogeneous (tumor surface vs. tumor center vs. invasion front) and correlated significantly with Laurén phenotype, tumor grade, and microsatellite status in the tumor center and invasion front. In the multivariate analysis, TAN density in the invasion front was an independent predictor of tumor-specific survival only for women (HR = 2.77, p < 0.001). In men, no correlation was found between TAN density and survival. CONCLUSION: With regard to TANs, our study independently validates sexual dimorphism in GC biology.


Asunto(s)
Neutrófilos/inmunología , Neutrófilos/patología , Neoplasias Gástricas/inmunología , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales , Microambiente Tumoral/inmunología
6.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 55-68, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149780

RESUMEN

Patterns of body size variation along geographical gradients have long been searched for and generalized into eco-geographical rules. However, no rodent species has yet been analyzed in relation to the 3 dimensions of latitude, longitude and altitude. We analyzed geographical clines and dimorphism of body and skull size in the herb field mouse (Apodemus uralensis) across the species range, based on field data and on data from the literature. Sexual dimorphism in adult A. uralensis was not expressed at a large scale, while local patterns were inconsistent. Age-dependent size changes were most expressed in adult individuals: most characters of adults exceeded in size those of subadults, while subadult-juvenile size differences were only significant in body weight and length, zygomatic skull width, length of cranial diastema and breadth of braincase. Despite central morphological niches along the clines being separated, A. uralensis populations showed a high degree of size overlap in morphological space. We found the species to be characterized by high size variability, with the largest individuals inhabiting the eastern and southern edges of the distribution range. Tail, hind foot and ear lengths were largest in the southern part of the range, in agreement with Allen's rule. The main measurements that we analyzed, namely body mass, zygomatic skull width and condylobasal skull length, show the presence of 3 clines in the size of adult A. uralensis: (i) a decreasing south-north cline, opposing Bergmann's rule; (ii) an increasing west-east cline, in accordance with Murphy's rule; and (iii) an increasing altitudinal cline.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Tamaño Corporal/fisiología , Murinae/anatomía & histología , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Masculino , Murinae/fisiología , Caracteres Sexuales
7.
J Orthop Res ; 38(1): 192-201, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444797

RESUMEN

Rotator cuff tears (RCT) is a multifactorial disease with genetic factors contributing for the disease etiology. We hypothesized that genetic variants in genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis may alter susceptibility to RCT. We evaluated 20 polymorphisms of genes involved in ECM homeostasis in 211 cases of full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus (Nfemales = 130; Nmales = 81) and 567 age-matched controls (Nfemales = 317; Nmales = 250). Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out with age, gender, genetic ancestry (based on the analysis of 61 biallelic short insertion/deletion polymorphisms), and common co-morbidities (diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking habits) as covariates. We observed that carriers of the rare allele of both studied variants of TGFB1, as well as their G/A (rs1800470/rs1800469) haplotype, were less susceptible to RCT (p < 0.05). In contrast, carriers of the G allele of MMP9 rs17576 (p = 0.014) or G/G haplotype (rs17576/rs17577; p < 0.001) had an increased risk for tendon tears. The presence of the T allele of MMP2 rs2285053 (p = 0.033), the T allele of MMP3 rs679620 (p = 0.024), and the TT-genotype of TIMP2 rs2277698 (p = 0.01) was associated with susceptibility to tears, especially in females. In males, the A allele of COL5A1 rs3196378 (p = 0.032) and the G allele of TGFBR1 rs1590 (p = 0.039) were independent risk factors for RCT. The C/T COL5A1 (rs3196378/rs11103544) haplotype was associated with a reduced risk of tears in males (p = 0.03). In conclusion, we identified the genetic variants associated with RCT susceptibility, thereby reinforcing the role of genes involved in the structure and homeostasis of the ECM of tendons in disease development. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:192-201, 2020.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Homeostasis , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Lesiones del Manguito de los Rotadores/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Colágeno Tipo V/genética , Femenino , Haplotipos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metaloproteinasa 2 de la Matriz/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Caracteres Sexuales , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/genética
8.
Chin J Physiol ; 62(6): 245-255, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793460

RESUMEN

Although gender differences in conformity are noticed in human studies, cultural norms and psychosocial factors inevitably affect such differences. Biological factors, especially the gonadal hormones and the brain regions involved, contributing to the sex differences in behavioral conformity remained scarcely explored. To prevent psychosocial and cultural norm confounds, intact and gonadectomized male and female mice were used to assess the modulating effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral conformity and such conformity-related brain regions using an approach of choice paradigm. Intact and gonadectomized mice' choices for the nonrewarded runway were assessed when these experimental mice were alone versus with a group, consisting of three same-sex noncagemates choosing the respective experimental mice' nonrewarded runway, in a double-J-shaped maze test. Although male and female mice exhibited comparable rewarded runway choices at the conclusion of the operant training procedures and in the test individually, male mice demonstrated greater conformity index as compared to female mice when group tested. Gonadectomy, done at their 4 or 9 weeks of age, decreased males' conformity index but did not affect females' when both sexes were group tested. Such gonadectomy did not affect the conditioning or conformity index when tested individually in either sex. Female mice had higher serum corticosterone (CORT) levels when group tested as compared to the female mice tested individually and male mice. Finally, the number of FOS-staining cells in high conformity-displaying mice was found less than it in the low conformity-performing mice in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, we conclude that testis-derived hormones, at least, play a role in enhancing behavioral conformity in male mice. CORT and nucleus accumbal neuronal activity deserve further investigation for their involvement in behavioral conformity.


Asunto(s)
Gónadas , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , Corticosterona , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Ratones , Ovariectomía , Factores Sexuales
9.
Chin J Physiol ; 62(6): 261-266, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793462

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease prevails with age which varies according to sex. Telomere length plays an important role in aging. Despite the great benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), the acute responses to HIIT with different intervals have not been elucidated in different sexes. This study was conducted to investigate the sex-dependent responses of telomerase enzyme activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the ratio of TAC/TOS to short- and long-term high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in cardiac muscle of male and female rats. Forty adult Wistar rats were randomly allocated to six groups: male and female HIIE with short-term intervals (MHIIESh and FHIIESh, respectively), male and female HIIE with long-term intervals (MHIIEL and FHIIEL, respectively), and controls groups. Telomerase activity, TAC, and TOS levels were examined immediately after exercise in the cardiac muscle. The level of telomerase enzyme activity, TOS level, and the ratio of TAC/TOS did not change after HIIE with short-term interval and HIIE with long-term interval (HIIEL) in male and female rats (P = 0.52, 0.69, and 0.08, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in the TAC level in the MHIIESh group (P = 0.04). Furthermore, a significant decrease was observed in the HIIEL in both male and female rats (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Acute exposure to HIIE with short- and long-term intervals would not result in a significant change in some indicators of biological aging. However, due to gender-specific biological differences, further studies will provide evidence regarding the roles of HIIE at different times of intervals, which contribute to aging prevention.


Asunto(s)
Caracteres Sexuales , Envejecimiento , Animales , Antioxidantes , Femenino , Masculino , Miocardio , Oxidantes , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Telomerasa
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18350, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860990

RESUMEN

This study, an important groundwork for clinical tongue diagnosis and future traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research, tested the hypothesis that some tongue features vary significantly between different gender and age groups by utilizing an automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS).A cross-sectional study of 1487 participants from a community-based population was performed. Study subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 92 were categorized into 3 groups: <40, 40 to 64, and ≥65 years old, and the subjects were also stratified according to gender. Tongue images were collected at the end of each normal health examination routine to further derive the relevant tongue features of every participant by using the ATDS developed by our team. There were a total of nine tongue features that were identified: tongue shape, tongue color, fur thickness, fur color, saliva, tongue fissure, ecchymosis, teeth mark, and red dot. The corresponding tongue features, demography, and physical/laboratory examination data were compared between different gender and age groups.Our study showed that, compared to females, males had enlarged tongue shape, thicker fur, more fissures and fewer teeth marks (all P < .001), and also had more red tongue color (P = .019), normal saliva (P = .001), more red dots (P = .005) and yellower fur (P = .014). In females, increasing age was associated with more enlarged tongue shape, thicker fur, yellower fur, more saliva, fissures and fewer teeth marks (all P < .001), more ecchymoses (P = .009), and more red tongue color (P = .023). These associations of age with more fissures, fewer teeth marks, fewer red dots (P < .001), median tongue shape (P = .029), and wet saliva (P = .014) were also evident in males, but other relationships were not clearly evident.Even though most of the common tongue features derived from a community-based population are consistent with TCM theory, yet some significantly gender- and age-dependent tongue characteristics were identified. These disparities in tongue features associated with gender or age shall be prudently taken into consideration in clinical tongue diagnosis and future TCM research.


Asunto(s)
Lengua/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina China Tradicional , Persona de Mediana Edad , Caracteres Sexuales , Taiwán , Adulto Joven
11.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1657-1666, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700185

RESUMEN

The prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders in both women and men has increased worldwide and is linked to a rise in obesity and obesity-associated associated clustering of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose regulation and dyslipidemia. However, the predominance of common types of cardiometabolic disorders such as heart failure, atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease is sex specific, and our identification of these and the underlying mechanisms is only just emerging. New evidence suggests that sex hormones, sex-specific molecular mechanisms and gender influence glucose and lipid metabolisms, as well as cardiac energy metabolism, and function. Here we review sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors, associated preclinical and clinical cardiac disorders and potential therapeutic avenues.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Obesidad/metabolismo , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/genética , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/patología , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Glucosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Hipertensión/patología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/patología , Obesidad/patología , Factores de Riesgo , Caracteres Sexuales
12.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.6, 2019 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717193

RESUMEN

A small number of treefrog species (Litoria) from Melanesia are unusual amongst Anura in having distinctive fleshy rostral spikes. Here, we first present an extended description for Litoria pronimia Menzies, a small species that is widespread along the southern edge of the Central Cordillera of New Guinea, and in which males have a long and erectile rostral spike. Second, we describe Litoria pinocchio sp. nov. a new, morphologically similar, yet geographically disjunct species from the Foja Mountains in northern Papua Province, Indonesia. The new species differs from Litoria pronimia in aspects of body shape, proportions and colouration. A review of variation in the size, structure and degree of sexual dimorphism of the rostral spike across different species of Litoria suggests varying function including mate selection and camouflage.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , Indonesia , Masculino , Melanesia , Nueva Guinea
13.
Zootaxa ; 4604(1): zootaxa.4604.1.4, 2019 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717203

RESUMEN

Elpidium ostracods are known by their very particular niche (water accumulated in tank-bromeliads), their relatively low dispersal ability and their dependency on amphibians for dispersal and colonization of new bromeliads. All these characteristics make the genus an interesting group for evolutionary, ecological and even taxonomic studies. However, the diversity of the group remains poorly studied. Here, we describe three new species of Elpidium, Elpidium littlei n. sp., Elpidium heberti n. sp. and Elpidium wolfi n. sp., and re-describe Elpidium laesslei, all from Jamaica. These species are characterized by a copulatory process with separated ejaculatory duct and distal glans, a feature so far unique within the genus. Each species can, in turn, be diagnosed by soft part and carapace morphology, most notably comparing hemipenis, valve ornamentation and degree of sexual dimorphism. The observed morphological diversity of Elpidium is discussed in relation to previous genetic estimates that suggested an even higher diversity in Jamaica. We point to intraspecific variation and lack of complete morphological descriptions as possible explanations. We also reaffirm the need of multidisciplinary studies in order to do more objective and secure taxonomic classifications in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Crustáceos , Animales , Ecología , Jamaica , Caracteres Sexuales
14.
Zootaxa ; 4672(1): zootaxa.4672.1.1, 2019 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716028

RESUMEN

Pugettia quadridens (De Haan, 1837) and its closely similar congener, P. intermedia Sakai, 1938, are redescribed and illustrated and their possible infraspecific variations related to sexual, ontogenetic, and environmental differences are discussed. As a result, a new species, Pugettia ferox, which had long been believed to be a local variant of P. quadridens sensu lato in the northeast Japan, is described. Despite moderate sexual dimorphism and considerable variability related to their ontogeny, the three species can be distinguished from each other by the combination of various morphological characters including the structure of the orbital region and male first gonopods. The patterns of ontogenetic morphological and morphometric changes in the chelipeds, gonopods, and pleons are also differentiated among the three species. The updated distribution ranges of three species greatly overlap in the northeast Asian waters, although P. quadridens sensu stricto is distributed more southward than P. ferox n. sp.. Distinguishing characters between P. quadridens s.s. and P. pellucens Rathbun, 1932, and between P. intermedia and P. vulgaris Ohtsuchi, Kawamura Takeda, 2014, are revised.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros , Animales , Japón , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
15.
Zootaxa ; 4590(2): zootaxa.4590.2.2, 2019 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716092

RESUMEN

Character state variation among species within Dendrothrips Uzel is discussed, with seven species-groups suggested based on sculpture of body and fore wing surface. Sexual dimorphism in pronotal sculpture and posteroangular setae is described in D. magnoliae. The major host plants of several species are indicated, and the wide distribution across Asia of some species emphasised. Species of Dendrothrips from China are reviewed, D. octosparsus sp. n. is described from Oleaceae, and a key presented to the ten species from China. Two species previously known only from Japan, D. magnoliae Kudô and D. latimaculatus Nonaka Okajima, are newly recorded from China along with the first description of their males. The male of D. homalii Zhang Tong is described and illustrated. The record from China of D. mendax Bhatti is considered a misidentification of D. latimaculatus. D. schmiae Kudô is synonymized with D. minowai Priesner.


Asunto(s)
Thysanoptera , Distribución Animal , Animales , Asia , China , Japón , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
16.
Zootaxa ; 4586(3): zootaxa.4586.3.1, 2019 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716114

RESUMEN

Three new species, of three different genera of loricariids, are described from the headwaters of Serra da Mantiqueira and Cadeia do Espinhaço, in Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In this region, the Serra da Mantiqueira and the Complexo do Espinhaço are the highest points of the Brazilian Shield and delimits the headwaters of four drainages: São Francisco, Paraná, Doce and Paraíba do Sul basins. Harttia intermontana, n. sp., is described from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin and is the first record of the genus in this basin. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the pattern of abdominal covering, presence of preanal plates, presence and pattern of ornamentation of canal plate, and some characteristics related to sexual dimorphism. Pareiorhaphis togoroi, n. sp., is described from the headwaters of the Rio das Mortes basin, tributary to the Rio Grande, in the upper Rio Paraná drainage, and represents the first record of the genus to this drainage, thus expanding its geographic distribution. It can be distinguished from most congeners by the absence of preadipose azygous plates, and characteristics related to secondary sexual characters of mature males: presence of odontodes on the lateral margin of head plus the absence of long hypertrophied odontodes on pectoral-fin spine. Neoplecostomus pirangaensis, n. sp., is described from the headwaters of the Rio Piranga, Rio Doce basin. The new species differs from all congeners by the much-reduced dermal platelets on the abdomen, devoid of developed odontodes between the insertions of the pectoral and pelvic fins. Neoplecostomus pirangaensis can also be distinguished from all congeners, except N. botucatu and N. paranensis, due to the complete absence of vestiges of the adipose fin (vs. vestiges, or adipose fin moderate to well developed and always present). The new species differs from N. botucatu by the absence of conspicuous dark spots all over the body and the presence of common dorsal bands in juveniles, and almost totally black in adults. It differs from N. paranensis by the bigger and less numerous teeth. Additionally, the new species differs from Neoplecostomus doceensis by the absence of enlarged fleshy folds between dentaries, and absence of a lateronasal plate.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Animales , Brasil , Color , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(12): 1725-1730, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740847

RESUMEN

Genes with sex-biased expression show a number of unique properties and this has been seen as evidence for conflicting selection pressures in males and females, forming a genetic 'tug-of-war' between the sexes. However, we lack studies of taxa where an understanding of conflicting phenotypic selection in the sexes has been linked with studies of genomic signatures of sexual conflict. Here, we provide such a link. We used an insect where sexual conflict is unusually well understood, the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, to test for molecular genetic signals of sexual conflict across genes with varying degrees of sex-bias in expression. We sequenced, assembled and annotated its genome and performed population resequencing of three divergent populations. Sex-biased genes showed increased levels of genetic diversity and bore a remarkably clear footprint of relaxed purifying selection. Yet, segregating genetic variation was also affected by balancing selection in weakly female-biased genes, while male-biased genes showed signs of overall purifying selection. Female-biased genes contributed disproportionally to shared polymorphism across populations, while male-biased genes, male seminal fluid protein genes and sex-linked genes did not. Genes showing genomic signatures consistent with sexual conflict generally matched life-history phenotypes known to experience sexually antagonistic selection in this species. Our results highlight metabolic and reproductive processes, confirming the key role of general life-history traits in sexual conflict.


Asunto(s)
Selección Genética , Caracteres Sexuales , Femenino , Genoma , Genómica , Masculino , Fenotipo
18.
Nature ; 575(7781): 137-146, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695204

RESUMEN

The goal of sex and gender analysis is to promote rigorous, reproducible and responsible science. Incorporating sex and gender analysis into experimental design has enabled advancements across many disciplines, such as improved treatment of heart disease and insights into the societal impact of algorithmic bias. Here we discuss the potential for sex and gender analysis to foster scientific discovery, improve experimental efficiency and enable social equality. We provide a roadmap for sex and gender analysis across scientific disciplines and call on researchers, funding agencies, peer-reviewed journals and universities to coordinate efforts to implement robust methods of sex and gender analysis.


Asunto(s)
Ingeniería/métodos , Ingeniería/normas , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias , Ciencia/métodos , Ciencia/normas , Caracteres Sexuales , Factores Sexuales , Animales , Inteligencia Artificial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Tamaño de la Muestra
19.
Zootaxa ; 4624(1): zootaxa.4624.1.6, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716238

RESUMEN

A new pseudoscorpion genus, Tenebriochernes n. gen., with the type species T. concavus n. sp. is described from two caves in northern Colombia, where it inhabits the dark zone of caves. Two additional new species T. mohani n. sp. and T. pilosus n. sp., are described from conserved dry forest areas and buffer zones. Sexual dimorphism of the pedipalps is evident, particularly in the length of appendages and the width of the hand. The new genus shows affinities with the genus Neoallochernes Hoff, 1947. A taxonomic key, distribution map and ecological comments are given.


Asunto(s)
Arácnidos , Animales , Colombia , Ecología , Bosques , Caracteres Sexuales
20.
Zootaxa ; 4614(1): zootaxa.4614.1.9, 2019 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716393

RESUMEN

There are 22 genera and more than 100 described species of Ectrichodiinae in the New World (Gil-Santana et al. 2015). Intraspecific variation in coloration and body size have been recorded in several species of the subfamily. These characteristics can occur in the same population or can suggest geographic variation of the same species (Wygodzinsky 1951, Dougherty 1995, Gil-Santana Baena 2009, Gil-Santana et al. 2013). Sexual dimorphism is also common: females are almost always more or less larger than males, frequently have thicker fore femora and smaller eyes and ocelli (Dougherty 1995).


Asunto(s)
Heterópteros , Reduviidae , Distribución Animal , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Femenino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
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