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1.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672045

RESUMEN

Hydrochar is a carbon-based material that can be used as soil amendment. Since the physical-chemical properties of hydrochar are mainly assigned to process parameters, we aimed at evaluating the organic fraction of different hydrochars through 13C-NMR and off-line TMAH-GC/MS. Four hydrochars produced with sugarcane bagasse, vinasse and sulfuric or phosphoric acids were analyzed to elucidate the main molecular features. Germination and initial growth of maize seedlings were assessed using hydrochar water-soluble fraction to evaluate their potential use as growth promoters. The hydrochars prepared with phosphoric acid showed larger amounts of bioavailable lignin-derived structures. Although no differences were shown about the percentage of maize seeds germination, the hydrochar produced with phosphoric acid promoted a better seedling growth. For this sample, the greatest relative percentage of benzene derivatives and phenolic compounds were associated to hormone-like effects, responsible for stimulating shoot and root elongation. The reactions parameters proved to be determinant for the organic composition of hydrochar, exerting a strict influence on molecular features and plant growth response.


Asunto(s)
Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética con Carbono-13 , Carbón Orgánico/química , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Desarrollo de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/química , Agua/química , Bioensayo , Raíces de Plantas/anatomía & histología , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/anatomía & histología , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/crecimiento & desarrollo
2.
Water Res ; 190: 116744, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401101

RESUMEN

Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration, a process widely used in drinking water treatment, was recently reported to harbor antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This emerging contamination is poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of ARGs and bacterial community in full-scale BAC filters during the backwash cycle using high-throughput qPCR and high-throughput sequencing. A total of 178 ARGs were detected in all biofilm samples, with relative abundance ranging from 0.1 to 1.37 copies per 16S rRNA and absolute abundance ranging from 4.48 × 107 to 3.09 × 109 copies/g carbon. Biofilms sampled from different filters shared most detected ARGs and dominant genera including Bryobacter, Pedomicrobium, Reyranella, and Terrimonas, though their bacterial community structure differed significantly. After backwashing, the relative ARGs abundance increased by 1.5- to 3.8-folds and the absolute ARGs abundance increased by 0.90- to 1.12-logs in all biofilm samples during filter ripening, indicating that ARGs accumulated in filters during this period. Redundancy analysis suggested that such ARGs accumulation was mainly driven by horizontal gene transfer in winter, but highly correlated with the increasing relative abundance of genera Bryobacter and Acidibacter in summer. It was observed that 80.6 %-89.3% of the detected ARGs persisted in the filters despite of the backwashing. Given the high richness and relative abundance of ARGs in BAC filter and the ineffectiveness of backwashing in ARG removal, more stringent downstream disinfection strategies are deserved and more research is necessary to assess potential human health risks due to the persistence of ARGs in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Agua Potable/análisis , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
3.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(1): 99-104, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367661

RESUMEN

CONTEXT.­: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may cause false negative results of antithrombin (AT) deficiency screening. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the impact of DOAC-Stop, an agent reversing in vitro effects of DOACs, on AT testing in anticoagulated patients. DESIGN.­: We assessed 130 venous thromboembolism patients aged 46.7 ± 13.5 years. Blood samples were collected 2 to 27 hours after DOAC intake from 49 patients on rivaroxaban, 54 on apixaban, and 27 on dabigatran. Antithrombin activity was assessed using the activated factor X (FXa)-based and the activated factor II (FIIa)-based method twice, before and after DOAC-Stop treatment, together with plasma DOAC levels using coagulometric assays. RESULTS.­: The use of DOAC-Stop did not influence AT activity measured using the FIIa-based assay, whereas there was a marked decrease in AT activity determined using the FXa-based assay (ΔAT = 16.9%; 95% CI, 12.9%-19.1%). The AT-FIIa assay revealed decreased AT level (<79%) in all 10 (7.7%) genetically confirmed AT-deficient patients treated with rivaroxaban or apixaban (n = 5 each), whereas the AT-FXa assay showed decreased AT activity (<83%) in 2 subjects on rivaroxaban and 1 on apixaban with low plasma DOAC concentrations (<90 ng/mL). After DOAC-Stop median AT-FXa activity lowered from 83.5% (interquartile range, 66%-143%) to 65.5% (interquartile range, 57%-75%; P = .005; ΔAT = 18%) in AT-deficient patients, without any false negative results. The ΔAT in the FXa-based assay correlated with rivaroxaban and apixaban concentrations in the AT-deficient patients (r = 0.99, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS.­: Application of DOAC-Stop enables reliable evaluation of AT deficiency screening in patients taking rivaroxaban or apixaban and tested using the FXa-based method.


Asunto(s)
Antitrombinas/sangre , Pruebas de Coagulación Sanguínea/métodos , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/uso terapéutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Reacciones Falso Negativas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamiento farmacológico
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111020, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810706

RESUMEN

Over the past 30 years, the ever-rising demands of the modern and growing population have led to the rapid development of agricultural and industrial sectors worldwide. However, this expansion has exposed the environment to various pollutants including heavy metal (HM)s. Almost all HMs are serious toxicants and can pose serious health risks to living organisms in addition to their bioaccumulative and non-biodegradable nature. Different techniques have been developed to restore the ecological functions of the HM-contaminated soil (HMCS). However, the major downfalls of the commonly used remediation technologies are the generation of secondary wastes, high operating costs, and high energy consumption. Phytoremediation is a prominent approach that is more innocuous than the existing remediation approaches. Some microbes-plant interactions enhance the bioremediation process, with heavy metal resistant-plant growth promoting bacteria (HMRPGPB) being widely used to assist phytoremediation of HMs. However, the most common of all major microbial assisted-phytoremediation disturbances is that the HM-contaminated soil is generally deficient in nutrients and cannot sustain the rapid growth of the applied HMRPGPB. In this case, biochar has recently been approved as a potential carrier of microbial agents. The biochar-HMRPGPB-plant association could provide a promising green approach to remediate HM-polluted sites. Therefore, this review addresses the mechanisms through which biochar and HMRPGPB can enhance phytoremediation. This knowledge of biochar-HMRPGPB-plant interactions is significant with respect to sustainable management of the HM-polluted environment in terms of both ecology and economy, and it offers the possibility of further development of new green technologies.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Embryophyta/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Desarrollo de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Desarrollo de la Planta/fisiología , Suelo/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232811, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614852

RESUMEN

In the present work, the olive mill solid waste (OMSW)-derived biochar (BC) was produced at various pyrolytic temperatures (300-700°C) and characterized to investigate its potential negative versus positive application effects on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and nutrients (P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) availability in a calcareous loamy sand soil. Therefore, a greenhouse pot experiment with maize (Zea mays L.) was conducted using treatments consisting of a control (CK), inorganic fertilizer of NPK (INF), and 1% and 3% (w/w) of OMSW-derived BCs. The results showed that BC yield, volatile matter, functional groups, and zeta potential decreased with pyrolytic temperature, whereas BC pH, EC, and its contents of ash and fixed carbon increased with pyrolytic temperature. The changes in the BC properties with increasing pyrolytic temperatures reflected on soil pH, EC and the performance of soil nutrients availability. The BC application, especially with increasing pyrolytic temperature and/or application rate, significantly increased soil pH, EC, NH4OAc-extractable K, Na, Ca, and Mg, and ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Fe and Zn, while AB-DTPA-extractable Mn decreased. The application of 1% and 3% BC, respectively, increased the NH4OAc-extractable K by 2.5 and 5.2-fold for BC300, by 3.2 and 8.0-fold for BC500, and by 3.3 and 8.9-fold for BC700 compared with that of untreated soil. The results also showed significant increase in shoot content of K, Na, and Zn, while there was significant decrease in shoot content of P, Ca, Mg, and Mn. Furthermore, no significant effects were observed for maize growth as a result of BC addition. In conclusion, OMSW-derived BC can potentially have positive effects on the enhancement of soil K availability and its plant content but it reduced shoot nutrients, especially for P, Ca, Mg, and Mn; therefore, application of OMSW-derived BC to calcareous soil might be restricted.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Nutrientes/análisis , Olea/química , Arena/química , Suelo/química , Carbón Orgánico/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Minerales/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo , Zea mays/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/crecimiento & desarrollo , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9452, 2020 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528021

RESUMEN

A 3-year fixed site experiment was carried out on a Planosol in Northeast China to study the effects of biochar and controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer on rice yield, nitrogen-use efficiency, residual nitrogen, and nitrogen balance in soil-crop system. Five treatments were established: control (CK), bare urea (BU), controlled-release urea (CRU), 50% BU + 50% CRU (MBC), and 50% BU + 50% CRU + biochar (MBCB) treatments. The results showed that, compared with the BU treatment, the yield, N-use efficiency (NUE) and N agronomic efficiency (NAE) of the CRU treatment increased by 12.2%, 33.9% and 4.3 kg kg-1, respectively; while the soil residual N and N surplus at harvest decreased by 11.6% and 10.7%, respectively. Compared with the MBC treatment, the yield, NUE and NAE of the MBCB treatment increased by 10.2%, 16.5% and 4.0 kg kg-1, respectively; while the soil residual N and N surplus at harvest decreased by 10.8% and 12.3%, respectively. Therefore, mixed application of bare urea, controlled-release urea and biochar was effective for obtaining high rice yield, and high fertilization efficiency as well as for sustainable agricultural development in Northeast China.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/farmacología , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Oryza/efectos de los fármacos , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oryza/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , China , Fertilizantes , Suelo , Urea/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230925, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271811

RESUMEN

Organic Amendments (OAs) has been used in agroecosystems to promote plant growth and control diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. However, the role of OAs chemistry and decomposition time on plant growth promotion and disease suppression is still poorly explored. In this work, we studied the effect of 14 OAs at four decomposition ages (3, 30, 100, and 300 days) on the plant-pathogen system Lactuca sativa-Rhizoctonia solani. OAs chemistry was characterized via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy as well as for standard chemical (i.e. N content, pH, EC) and biological parameters (i.e. phytotoxicity and R. solani proliferation bioassay). OAs have shown variable effects, ranging from inhibition to stimulation of Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum growth. We recorded that N rich OAs with high decomposability were conducive in the short-term, while converting suppressive in the long term (300 days). On the other hand, cellulose-rich OAs with high C/N ratio impaired L. sativa growth but were more consistent in providing protection from damping-off, although this property has significantly shifted during decomposition time. These results, for the first time, highlight a consistent trade-off between plant growth promotion and disease control capability of OAs. Finally, we found that OAs effects on growth promotion and disease protection can be hardly predictable based on the chemical characteristic, although N content and some 13C CPMAS NMR regions (alkyl C, methoxyl C, and carbonyl C) showed some significant correlations. Therefore, further investigations are needed to identify the mechanism(s) behind the observed suppressive and conducive effects and to identify OAs types and application timing that optimize plant productivity and disease suppression in different agro-ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/fisiología , Lepidium sativum/microbiología , Lechuga/microbiología , Agricultura Orgánica/métodos , Rhizoctonia/patogenicidad , Biodegradación Ambiental , Carbono/análisis , Carbono/metabolismo , Carbón Orgánico/química , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Compostaje , Lepidium sativum/efectos de los fármacos , Lepidium sativum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Lechuga/crecimiento & desarrollo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Rhizoctonia/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110537, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272346

RESUMEN

The objective of the study was to explore the influences of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), phosphorus (P) fertiliser, biochar application (BC) and their interactions on Medicago sativa growth, nutrient, Cd content and AM fungi-plant symbioses. Applications of both P fertiliser and BC significantly increased total biomass and P and potassium (K) uptake, regardless of AM. When no P fertiliser or BC was used, the shoot biomass and nitrogen (N), P, and K contents in the +AM treatments were 1.39, 1.54, 4.53 and 2.06 times higher than those in the -AM treatments, respectively. AM fungi only elevated the total P uptake by 44.03% when P fertiliser was applied at a rate of 30 mg P kg-1 in the absence of BC addition. With BC application or high-P fertiliser input (100 mg P kg-1), the soil available P was significantly higher than that in the other treatments, and AM fungi significantly reduced the shoot biomass. The minimum Cd concentration occurred in the shoots of alfalfas treated with BC and high-P fertiliser inputs; this concentration was lower than the maximum permitted concentration in China. Although the BC and high-P inputs could eliminate the positive mycorrhizal response, the results suggested that BC application in combination with high-P fertiliser input could not only increase forage yields but also lower Cd concentrations to meet the forage safety standards by the dilution effect.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/metabolismo , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Medicago sativa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Micorrizas/fisiología , Fósforo/farmacología , Biomasa , Carbón Orgánico/análisis , Fertilizantes/análisis , Medicago sativa/efectos de los fármacos , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/microbiología , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fósforo/análisis , Fósforo/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Simbiosis/efectos de los fármacos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230615, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251430

RESUMEN

Availability of good quality irrigation water is a big challenge in arid and semi arid regions of the world. Drought stress results in poor plant growth and low yield; however, the rhizobacteria, capable of producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase are likely to improve crop growth and productivity under drought stress. Similarly, biochar could also ameliorate the negative impacts of drought stress. Therefore, this pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of ACC-deaminase producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) alone and in combinations with timber-waste biochar in improving maize growth under drought stress. The ACC-deaminase producing rhizobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Leclercia adecarboxylata were studied along with two rates (0.75 and 1.50% of the soil weight) of biochar under three moisture levels i.e., normal moisture, mild drought stress and severe drought stress. The E. cloacae in conjunction with higher rate of biochar produced a significant improvement i.e., up to 60, 73, 43, 69, 76 and 42% respectively, in grain yield plant-1, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of maize as compared to the control under mild drought stress. Similarly, A. xylosoxidans with higher rate of biochar also enhanced grain yield plant-1, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of maize up to 200, 213, 113, 152, 148 and 284%, respectively over control under severe drought stress. In conclusion, combination of ACC-deaminase containing PGPR, A. xylosoxidans and biochar (0.75%) proved an effective technique to improve maize growth and productivity under drought stress.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/enzimología , Liasas de Carbono-Carbono/biosíntesis , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Sequías , Rizosfera , Zea mays/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/microbiología , Bacterias/metabolismo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Prolina/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Zea mays/crecimiento & desarrollo , Zea mays/fisiología
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(1): 267-272, 2020 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209261

RESUMEN

Charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (CS-FBS) is frequently used in studies on hormone-responsive cancers to provide hormone-free cell culture conditions. CS-FBS may influence the growth of cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of CS-FBS on distinct subtypes of breast cancer cells. We found that the crucial oncoprotein c-Myc was significantly inhibited in estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α)-positive breast cancer cells when cultured in CS-FBS-supplemented medium, but it was not suppressed in ER-α-negative cells. The addition of 17ß-estradiol (E2) to CS-FBS-supplemented medium rescued the CS-FBS-induced inhibition of c-Myc, while treatment with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) suppressed c-Myc expression. Our data demonstrated that CS-FBS may impede the growth of ER-α-positive breast cancer cells via c-Myc inhibition, and this was possibly due to the removal of estrogen. These results highlighted that the core drivers of c-Myc expression were subtype-specific depending on the distinct cell context and special caution should be exercised when using CS-FBS in studies of hormone-responsive cancer cells.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-myc/metabolismo , Suero/química , Animales , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Bovinos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Dihidrotestosterona/farmacología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacología , Receptor alfa de Estrógeno/metabolismo , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Transcripción Genética/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 642-648, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221624

RESUMEN

The effects of sepiolite and biochar on the enzymatic activities of the soil in Cd- and atrazine-contaminated soils were studied. During the growth of pakchoi, the activities of acid phosphatase, sucrase, acid protease, and cellulase decreased, catalase activity increased, and urease activity decreased first and then increased. At the first harvest, compared with that for the control group, the soil pH after treatment with remediation materials increased from 5.41 to 7.43; the activities of urease, acid protease, and catalase increased by 62.8%, 38.6%, and 86.1%, respectively. And the activities of sucrase and acid phosphatase decreased by 17.3% and 24.7%, respectively. At the second harvest, the activities of acid phosphatase, acid protease, and cellulase continued to increase, but those of sucrase and catalase decreased. The results showed that soil enzyme activity was closely related to the type and addition of remediation materials, as well as the type of the enzyme.


Asunto(s)
Atrazina/análisis , Cadmio/análisis , Catalasa/análisis , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Silicatos de Magnesio/farmacología , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Ureasa/análisis , Brassica rapa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Carbón Orgánico/química , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Silicatos de Magnesio/química , Suelo/química
12.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126432, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169709

RESUMEN

Environmental applications and potential risks of iron-based materials have attracted increasing attention. However, most previous studies focused on a single material. Comparative research using different iron-based materials under the same experimental conditions is still lacking. Here, six iron-based materials, including micro-sized and nanoscale Fe3O4 (i.e., mFe3O4 and nFe3O4), bulk and bare nanoscale zero-valent iron (i.e., mZVI and B-nZVI), starch-supported nZVI (S-nZVI), and activated carbon-supported nZVI (A-nZVI), were studied to compare their phytotoxicity in mung bean grown in suspensions with doses of 0, 300, 600 and 1000 mg/L. Taking the four toxicology parameters (seed germination rate, germination index, seedling elongation and biomass) together, the iron-based materials except mFe3O4 generally produced no significant phytotoxicity to mung bean even at 1000 mg/L. nFe3O4 and B-nZVI showed no higher phytotoxicity than their micro-sized counterparts (mFe3O4 and mZVI). All the materials resulted in increased Fe concentrations in seedlings particularly in roots, and mZVI and B-nZVI produced more significant effects. However, the Fe in the roots was difficultly translocated to the shoots. Compared to B-nZVI, nFe3O4 had lower bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential. XRD results confirmed that most Fe3O4 and B-nZVI remained unchanged during seedling growth, while support materials accelerated the corrosion and transformation of S-nZVI and A-nZVI. In conclusion, the tested nanoscale iron-based materials generally possess no obvious phytotoxicity within the dose range, but cause excess Fe accumulation in seedlings. Introduction of support materials may reduce such risk, allowing safer applications of these iron-based materials.


Asunto(s)
Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Hierro/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Vigna/fisiología , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Semillas
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070049

RESUMEN

Indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) are two protein bound uraemic toxins accumulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study isto evaluate the effect of the new activated charcoal, CharXgen, on renal function protection and lowering serum uraemic toxins in CKD animal model. The physical character of CharXgen was analyzed before and after activation procedure by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The effect of CharXgen on biochemistry and lowering uremic toxins was evaluated by in vitro binding assay and CKD animal model. CharXgen have high interior surface area analyzed by SEM and XRD and have been produced from local bamboo after an activation process. CharXgen was able to effectively absorb IS, p-cresol and phosphate in an in vitro gastrointestinal tract simulation study. The animal study showed that CharXgen did not cause intestine blackening. Serum albuminand liver function did not change after feeding with CharXgen. Moreover, renal function was improved in CKD rats fed with CharXgen as compared to the CKD group, and there were no significant differences in the CKD and the CKD + AST-120 groups. Serum IS and PCS were higher in the CKD group and lower in rats treated with CharXgen and AST-120. In rats treated with CharXgen, Fibroblast growth factor 23 was significantly decreased as compared to the CKD group. This change cannot be found in rats fed with AST-120.It indicates that CharXgen is a new safe and non-toxic activated charcoal having potential in attenuating renal function deterioration and lowering protein-bound uraemic toxins. Whether the introduction of this new charcoal could further have renal protection in CKD patients will need to be investigated further.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Sasa/química , Toxinas Biológicas/sangre , Uremia/tratamiento farmacológico , Alginatos/química , Alginatos/farmacología , Animales , Carbono/farmacología , Línea Celular , Cresoles/farmacología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Indicán/farmacología , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Microesferas , Óxidos/farmacología , Ratas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/sangre , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/patología , Ésteres del Ácido Sulfúrico/farmacología , Uremia/sangre , Uremia/complicaciones , Uremia/patología
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228717, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027704

RESUMEN

Conservation farming (CF), involving basin tillage, residue retention and crop rotation, combined with biochar may help to mitigate negative impacts of conventional agriculture. In this study, the effects of CF on the amount and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) and potential nitrogen (N) mineralization were investigated in a maize-soya-maize rotation in an Acrisol in Zambia. A large field was run under CF for 7 years and in the subsequent three growing seasons (2015-2018), four management practices were introduced to study effects on soil characteristics and crop yield. We tested i) a continuation of regular CF (CF-NORM) ii) CF without residue retention (CF-NO-RES); iii) Conventional (CONV), with full tillage and removal of residues; and iv) CF with 4 ton ha-1 pigeon pea biochar inside basins and residue retention (CF-BC). The experiment involved the addition of fertilizer only to maize, while soya received none. Soya yield was significantly higher in CF systems than in CONV. Maize yields were not affected by the different management practices probably due to the ample fertilizer addition. CF-NORM had a higher stock of soil organic carbon (SOC), higher N mineralization rates, more hot-water extractable carbon (HWEC; labile SOC) and particulate organic matter (POM) inside basins compared to the surrounding soil (outside basins). Our results suggest that the input of roots inside basins are more effective increasing SOM and N mineralization, than the crop residues that are placed outside basins. CONV reduced both quality and quantity of SOM and N mineralization as compared to CF inside basins. CF-BC increased the amount of SOC as compared with CF-NORM, whereas N mineralization rate and HWEC remained unaffected. The results suggest benefits on yield of CF and none of biochar; larger impact of root biomass on the build-up of SOM than crop residues; and high stability of biochar in soil.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/análisis , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Minerales/química , Nitrógeno/química , Suelo/química , Biomasa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Productos Agrícolas/efectos de los fármacos , Humedad
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110244, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004946

RESUMEN

The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of hydrothermally treated coal gangue (HTCG) with and without biochar (BC) on the leaching, bioavailability, and redistribution of chemical fractions of heavy metals (HMs) in copper mine tailing (Cu-MT). An increase in pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) were observed due to the addition of BC in combination with raw coal gangue (RCG) and HTCG. A high Cu and other HMs concentration in pore water (PW) and amended Cu-MT were reduced by the combination of BC with RCG and/or HTCG, whereas individual application of RCG slightly increased the Cu, Cd, and Zn leaching and bioavailability, compared to the unamended Cu-MT. Sequential extractions results showed a reduction in the exchangeable fraction of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn and elevation in the residual fraction following the addition of BC-2% and BC-HTCG. However, individual application of RCG slightly increased the Cu, Cd, and Zn exchangeable fractions assessed by chemical extraction method. Rapeseed was grown for the following 45 days during which physiological parameters, metal uptake transfer rate (TR), bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (TF) were measured after harvesting. In the case of plant biomass, no significant difference between applied amendments was observed for the fresh biomass (FBM) and dry biomass (DBM) of shoots and roots of rapeseed. However, BC-2% and BC-HTCG presented the lowest HMs uptake, TR, BCF (BCFroot and BCFshoot), and TF for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in rapeseed among the other amendments compared to the unamended Cu-MT. Overall, these findings are indicative that using biochar in combination with RCG and/or HTCG led to a larger reduction in HMs leaching and bioavailability, due to their higher sorption capacity and could be a suitable remediation strategy for heavy metals in a Cu-MT.


Asunto(s)
Brassica napus/efectos de los fármacos , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Minería , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Adsorción , Disponibilidad Biológica , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Carbón Orgánico/química , Cobre/análisis , Cobre/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110243, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001421

RESUMEN

The use of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) such as 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) has been suggested to diminish agricultural soil nitrate (NO3-) loss and increase nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE). However, the yield of ammonium (NH4+)-sensitive plants such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) may be adversely affected by the application of NIs at high N levels and, on the other hand, the efficiency of the NIs may also be affected by soil amendments such as biochar. These two issues are still not adequately addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different N levels including DMPP or not in a calcareous soil with and without amendment of wheat straw biochar on spinach yield, NUE, nitrate concentration of spinach leaf, activity of enzymes nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), and soil ammonium (NH4+) and NO3- concentration under greenhouse conditions. This experiment was carried out with different N rates factor at seven levels (un-fertilized, N0; fertilized with 50 mg N kg-1 soil, N50; fertilized with 75 mg N kg-1 soil, N75; fertilized with 100 mg N kg-1 soil, N100; fertilized with N50 + DMPP; fertilized with N75 + DMPP; and fertilized with N100 + DMPP) and biochar (BC) factor at two levels (0, 0%BC; and 2% (w/w), 2%BC) with six replications over a 56-day cultivation period of spinach. Results showed that the application of DMPP had no significant effect on the yield of spinach plant at low and medium levels of N (50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil), but decreased the yield of this plant at the higher level of N (100 mg N kg-1 soil). However, application of BC decreased the negative effect of DMPP on spinach yield as the yield in spinach plants fertilized with N75 + DMPP and N100 + DMPP significantly increased. Both application of DMPP and addition of BC to soil decreased leaf NO3- concentration by 29.2% and 16.3% compared to control, respectively. Biochar compared to control decreased NR activity by 46.3%. With increasing N rate, NR and NiR activities increased, but DMPP decreased the activities of both enzymes. Biochar reduced the efficiency of DMPP as soil NH4+ concentration was higher in the treatments containing DMPP without BC at 56 days after planting. Biochar and DMPP could increase the quality of spinach plant through decreasing the leaf NO3- concentration. In general, wheat straw biochar counteracted DMPP-mediated negative effect on growth of spinach plant at high level of N by decreasing the efficiency of this inhibitor. These results provide the useful information for managing the application rate of N fertilizers including DMPP in biochar-amended soil.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Fertilizantes/análisis , Nitrificación , Pirazoles/farmacología , Spinacia oleracea/efectos de los fármacos , Spinacia oleracea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biomasa , Carbón Orgánico/química , Nitrato-Reductasa/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrito Reductasas/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Spinacia oleracea/enzimología
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110218, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962215

RESUMEN

Heavy metals contamination of soil especially with cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental concern in the current industrial era. Biochar serves as an excellent ameliorating agent depending upon its properties and application rates. In the pot scale study, effect of acid treated (AWSB) and untreated wheat straw biochar (WSB) was studied on physiology, grain yield, Cd accumulation, and tolerance of quinoa with possible health risks. Different levels of Cd (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg kg-1), AWSB and WSB (1% and 2% (w/w)) were applied in soil. Accumulation of Cd in control plant tissues led to oxidative stress which was shown in terms of increased lipid peroxidation. While biochar application relieved the oxidative damage as confirmed by the low production of H2O2 and TBARS contents. Application of AWSB improved plant growth, pigment contents and gas exchange attributes by limiting the accumulation of Cd in root, shoot and grain of quinoa. Results revealed a significant improvement in the activity of superoxide (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) with biochar at elevated levels of Cd in soil. Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) remained < 1 in the quinoa grains with WSB and AWSB under Cd stress. These results revealed that AWSB most effectively alleviated Cd toxicity in quinoa thereby decreasing Cd accumulation and regulation of Cd induced oxidative stress triggered by the antioxidant enzymatic system.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos/química , Cadmio/metabolismo , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Chenopodium quinoa/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cadmio/análisis , Carbón Orgánico/química , Chenopodium quinoa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/efectos de los fármacos , Grano Comestible/crecimiento & desarrollo , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Triticum/química
18.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 113887, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982801

RESUMEN

In the present study, biochars (BCs) derived from naturally grown green waste (Cynodon dactylon L.) were investigated regarding their impacts on bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), agronomic properties and human health risks of wheat crop cultivated on long-term industrially contaminated soil. Typically, three types of BCs were pyrolyzed at different highest temperature of treatment (HTT), i.e. 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C, in a horizontal reactor and applied to the contaminated soil with 2% and 5% (w/w) ratio. The characterization results of the BCs showed that significant positive changes in fundamental characteristics such as porosity, surface area, cation exchange capacity, dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus and potassium have occurred with increased HTT. The analytical results of wheat crop indicated that the BCs applications significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced concentration of PTEs in roots (48-95%), shoots (38-91%), leaves (30-91%) and grains (38-93%) of wheat plants. After the BCs application, the agronomic properties were enhanced up to 6-18%, 18-38%, 17-46%, 13-45%, 15-42%, 22-55% and 34-57% for germination rate, shoot length, shoot biomass, spike length, spike biomass, grain biomass and root biomass respectively. The human health risks of PTEs were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased (31-93%) from toxicity level to safe level (except for Mn and Cu), after the BCs application. Based on the current study, the BCs (especially 800BC5) were recommended for reducing bioaccumulation of PTEs in different parts of the wheat plant, increasing growth and yield of wheat crop and decreasing human health risks via consumption of wheat grains.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico , Contaminantes del Suelo , Triticum , Bioacumulación , Biomasa , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125608, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884231

RESUMEN

Edible mushroom cultivation is an important industry in intensively managed forest understories. However, proper disposal of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) presents a challenge to its sustainable development. Biochar derived from SMS could be used to improve soil quality while providing a solution for SMS disposal. But SMS biochar pyrolyzed at different temperatures may alter carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions associated with global warming, especially under the context of nitrogen (N) addition and warming. We conducted a factorial incubation study to examine greenhouse gas emissions and N transformations in moso bamboo forest soil amended with SMS-biochar (control vs. pyrolyzed at 300, 450 or 600 °C) in different N-addition (0 or 100 mg N kg-1 soil) and temperature (20, 25 or 30 °C) treatments. Pyrolysis temperature affected pH, C and N of SMS-biochars. N-transformations depended on the interaction of pyrolysis temperature, N-addition, and incubation temperature but were generally lower with 450 °C biochar addition. Soil N2O emissions increased with N-addition and they were more sensitive to incubation temperatures without biochar. Soil CO2 emissions increased with incubation temperature or biochar pyrolyzed at lower temperatures. Pyrolysis temperature might have regulated the effects of SMS-derived biochar on N2O emissions via changes in dissolved C, N, pH and associated changes in soil microbial community compositions. Because of the importance of sustainable development of this understory industry, amending soils with biochar produced at higher temperatures may be the best strategy for both the disposal of SMS and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales , Carbón Orgánico/química , Pirólisis , Suelo/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Bosques , Gases de Efecto Invernadero/química , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Temperatura
20.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(2): 305-311, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820283

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate an improvement of barley germination by application of biochar leacheate in the steeping solution for upgrading malt quality. RESULTS: Barley germination was improved when biochar leacheate was used in the steeping water during the first steeping cycle. A clear decrease in the time to reach 50% of final germination percentage was detected due to an addition of biochar leacheate, but no significant difference was observed in the percent germination at the end of germination. Hydrolase activities including α-amylase, proteinase and ß-glucanase in barley grains were maximally increased during the malting process when 10% biochar leacheate was added to the first steeping water. The wort yielding indexes including both glucose and maltose content and the free amino nitrogen content were significantly increased but the ß-glucan content was significantly decreased at a level of p < 0.05 when 10% biochar leacheate was added to the steeping water. CONCLUSIONS: Biochar leacheate could be used as a stimulator in the steeping solution during the first steeping cycle to improve barley germination and so upgrade malt quality.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/farmacología , Hordeum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Glicósido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Hordeum/efectos de los fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo , Regulación hacia Arriba , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo
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