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1.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 79(4): 296-301, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945398

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dentists are often exposed to occupational health hazards such as stress, high workload, and ergonomic and mental strain. However, there are limited studies focussing on occupational health and factors associated with working conditions. The aim of this study was to identify possible gender differences and factors associated with a high workload. METHOD: The study population comprised of 187 dentists (123 women and 64 men) who had been working between 5 and 12 years. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding perceived workload and different working conditions. In the logistic regression analyses, gender and employment (employee or employer/manger), influence over work, social support, ergonomics, and working hours were used as independent covariates. RESULTS: Poor satisfaction with ergonomic conditions and low influence on the work situation were reported by 40 and 47% of the participants, respectively. Female dentists were more often employees, reported lower influence over work situation, and more often worked part-time compared to male dentists. Those who reported a high workload significantly more often experienced that they had low influence over work, low levels of social support, and were not satisfied with ergonomic working conditions. CONCLUSION: Dentists with low influence over work, low levels of social support, and who were unsatisfied with the ergonomic conditions reported higher levels of workload. The dentists experienced a similar workload, regardless of employment and gender. Preventive actions at the workplace in order to maintain a moderate workload promote both individual and organizational measures, to minimize the risk of poor occupational health.


Asunto(s)
Odontólogos , Carga de Trabajo , Causalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(5): 1046-1054, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Failures in situation awareness cause two-thirds of anaesthesia complications. Avatar-based patient monitoring may promote situation awareness in critical situations. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomised, high-fidelity simulation study powered for non-inferiority. We used video analysis to grade anaesthesia teams managing three 10 min emergency scenarios using three randomly assigned monitoring modalities: only conventional, only avatar, and split-screen showing both modalities side by side. The primary outcome was time to performance of critical tasks. Secondary outcomes were time to verbalisation of vital sign deviations and the correct cause of the emergency, perceived workload, and usability. We used mixed Cox and linear regression models adjusted for various potential confounders. The non-inferiority margin was 10%, or hazard ratio (HR) 0.9. RESULTS: We analysed 52 teams performing 154 simulations. For performance of critical tasks during a scenario, split-screen was non-inferior to conventional (HR=1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.33; not significant in test for superiority); the result for avatar was inconclusive (HR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.83-1.15). Avatar was associated with a higher probability for verbalisation of the cause of the emergency (HR=1.78; 95% CI, 1.13-2.81; P=0.012). We found no evidence for a monitor effect on perceived workload. Perceived usability was lower for avatar (coefficient=-23.0; 95% CI, -27.2 to -18.8; P<0.0001) and split-screen (-6.7; 95% CI, -10.9 to -2.4; P=0.002) compared with conventional. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed non-inferiority of split-screen compared with conventional monitoring for performance of critical tasks during anaesthesia crisis situations. The patient avatar improved verbalisation of the correct cause of the emergency. These results should be interpreted considering participants' minimal avatar but extensive conventional monitoring experience.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia/métodos , Enseñanza Mediante Simulación de Alta Fidelidad/métodos , Monitoreo Intraoperatorio/métodos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Anestesia/efectos adversos , Concienciación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Carga de Trabajo
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810613

RESUMEN

The capability of monitoring user's performance represents a crucial aspect to improve safety and efficiency of several human-related activities. Human errors are indeed among the major causes of work-related accidents. Assessing human factors (HFs) could prevent these accidents through specific neurophysiological signals' evaluation but laboratory sensors require highly-specialized operators and imply a certain grade of invasiveness which could negatively interfere with the worker's activity. On the contrary, consumer wearables are characterized by their ease of use and their comfortability, other than being cheaper compared to laboratory technologies. Therefore, wearable sensors could represent an ideal substitute for laboratory technologies for a real-time assessment of human performances in ecological settings. The present study aimed at assessing the reliability and capability of consumer wearable devices (i.e., Empatica E4 and Muse 2) in discriminating specific mental states compared to laboratory equipment. The electrooculographic (EOG), electrodermal activity (EDA) and photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals were acquired from a group of 17 volunteers who took part to the experimental protocol in which different working scenarios were simulated to induce different levels of mental workload, stress, and emotional state. The results demonstrated that the parameters computed by the consumer wearable and laboratory sensors were positively and significantly correlated and exhibited the same evidences in terms of mental states discrimination.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Carga de Trabajo
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802044

RESUMEN

Air traffic controllers aim to optimize airport capacity, that is to increase the number of aircraft movements per hour maintaining a limited delay. There are several definitions of capacity, which depend on the considered airport element. This study focused on the development of a method that allows evaluating the impact of tower air traffic controllers' workload on airport capacity. It adapts a model for the workload of sector controllers designed by Eurocontrol to tower controllers and tests it on a heavily busy international airport. In order to collect controllers' working times, a campaign of data collection has been carried out from the radio frequency occupation. The results allowed us to extrapolate the hourly percentage of work of the various tower controllers using a fast-time simulation software. By imposing an hourly working threshold on tower air traffic controllers, it was possible to obtain a maximum number of manageable aircraft, which was compared with the airside capacity of the airport. The results show that the maximum traffic manageable from the airside would produce unacceptable workload for tower controllers, highlighting the link between airport capacity and the human component.


Asunto(s)
Aeropuertos , Carga de Trabajo , Aeronaves , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Ocupaciones
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803507

RESUMEN

The battle against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are still raging in South Africa (SA) despite all the preventive strategies implemented via the five-year strategic plan (2011-2015). The intensity of the AIDS pandemic in SA creates additional challenges for the health workers as they have to deal with an increasing number of people who suffer from this disease. Professional nurses are a critical part of the workforce. The qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual study design was conducted in five public hospitals from each district of Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe experiences regarding support received by professional nurses while providing care to HIV and AIDS patients in the public hospitals of Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was employed to select the participants who provided care to HIV and AIDS patients for 24 months or more. The recruitment of participants continued until data saturation was reached at participant number 20. Data were collected through face-to-face individual interviews using a semi-structured guide. Data were analyzed using Tech's qualitative data analysis method. Trustworthiness was measured through credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability. Findings: Emotional and physical strain due to a shortage of staff, heavy workload, staff turnover, and high absenteeism were experienced by the nurses fulfilling these tasks. Exhaustion, fatigue, increased levels of stress, and lack of training, counselling, debriefing sessions, recognitions, and reward systems were also experienced. Recommendations: A program for support of all professional nurses providing care to HIV and AIDS patients should be conceptualized and implemented.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Carga de Trabajo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803780

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Data mining has turned essential when exploring a large amount of information in performance analysis in sports. This study aimed to select the most relevant variables influencing the external and internal load in top-elite 5-a-side soccer (Sa5) using a data mining model considering some contextual indicators as match result, body mass index (BMI), scoring rate and age. (2) Methods: A total of 50 top-elite visually impaired soccer players (age 30.86 ± 11.2 years, weight 77.64 ± 9.78 kg, height 178.48 ± 7.9 cm) were monitored using magnetic, angular and rate gyroscope (MARG) sensors during an international Sa5 congested fixture tournament.; (3) Results: Fifteen external and internal load variables were extracted from a total of 49 time-related and peak variables derived from the MARG sensors using a principal component analysis as the most used data mining technique. The principal component analysis (PCA) model explained 80% of total variance using seven principal components. In contrast, the first principal component of the match was defined by jumps, take off by 24.8% of the total variance. Blind players usually performed a higher number of accelerations per min when losing a match. Scoring players execute higher DistanceExplosive and Distance21-24 km/h. And the younger players presented higher HRAVG and AccMax. (4) Conclusions: The influence of some contextual variables on external and internal load during top elite Sa5 official matches should be addressed by coaches, athletes, and medical staff. The PCA seems to be a useful statistical technique to select those relevant variables representing the team's external and internal load. Besides, as a data reduction method, PCA allows administrating individualized training loads considering those relevant variables defining team load behavior.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Fútbol , Aceleración , Adulto , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Carga de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800275

RESUMEN

In soccer, the assessment of the load imposed by training and a match is recognized as a fundamental task at any competitive level. The objective of this study is to carry out a systematic review on internal and external load monitoring during training and/or a match, identifying the measures used. In addition, we wish to make recommendations that make it possible to standardize the classification and use of the different measures. The systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search was conducted through the electronic database Web of Science, using the keywords "soccer" and "football", each one with the terms "internal load", "external load", and "workload". Of the 1223 studies initially identified, 82 were thoroughly analyzed and are part of this systematic review. Of these, 25 articles only report internal load data, 20 report only external load data, and 37 studies report both internal and external load measures. There is a huge number of load measures, which requires that soccer coaches select and focus their attention on the most useful and specific measures. Standardizing the classification of the different measures is vital in the organization of this task, as well as when it is intended to compare the results obtained in different investigations.


Asunto(s)
Fútbol Americano , Fútbol , Manejo de Datos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Carga de Trabajo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806589

RESUMEN

Deaths caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for 60% of all deaths that occur in rural and remote areas. Disease management programs are increasingly used to improve the effectiveness of chronic care. Nurses are a key component of the health workforce and have an important role to play in CVD prevention, treatment, and the care of sick people in remote areas. Due to the nature of their work, nurses are prone to working hard, and to experience burnout, sleep, or eating disorders. This is often exacerbated by a shortage of staff and equipment. The objectives of the study were to explore and describe the experiences of professional nurses in managing CVDs in South African rural and peri-urban clinics. A qualitative, explorative-descriptive design and a contextual research approach were adopted for the present study. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit nurses who were managing patients with CVD from 11 primary health care facilities. Data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews and analyzed using Tesch's open coding method. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed for common themes. The following two major themes emerged from the data: perceived institutional challenges affecting the management of CVDs and nurses' perceptions of patient challenges that impede the effective management of CVD. The study concludes by highlighting that apart from a resource challenge, the shortage of nurses in rural clinics is the biggest reason behind overcrowding, waiting long hours for consultations, and an increase in the workload, resulting in medical errors and poor quality care. It is, therefore, recommended that, for improved care and management of CVD in rural populations, local governments need to employ more skilled nurses whilst availing the necessary material resources.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Población Rural , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Carga de Trabajo
9.
AANA J ; 89(2): 133-140, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832573

RESUMEN

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) are uniquely skilled anesthesia providers with substantial experience managing critically ill patients. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) pandemic, CRNAs at a large academic medical center in the Mid-Atlantic United States experienced a shift in their daily responsibilities. As the hospital transitioned to the management of patients who tested positive for the virus that causes COVID, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), CRNAs were redeployed into the roles of respiratory therapists and intensive care unit registered nurses. Although facing the stress of the global pandemic, this facility's CRNAs proved to be flexible, capable, and necessary members of the care team for patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/enfermería , Enfermeras Anestesistas/psicología , Rol de la Enfermera/psicología , Admisión y Programación de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Rol Profesional , Carga de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mid-Atlantic Region , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras Anestesistas/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213997, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797552

RESUMEN

Importance: In March 2020, US public buildings (including schools) were shut down because of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 42% of US workers resumed their employment duties from home. Some shutdowns remain in place, yet the extent of the needs of US working parents is largely unknown. Objective: To identify and address the career development, work culture, and childcare needs of faculty, staff, and trainees at an academic medical center during a pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this survey study, between August 5 and August 20, 2020, a Qualtrics survey was emailed to all faculty, staff, and trainees at University of Utah Health, an academic health care system that includes multiple hospitals, community clinics, and specialty centers. Participants included 27 700 University of Utah Health faculty, staff, and trainees who received a survey invitation. Data analysis was performed from August to November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included experiences of COVID-19 and their associations with career development, work culture, and childcare needs. Results: A total of 5030 participants completed the entire survey (mean [SD] age, 40 [12] years); 3738 (75%) were women; 4306 (86%) were White or European American; 561 (11%) were Latino or Latina (of any race), Black or African American, American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; and 301 (6%) were Asian or Asian American. Of the participants, 2545 (51%) reported having clinical responsibilities, 2412 (48%) had at least 1 child aged 18 years or younger, 3316 (66%) were staff, 791 (16%) were faculty, and 640 (13%) were trainees. Nearly one-half of parents reported that parenting (1148 participants [49%]) and managing virtual education for children (1171 participants [50%]) were stressors. Across all participants, 1061 (21%) considered leaving the workforce, and 1505 (30%) considered reducing hours. Four hundred forty-nine faculty (55%) and 397 trainees (60%) perceived decreased productivity, and 2334 participants (47%) were worried about COVID-19 impacting their career development, with 421 trainees (64%) being highly concerned. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of 5030 faculty, staff, and trainees of a US health system, many participants with caregiving responsibilities, particularly women, faculty, trainees, and (in a subset of cases) those from racial/ethnic groups that underrepresented in medicine, considered leaving the workforce or reducing hours and were worried about their career development related to the pandemic. It is imperative that medical centers support their employees and trainees during this challenging time.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral , Adulto , Selección de Profesión , Niño , Cuidado del Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Docentes Médicos , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Responsabilidad Parental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Utah , Carga de Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808537

RESUMEN

An observational cross-sectional survey was planned to analyze the weekly workload reduction of German dentists during lockdown due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were predominantly members of the Free Association of German Dentists and filled in an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a total of 9416 dentists, with a response rate of 27.98% (n = 2635). Respondents were divided into seven macro areas by gross domestic product. Nearly two-thirds of dentists (65.16%) reported a reduction in their practice workload of more than 50% compared to the pre-pandemic period with statistically significant differences between German macro areas (p < 0.01). Weekly workload was reduced during the lockdown in 93.00% of study participants, while 55.33% dental care centers with multiple employed dentists under the direction of a non-dentist general manager had only a 40% reduction in weekly workload compared to a solo practice or a practice of a dentist with an employed dentist (30.24% and 28.39%, respectively). Dentists in Germany drastically reduced their practice activity during the first wave of the COVID-19 lockdown, both in rural and urban areas. Short, medium, and long-term effects of the pandemic on dental practices, dental staff as well as patient care need to be further investigated.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Odontólogos , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo
12.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 602-609, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789471

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure the effect of hospital case volume on the survival of revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of Scottish Arthroplasty Project data, a nationwide audit which prospectively collects data on all arthroplasty procedures performed in Scotland. The primary outcome was RTKA survival at ten years. The primary explanatory variable was the effect of hospital case volume per year on RTKA survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the lifespan of RTKA. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate relative revision risks over time. Hazard ratios (HRs) were reported with 95% CI, and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: From 1998 to 2019, 8,301 patients (8,894 knees) underwent RTKA surgery in Scotland (median age at RTKA 70 years (interquartile range (IQR) 63 to 76); median follow-up 6.2 years (IQR 3.0 to 10.2). In all, 4,764 (53.6%) were female, and 781 (8.8%) were treated for infection. Of these 8,894 knees, 957 (10.8%) underwent a second revision procedure. Male sex, younger age at index revision, and positive infection status were associated with need for re-revision. The ten-year survival estimate for RTKA was 87.3% (95% CI 86.5 to 88.1). Adjusting for sex, age, surgeon volume, and indication for revision, high hospital case volume was significantly associated with lower risk of re-revision (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.94, p < 0.001)). The risk of re-revision steadily declined in centres performing > 20 cases per year; risk reduction was 16% with > 20 cases; 22% with > 30 cases; and 28% with > 40 cases. The lowest level of risk was associated with the highest volume centres. CONCLUSION: The majority of RTKA in Scotland survive up to ten years. Increasing yearly hospital case volume above 20 cases is independently associated with a significant risk reduction of re-revision. Development of high-volume tertiary centres may lead to an improvement in the overall survival of RTKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):602-609.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla , Falla de Prótesis , Reoperación/estadística & datos numéricos , Carga de Trabajo , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Prótesis de la Rodilla , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Escocia , Análisis de Supervivencia
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 114-121, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775076

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Given the specificity of the occupation of professional drivers, fatigue is a very serious problem. Tired drivers can pose a huge threat to themselves and to other users of public roads. The effects of fatigue can lead to loss of drivers' and other users' health or life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze some aspects of fatigue in Polish professional drivers (e.g. symptoms of fatigue reported by drivers, their frequency and number, critical hours, and fatigue management) in relation to such variables as the job seniority, the mode of transport, and the covered distance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 398 professional drivers. The method of research based on an anonymous electronic survey. RESULTS: The survey showed that 89% of the respondents declared that they suffered from fatigue at work. The most common symptoms of fatigue reported by the drivers included drowsiness (76% of the respondents), eye strain (67%), lack of concentration (45%), and lack of energy (44%). The mean number of fatigue symptoms indicated by drivers involved in different modes of transport and covering different distances did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis revealed that the everyday experience of fatigue reported by the surveyed drivers depends on job seniority. There is a significant difference in the occurrence of critical hours experienced by drivers covering different distances.


Asunto(s)
Fatiga/epidemiología , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidentes de Tránsito , Adulto , Fatiga/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Polonia/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668132

RESUMEN

Falls are extremely common in occupational settings. Intrinsic factors such as overexertion and extrinsic factors such as the supporting surface are causative factors of falls. The impact of prolonged exposure to a slippery surface on postural stability has not been previously studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effect of extended exposure to a dry and a slippery surface on postural stability. Eighteen males (age: 21.17 ± 3.38 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.08 m; mass: 89.81 ± 14.23 kg) were recruited and subjected to one-hour walking on a dry surface and a slippery surface on two different days. Participants' balance was assessed using a force platform in stable and unstable conditions at 0, 30, and 60 min. Postural sway variables were analyzed using a 2 (surface) × 3 (time) repeated-measures ANOVA. Significant time main effects were observed in the stable condition with greater balance decrements at 30 and 60 min. Greater balance decrements were observed on the slippery surface compared to the dry surface in the unstable condition. The balance decrements can be attributed to overexertion due to the physiological workload of prolonged walking and to the potential gait modifications due to walking on the slippery surface.


Asunto(s)
Equilibrio Postural , Caminata , Accidentes por Caídas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatiga , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Carga de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673223

RESUMEN

Nurses constitute a professional group exposed to a high risk of stress and occupational burnout. Fewer nurses are recruited every year and the ever higher age of those professionally active is alarming. This article presents the results of international comparative studies from 2018 and 2019 involving Polish and German nurses (747 people) dedicated to the perception of aspects of nurses' work in terms of the risk of excessive stress and burnout and possible preventive measures. Using a proprietary questionnaire, the authors evaluated differences in the perception of the nursing profession in Poland and Germany, as well as in terms of seniority or decision-making. Next, the relationship between the perception of work specificity and opinions about professional risks and possible preventive measures was evaluated. The analysis used the Mann-Whitney U test and correlation analysis of the questions. Using exploratory factor analysis, the number of dimensions describing the nursing profession was reduced from 16 to four related to (1) workload, (2) job satisfaction, (3) atmosphere in the organisation and (4) sense of control over one's own work. The results showed statistically significant differences in the perception of professional specificity and risks according to the analysed characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Adaptación Psicológica , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Alemania/epidemiología , Hospitales , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Ocupaciones , Percepción , Polonia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 37, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752603

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the change in health status of the general public after starting the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with changes in workload and lifestyle. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in November 2020, about 9 months after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, among 8000 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years. Participants asked for the changes after starting the COVID-19 pandemic in health status, workload, daily life, and health behavior. Ordinal logistic regression was performed to elucidate factors associated with deterioration in general health status. RESULTS: A deterioration in general health status was reported by 17.0% of male and 19.4% of female. There has been a clear shift to sedentary life with decreasing moderate activity and increasing screen time. The multivariate analysis revealed that deteriorated work style, increased burden of housework, decreased moderate activity, increased digital media exposure, and increased body weight were significantly associated with deteriorating health status. CONCLUSION: Both men and women have experienced significant changes in workload and lifestyle since the COVID-19 pandemic started. People should be aware of the risks associated with their recent life changes and take self-care measures to prevent serious health consequences.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Estilo de Vida , Carga de Trabajo , Adulto , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Vaccine ; 39(15): 2165-2176, 2021 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will be deployed to countries with limited immunization systems. METHODS: We assessed the effect of deploying SARS-Cov-2 vaccines on cold storage capacity and immunization workload in a simulated WHO African Region country using region-specific data on immunization, population, healthcare workers (HCWs), cold storage capacity (quartile values for national and subnational levels), and characteristics of an approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We calculated monthly increases in vaccine doses, doses per vaccinator, and cold storage volumes for four-month SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns targeting risk groups compared to routine immunization baselines. RESULTS: Administering SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to risk groups would increase total monthly doses by 27.0% for ≥ 65 years, 91.7% for chronic diseases patients, and 1.1% for HCWs. Assuming median nurse density estimates adjusted for absenteeism and proportion providing immunization services, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns would increase total monthly doses per vaccinator by 29.3% for ≥ 65 years, 99.6% for chronic diseases patients, and 1.2% for HCWs. When we applied quartiles of actual African Region country vaccine storage capacity, routine immunization vaccine volumes exceeded national-level storage capacity for at least 75% of countries, but subnational levels had sufficient storage capacity for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for at least 75% of countries. CONCLUSIONS: In the WHO African Region, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns would substantially increase doses per vaccinator and cold storage capacity requirements over routine immunization baselines. Pandemic vaccination campaigns would increase storage requirements of national-level stores already at their limits, but sufficient capacity exists at subnational levels. Immediate attention to strengthening immunization systems is essential to support pandemic responses.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Refrigeración , Carga de Trabajo , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunación , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
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