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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 21, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579186

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, dental caries may be a major public health issue which may be preventable. Many studies have been conducted on dental caries in Ethiopia which present inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was expected to consolidate the findings conducted in various regions of the country and generate country representative information on the burden and its associated factors of dental caries in Ethiopia. METHODS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the pooled prevalence of dental caries and its associated factors in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Medical specialty databases like ScienceDirect, HINARI, Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were consistently and exhaustively searched. To determine the aggregate prevalence, studies delineating the prevalence of dental caries and associated factors were included. Important data were extracted employing a standardized data extraction tool ready in Microsoft Excel and imported to the STATA version-13 statistical software package for analyses. To assess non-uniformity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were performed respectively. A random effects model meta-analysis was accustomed to estimate the pooled burden of dental caries. RESULTS: The result of thirteen studies disclosed that the overall prevalence of dental caries in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was found to be 40.98 (31.62, 50.34). Within the subgroup analysis, the uppermost prevalence was determined in Tigray region (46.59% (24.64, 68.54)) whereas the bottom prevalence was determined in Addis Ababa (34.20% (8.42, 59.97)). Dental caries prevalence was considerably high among study subjects who consumed sweet food (OR= 2.4 (95% CI (1.91, 3.01))). But the presence of dental plaque (OR = 5.14 (95% CI (0.67, 39.39))) and habit of tooth- cleaning (OR = 0.71 (95% CI (0.17, 2.96))) were not statistically significant with the outcome of interest. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis found that the prevalence of dental caries was comparatively high, and sweet food consumption was the most risk issue for dental caries in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health ought to offer a lot of attention to strengthen the oral health care system and also the implementation of community-level interference programs.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Caries Dental/etiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
2.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(12): 699-704, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367297

RESUMEN

One of the main disadvantages of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the formation of demineralisations around the brackets. These demineralisations develop because the brackets produce an increased number of plaque retention sites and a change in the oral environment, resulting in a different plaque composition. To prevent the formation of these demineralisations several methods are used during orthodontic treatment. Using additional fluoride is the best solution, for example, rinsing daily with a fluoride mouthwash, applying a fluoride varnish during every scheduled check-up, or using toothpaste with a high concentration of fluoride. The last 2 methods are less effectively incorporated in daily practice in the Netherlands due to financial or time factors. Additional measures, like using fluoride-releasing adhesives, CPP-ACP(F) or a chlorhexidine rinse appear to be less effective in reducing demineralisations. It is also important to provide specific oral hygiene and dietary instructions, based on an individual risk assessment.


Asunto(s)
Cariostáticos , Caries Dental , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Fluoruros , Humanos , Países Bajos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Fijos
3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(12): 705-711, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367298

RESUMEN

White spot lesions are early demineralisations and therefore constitute an impairment to healthy enamel. The emergence of white spot lesions is one of the main risks of damage during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. White spot lesions may partially recover, but will remain visible in most cases. The treatment for post-orthodontic white spot lesions is a step-by-step strategy. Treatment is aimed at remineralising the affected enamel, without hyper-mineralising the surface layer. Subsequently, treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is aimed at reducing their visibility. Such treatment options focus on minimally invasive treatment techniques, before choosing an invasive treatment. More randomised clinical trials are needed to substantiate the evidence-based treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions. Clinical practice guidelines are being developed for the care and treatment of orthodontic white spot lesions.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/terapia , Esmalte Dental , Humanos
4.
Biofouling ; 36(10): 1196-1209, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349045

RESUMEN

Biofilms were developed from human saliva on bovine enamel discs in four experimental conditions to investigate dental caries development: feast and famine (M1), abundance and scarcity (M2), three meals daily (M3), and three meals plus two snacks daily (M4). The main difference between these models was the diet for microbial growth. The evaluations included verifying the pH of the spent culture media and analyzing the enamel discs for demineralization (microhardness and roughness) and biofilms (biomass, viable populations of mutans streptococci, and total microbiota). Two major behaviors were observed: M1 and M2 promoted an acidic environment, while M3 and M4 maintained pH values closer to neutral. The demineralization process was slower in the neutral groups but more pronounced in M3, while a greater increase in microbiota and biomass was observed over time for both neutral groups. Thus, the M3 model was better at mimicking the oral environment that leads to demineralization.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Dieta Cariógena , Animales , Bovinos , Caries Dental/etiología , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Streptococcus mutans , Desmineralización Dental/etiología
5.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 808-814, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020368

RESUMEN

AIM: This literature review aims to update the evidence for prevention of white spot lesion (WSL) using orthodontic sealants among patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. BACKGROUND: As a major issue among orthodontists, prolonged treatment duration increases the risk of plaque development around orthodontic brackets and bands. In consequence, this can lead to heightened risk for caries development and higher possibility of WSL development around fixed orthodontic brackets. RESULTS: Increased prevalence of WSLs generally occurs during orthodontic treatment. This review explored various products of orthodontic sealants used to prevent WSL. Orthodontic sealants do not require patient compliance and thus will further lessen the burden among orthodontists as well as support enamel surface for a long period of time during treatment. Certain factors, however, are considered important in the efficacy of these sealants, such as antibacterial activity, color stability, resistance to acid and brush abrasion, and their effect on shear bond strength (SBS). CONCLUSION: The review showed that the use of orthodontic sealants in preventing WSLs during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However, the bioactive glass is deemed more effective against WSL development due to its ability to immediately repair enamel surface, low cytotoxicity, and high biocompatibility. Moreover, clinical studies on bioactive glass are still needed to determine its acceptability among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Development of WSL around the orthodontic brackets during treatment is a difficult task among orthodontists. As such, this review explored various strategies to effectively combat WSL development for good oral health and esthetics during orthodontic treatment.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Soportes Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Ortodoncia , Materiales Dentales , Estética Dental , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22508, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031289

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Vitamin D-dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I) is a rare form of rickets, which is an autosomal recessive disease caused by 1α-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. However, long-term dental management and microscopic morphology of teeth remain largely unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 10-year-old Chinese boy complaining of yellowish-brown teeth with extensive caries. DIAGNOSES: Clinical and laboratory examinations were performed, and VDDR-I was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed amelogenesis imperfecta. INTERVENTIONS: The patient had been taking drugs intervention for VDDR-I from the age of 3 years. The decayed teeth were treated, and metal-preformed crowns were placed to prevent further impairment. Sequence tooth extraction and remineralization therapy were also performed. OUTCOMES: After 3 years of follow-up, the patient exhibited normal tooth replacement and an acceptable oral hygiene status. However, the new erupted teeth had amelogenesis imperfecta. LESSONS: This case is the first to confirm amelogenesis imperfecta in a patient with VDDR-I that was not prevented by drug intervention. Importantly, it provides evidence that long-term dental intervention in patients with VDDR-I can result in an acceptable oral hygiene status. Therefore, early and long-term dental intervention is necessary in VDDR-I patients.


Asunto(s)
Amelogénesis Imperfecta/terapia , Caries Dental/terapia , Raquitismo Hipofosfatémico Familiar/complicaciones , Amelogénesis Imperfecta/etiología , Niño , Coronas , Caries Dental/etiología , Restauración Dental Permanente , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Extracción Seriada
8.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(10): 782-789, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors' aim was to examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the prevalence and severity of the caries experience in children and adults in the United States. METHODS: The authors analyzed data obtained from 14,192 people aged 2 through 74 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2011 through 2014. Using descriptive analyses, the authors assessed the distributions of sociodemographic characteristics overall and via SSB intake. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association of untreated and severe untreated caries with SSB consumption in all age groups. RESULTS: Across all ages, male participants were more likely than female participants to consume SSBs, and consumption was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic populations. Relative to those who did not consume SSBs, people aged 20 through 44 years who consumed SSBs had significantly higher odds of having untreated caries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.55) and severe untreated caries (AOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.60). Adolescents aged 9 through 19 years had significantly higher odds of having untreated caries (AOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.80), and middle-aged adults (45-64 years) had significantly higher odds of severe untreated caries (AOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.92) relative to those who did not consume SSBs. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of SSBs was associated with increased caries experience among young children and increased risk of developing untreated caries in all age groups of children and adults. Continued efforts by policy makers, public health leaders, and clinicians to reduce consumption of SSBs across the life span are paramount.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Encuestas Nutricionales , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Bebidas/efectos adversos , Bebidas/análisis , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/etiología , Sacarosa en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Bebidas Azucaradas , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 94-102, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592551

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Oral health can affect quality of life in all course of life, which is a key factor of general health. Dental caries, periodontitis and oral cancer are of the highest burden of oral diseases. Rising prevalence of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages consumption due to easy access and socio-demographic altering has increased the concerns on oral health. In this review our purpose was to show effects of the most consumed beverages on oral health in people older than 15 years. METHODS: The review was based on papers published in last 10 years, searched with combined key words related to types of drinks and specific oral health problems. We included 4 older studies due to lack of newer studies on subjected topics. RESULTS: Sugar-free soft drinks are found less cariogenic and erosive than regular versions in limited number of studies. Alcohol consumption is shown as one of the risk factors of prevalence and severity of periodontitis and is proven to have synergistic effects along with tobacco on oral cancer risk. Consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages was related with tooth loss whether dental caries or periodontal diseases. CONCLUSION: There is good evidence for association between soft drinks and oral health problems, but still no clear answer exists about strength of association between sugar-free soft drinks and dental caries. Also the knowledge about influence of alcohol is inadequate. Since consuming style affects erosive potential of drinks manufacturers should be required to add some recommendations on labels about drinking style.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Gaseosas/efectos adversos , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Sacarosa en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Salud Bucal , Bebidas , Caries Dental/etiología , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 164, 2020 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dental caries in primary teeth is a serious oral health concern among children. It can lead to detrimental impacts on a child's growth, development, and quality of life. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to examine the prevalence of dental caries and its associations with nutritional status, sugar and second-hand smoke exposure among pre-schoolers. METHODS: A total of 26 pre-schools in Seremban, Malaysia were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size sampling. Dental examination was performed by a dentist to record the number of decayed teeth (dt). Weight and height of the pre-schoolers were measured. The mother-administered questionnaire was used to gather information pertaining to the sociodemographic characteristics and second-hand smoke exposure. Total sugar exposure was calculated from a 3-day food record. RESULTS: Among the 396 participating pre-schoolers, 63.4% of them had at least one untreated caries, with a mean ± SD dt score of 3.56 ± 4.57. Negative binomial regression analysis revealed that being a boy (adjusted mean ratio = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.005-0.698, p = 0.047), exposed to second-hand smoke (adjusted mean ratio = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.168-0.857, p = 0.004) and those who had more than 6 times of daily total sugar exposure (adjusted mean ratio = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.138-0.857, p = 0.013) were significantly associated with dental caries among pre-schoolers. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of dental caries was reported in this study. This study highlights the need to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke and practice healthy eating behaviours in reducing the risk of dental caries among pre-schoolers.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Azúcares/efectos adversos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Índice CPO , Caries Dental/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida , Azúcares/administración & dosificación
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19595, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358344

RESUMEN

To evaluate the effect of chronic malnutrition on the oral health of children aged 1 to 5 years.An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted and involved 82 children (12-71 months of age). Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric indicators and oral health status/caries prevalence was measured. Non-stimulated saliva was collected and flow rate and buffering capacity was measured.The mean dmft index was 1.38 for the adequately nourished children, 3.04 for those with mild malnutrition, 2.5 for those with moderate malnutrition and 2.4 for those with severe malnutrition. 69 of the 82 children had low to very low buffering capacity. No significant differences among the groups were found between malnutrition and age, buffering capacity or the dmft index (P > .05). However, significant differences in salivary flow were found among the different malnutrition categories (P < .05). Spearman correlation coefficient revealed a weak negative correlation between nutrition and salivary flow (r = -0.267).Malnutrition exerts a negative impact on the oral cavity of children and a reduction in salivary flow rate was observed with the increase in malnutrition. Diagnosing the effects of malnutrition in oral environment of children is important because it could improve the quality of life and give them an adequate treatment.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/fisiopatología , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/complicaciones , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Caries Dental/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , Saliva/metabolismo
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 331, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223751

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between Free Sugars intake and non-communicable diseases such as obesity and dental caries is well documented and several countries are taking measures to reduce sugars intakes. Public Health England (PHE) instigated a range of approaches to reduce sugars, including a national health marketing campaign (Sugar Smart). The campaign aimed to raise awareness of the amount of sugars in foods and drinks and to encourage parents to reduce their children's intake. The aim of this study was to determine whether the campaign was effective in altering dietary behaviour, by assessing any impact of the campaign on sugars intake among children aged 5-11 years. Parental perceptions of the campaign and barriers to reducing sugars intake were also explored. METHODS: Parents of 873 children aged 5-11 years, identified from an existing PHE database, were invited to take part. Dietary information was collected online using Intake24 before, during, and at 1, 10 and 12 months following the campaign. Change in sugars intake was assessed using mixed effects linear regression models. One-to-one telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of parents to explore perceptions of the campaign and identify barriers and facilitators to reducing children's sugars intake. RESULTS: Completion rates for dietary assessment ranged from 61 to 72% across the follow up time points. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 20 parents. Total sugars intake decreased on average by ~ 6.2 g/day (SD 43.8) at peak campaign and the percentage of energy from total sugars significantly decreased immediately and 1 year post campaign. The percentage of energy from Free Sugars significantly decreased across all time points with the exception of the long term follow up at 12-months post campaign. The percentage of energy intake from total fat increased. Parents expressed a willingness to reduce sugars intakes, however, identified barriers including time constraints, the normalisation of sugary treats, and confusing information. CONCLUSIONS: A health marketing campaign had a positive impact in reducing sugars intake but reductions in sugars were not sustained. Parents want to reduce their child's sugars intake but societal barriers and confusion over which sources of sugars to avoid hamper efforts to change.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/psicología , Azúcares de la Dieta/análisis , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Padres/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/psicología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Azúcares de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Energía , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/psicología
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6819, 2020 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321955

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of self-assembling peptide P11-4 (SAP) in the therapy of initial smooth surface caries (white spot lesions, WSL) following orthodontic multibracket treatment. Twenty-three patients (13f/10m; average age 15.4 years) with at least two teeth with WSL were recruited for the randomised controlled clinical trial with split-mouth design. In opposite to the control teeth, the test teeth were treated with SAP on Day 0. The primary endpoint was the impedance measurement of WSL using customised tray to ensure reproducibility of the measurement location. The secondary endpoint was the morphometric measurement of WSL using a semi-automated approach to determine the WSL size in mm2. Treatment effects were adjusted for site-specific baseline values using mixed models adapted from the cross-over design. Test WSL showed a mean baseline impedance value of 46.7, which decreased to 21.1, 18.4, and 19.7 after 45, 90, and 180 days, respectively. Control WSL showed a mean baseline value of 42.0, which decreased to 35.0, 29.5, and 33.7, respectively. The overall treatment contrast was -13.7 (95% CI: -19.6 - -7.7; p < 0.001). For the secondary endpoint, the test WSL size decreased from 8.8 at baseline to 6.5 after 180 days. The control WSL decreased from 6.8 to 5.7, respectively. The related treatment contrast was -1.0 in favour of test WSL (95% CI: -1.6 - -0.5; p = 0.004). The treatment of initial carious lesions with self-assembling peptide P11-4 leads to superior remineralisation of the subsurface lesions compared with the control teeth.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/terapia , Oligopéptidos/uso terapéutico , Soportes Ortodóncicos/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Impedancia Eléctrica , Determinación de Punto Final , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Clin Ter ; 171(3): e275-e282, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323718

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in children with ASD, and to analyse the necessity of treatment and the prevalence of using general anaesthesia in order to perform it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was performed covering the last 10 years utilising the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, BASE, Science Citation Index, Science Direct, Web of Science. Four reviewers evaluated each study. Review findings were summarised using the PRISMA Statement for reporting. Thirteen articles were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: When analysing the articles selected, the evidence turned out did not show a common DFMT and dmft for the groups of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder considered. When compared to group of unaffected children, groups of ASD children not always showed a higher prevalence of caries but always higher Periodontal Indexes (PI and GI), resulting in higher prevalence of periodontal disease. Where the treatment was performed and taken into consideration, there was a high incidence of necessity of General Anaesthesia due to the lack of collaboration of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of treatment under general anaesthesia and the often-reported negative behaviour evidence how there is a lack of protocols specifically designed for these patients, in order to better improve their collaboration and subsequently their oral health and so additional strategies for a preventive care should be applied for these patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/complicaciones , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/terapia , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Prevalencia
15.
Caries Res ; 54(2): 176-184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294648

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluated the relationships of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries, individual characteristics, and environmental factors on self-reported oral health measures in adolescents. METHODS: A follow-up prevalence study was conducted involving 406 twelve-year-old adolescents selected from public schools in the eastern area of the city of Manaus, Brazil. Baseline data included clinical consequences of untreated caries (PUFA/pufa index), DMFT, sociodemographic characteristics (sex, parental schooling, and family income), psychosocial factors (sense of coherence [SOC-13 scale], oral health beliefs and self-esteem [Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale]), and social support (SSA questionnaire). Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL [CPQ11-14]) and self-rated oral health were assessed at the 6-month follow-up. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the relationships between variables according to the Wilson and Cleary model. RESULTS: The prevalence of PUFA/pufa was 17.8% and mean DMFT was 1.5. The number of teeth with clinical consequences of untreated caries predicted poor self-rated oral health at the 6-month follow-up. Low parental schooling predicted low family income and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. Psychosocial factors predicted OHRQoL directly and self-rated oral health indirectly. OHRQoL was linked to self-rated oral health. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries mediated the relationship of parental schooling with OHRQoL and self-rated oral health. OHRQoL mediated the relationship of psychosocial factors and sex with self-rated oral health. Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries was associated with adolescents' self-rated oral health. Furthermore, the former was an important mediator on the link between low parental education and adolescents' self-reported oral health measures. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, and social support were related to OHRQoL and self-rated oral health via direct and indirect pathways.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Salud Bucal , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/etiología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 76, 2020 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183817

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The tiered sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax was implemented in Thailand to encourage industries to reduce sugar content in beverages, and consequently reduce sugar consumption in the population. The aim of the study is to explore the expected impact of the new SSB tax policy in Thailand, a middle-income country in Asia, and other alternative policies on oral health outcomes as measured by the prevalence and severity of dental caries among the Thai population. METHODS: A qualitative system dynamics model that captures the complex interrelationships among SSB tax, sugar consumption and dental caries, was elicited through participatory stakeholder engagement. Based on the qualitative model, a quantitative system dynamics model was developed to simulate the SSB tax policy and other alternative scenarios in order to evaluate their impact on dental caries among Thai adults from 2010 to 2040. RESULTS: Under the base-case scenario, the dental caries prevalence among the Thai population 15 years and older, is projected to increase from 61.3% in 2010 to 74.9% by 2040. Implementation of SSB tax policy is expected to decrease the prevalence of dental caries by only 1% by 2040, whereas the aggressive policy is projected to decrease prevalence of dental caries by 21% by 2040. CONCLUSIONS: In countries where a majority of the sugar consumed is from non-tax sugary food and beverages, especially Asian countries where street food culture is ubiquitous and contributes disproportionately to sugar intake, SSB tax alone is unlikely to have meaningful impact on oral health unless it is accompanied with a comprehensive public health policy that aims to reduce total sugar intake from non-SSB sources.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/etiología , Bebidas Azucaradas/economía , Impuestos , Adulto , Caries Dental/economía , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Bebidas Azucaradas/efectos adversos , Tailandia/epidemiología
17.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2925-2941, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062738

RESUMEN

Fluoride is an essential trace element for humans, and its deficiency or excess in the environment could lead to disease. To investigate the spatial distribution and health risk assessment of fluoride (F-) in drinking water, 302 tap water samples from Chongqing urban areas, China, were collected to analyze F- using an ion chromatograph. The results showed that (1) F- concentration in drinking water ranged from 0.100 to 0.503 mg/L, with an average of 0.238 ± 0.045 mg/L. (2) The spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that high-low clusters were mostly located in Dadukou District and Beibei District, while low-low clusters were mainly in southern Banan District. (3) The fluoride average daily doses of children, teens and adults were 0.030, 0.029 and 0.031 mg/(kg day). (4) Hazard quotients of excessive fluoride (HQe) of children, teens and adults were 0.51 ± 09, 0.49 ± 0.09 and 0.52 ± 0.10, respectively (inferior to 1.00), whereas hazard quotients of inadequate fluoride (HQi) of those groups were 1.21 ± 0.26, 1.23 ± 0.26 and 1.15 ± 0.25, respectively (superior to 1.00). Therefore, average daily fluoride intake of residents with drinking water was inadequate. This could pose dental caries and osteoporosis threats for residents from Chongqing urban areas.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/análisis , Fluoruros/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , China , Ciudades , Caries Dental/etiología , Fluoruros/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Osteoporosis/etiología , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Medición de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Oligoelementos/administración & dosificación , Oligoelementos/análisis
18.
J Dent Res ; 99(4): 395-401, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091957

RESUMEN

Substance use is common in women of reproductive age, but limited data exist on the dental health of their children, including risk of caries. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 790,758 infants born between 2006 and 2016 in Quebec, Canada. We identified women with substance use disorders before or during pregnancy. The main outcome measure was hospitalization for dental caries in offspring up to 12 y after birth. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of maternal substance use with pediatric dental caries, adjusted for potential confounders. Children exposed to maternal substance use had a higher incidence of hospitalization for dental caries than unexposed children (105.2 vs. 27.0 per 10,000 person-years). Maternal substance use was associated with 1.96 times the risk of childhood dental caries (95% CI, 1.80-2.14), including a greater risk of caries of enamel, dentin, or cementum (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.82-2.19) and dental pulp (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 2.07-2.70), relative to no substance use. Associations were elevated for alcohol (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 2.03-2.64) but were also present for cocaine, cannabis, opioids, and other substances. Substance use during pregnancy was more strongly associated with dental caries hospitalization than prepregnancy substance use. Associations were stronger in early childhood. Maternal substance use is associated with the future risk of dental caries hospitalization in children. Targeting substance use early in the lives of women may contribute to dental caries prevention in offspring.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 821-828, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047898

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent reviews have proposed a causal relationship between prolonged breastfeeding and early childhood caries (ECC), but the evidence to date is inconsistent, with few cohort studies and limited investigation of key confounders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary practices and early childhood caries in a birth cohort of Australian preschoolers. METHODS: Participants underwent a standardized dental examination at 2-3 y of age to determine the prevalence of ECC (based on the presence of decayed, missing, or filled tooth surfaces). Breastfeeding practices were reported at 3, 6, 12, and 24 mo of age. Intakes of free sugars were assessed at 1 and 2 y of age. Multivariable regression models generated prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between ECC and breastfeeding duration, and between ECC and sleep feeding practices at 1 y, controlling for sociodemographic factors and free sugars intake. RESULTS: There was no independent association between breastfeeding beyond 1 y of age and ECC (PR 1.42, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.38), or between breastfeeding to sleep and ECC (PR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.88), although the direction of effect was suggestive of an association. The only factors independently associated with ECC were high free sugars intakes (PR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.13, 3.44), and greater socioeconomic disadvantage (PR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.28). Most participants who were breastfed at 1 y of age had ceased by 18 mo or 2 y. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding practices were not associated with ECC. Given the wide-ranging benefits of breastfeeding, and the low prevalence of sustained breastfeeding in this study and Australia in general, recommendations to limit breastfeeding are unwarranted, and breastfeeding should be promoted in line with global and national recommendations. To reduce the prevalence of early childhood caries, improved efforts are needed to limit foods high in free sugars.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Lactancia Materna/efectos adversos , Preescolar , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2133, 2020 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034250

RESUMEN

Oral microbiome dysbiosis has been associated with various local and systemic human diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Bacterial composition may be affected by age, oral health, diet, and geography, although information about the natural variation found in the general public is still lacking. In this study, citizen-scientists used a crowdsourcing model to obtain oral bacterial composition data from guests at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science to determine if previously suspected oral microbiome associations with an individual's demographics, lifestyle, and/or genetics are robust and generalizable enough to be detected within a general population. Consistent with past research, we found bacterial composition to be more diverse in youth microbiomes when compared to adults. Adult oral microbiomes were predominantly impacted by oral health habits, while youth microbiomes were impacted by biological sex and weight status. The oral pathogen Treponema was detected more commonly in adults without recent dentist visits and in obese youth. Additionally, oral microbiomes from participants of the same family were more similar to each other than to oral microbiomes from non-related individuals. These results suggest that previously reported oral microbiome associations are observable in a human population containing the natural variation commonly found in the general public. Furthermore, these results support the use of crowdsourced data as a valid methodology to obtain community-based microbiome data.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota/fisiología , Boca/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biodiversidad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/microbiología , Niño , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/microbiología , Dieta/métodos , Disbiosis/complicaciones , Disbiosis/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/microbiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/etiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/microbiología , Adulto Joven
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