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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1812): 20190578, 2020 11 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012223

RESUMEN

While microbial communities in the human body (microbiota) are now commonly associated with health and disease in industrialised populations, we know very little about how these communities co-evolved and changed with humans throughout history and deep prehistory. We can now examine these communities by sequencing ancient DNA preserved within calcified dental plaque (calculus), providing insights into the origins of disease and their links to human history. Here, we examine ancient DNA preserved within dental calculus samples and their associations with two major cultural periods in Japan: the Jomon period hunter-gatherers approximately 3000 years before present (BP) and the Edo period agriculturalists 400-150 BP. We investigate how human oral microbiomes have changed in Japan through time and explore the presence of microorganisms associated with oral diseases (e.g. periodontal disease, dental caries) in ancient Japanese populations. Finally, we explore oral microbial strain diversity and its potential links to ancient demography in ancient Japan by performing phylogenomic analysis of a widely conserved oral species-Anaerolineaceae oral taxon 439. This research represents, to our knowledge, the first study of ancient oral microbiomes from Japan and demonstrates that the analysis of ancient dental calculus can provide key information about the origin of non-infectious disease and its deep roots with human demography. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.


Asunto(s)
Chloroflexi/genética , Caries Dental/historia , Genoma Bacteriano , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/historia , Chloroflexi/clasificación , Demografía , Caries Dental/microbiología , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Japón , Enfermedades Periodontales/microbiología , Filogenia , Dinámica Poblacional
2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1812): 20190573, 2020 11 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012228

RESUMEN

We have recently developed bioinformatic tools to accurately assign metagenomic sequence reads to microbial taxa: SPARSE for probabilistic, taxonomic classification of sequence reads; EToKi for assembling and polishing genomes from short-read sequences; and GrapeTree, a graphic visualizer of genetic distances between large numbers of genomes. Together, these methods support comparative analyses of genomes from ancient skeletons and modern humans. Here, we illustrate these capabilities with 784 samples from historical dental calculus, modern saliva and modern dental plaque. The analyses revealed 1591 microbial species within the oral microbiome. We anticipated that the oral complexes of Socransky et al., which were defined in 1998, would predominate among taxa whose frequencies differed by source. However, although some species discriminated between sources, we could not confirm the existence of the complexes. The results also illustrate further functionality of our pipelines with two species that are associated with dental caries, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. They were rare in historical dental calculus but common in modern plaque, and even more common in saliva. Reconstructed draft genomes of these two species from metagenomic samples in which they were abundant were combined with modern public genomes to provide a detailed overview of their core genomic diversity. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/historia , Caries Dental/microbiología , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus sobrinus/genética , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Filogenia , Saliva/microbiología , Streptococcus mutans/clasificación , Streptococcus sobrinus/clasificación
3.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104581, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605919

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare dental caries frequency in the Croatian population exhumed from two archeological periods and compare two methods: International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFT (Decayed-Missing-Filled-Tooth) index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 279 teeth from 69 human remains: Set I of 30 remains and 126 teeth dated from 9th to10th centuries A.D. and Set II of 39 remains and 153 teeth from the recent 20th century. Methods used for caries prevalence were ICDAS and DMFT. Tooth wear was recorded according to the Brabant index. RESULTS: ICDAS scoring system showed significantly higher caries frequency in Set I of 64.34% and in Set II 59.47%, compared to DMFT method with 16.52% for Set I and 28.75% for Set II. Dental wear in Set I showed 73.91% and in Set II 73.15%, so no significant difference was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Depending on the ICDAS or DMFT method used for caries detection, different results have been obtained whereby the ICDAS system has a more precise and advanced approach for caries lesions.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/historia , Desgaste de los Dientes , Diente/patología , Croacia , Índice CPO , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Prevalencia
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(2): 319-323, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265762

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is often perceived as a modern human disease. However, their presence is documented in many early human groups, various nonhuman primates and, increasingly, our hominin ancestors and relatives. In this study, we describe an antemortem lesion on the root of a Paranthropus robustus third molar from Drimolen, South Africa, which likely represents another example of caries in fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The molar, DNH 40, is dated to 2.0-1.5 Ma and displays a lesion on the mesial root surface, extending from the cementoenamel junction 3 mm down toward the apex. The position and severity of the lesion was macroscopically recorded and micro-CT scanned to determine the extent of dentine involvement. RESULTS: A differential diagnosis indicates root caries, as the lesion is indistinguishable from clinical examples. Although necrotic in appearance, external tertiary dentine is evident on a micro CT scan. Gingival recession and/or continuous eruption of the tooth as a result of extensive occlusal wear would have occurred to facilitate caries formation. Therefore, the lesion is likely linked to relative old age of this individual. DISCUSSION: This new example increases the total number of carious lesions described in P. robustus teeth to 10, on occlusal, interproximal, and now, root surfaces. Beyond the consumption of caries-causing food, caries formation would have also required the presence of requisite intraoral cariogenic bacteria in this individual and the species. Of interest, the presence of tertiary dentine on the outward surface suggests the DNH 40 lesion may have been arrested, that is, no longer active, perhaps relating to a change in diet or oral microbiome just prior to the individual's death.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Hominidae , Tercer Molar , Raíz del Diente , Animales , Caries Dental/diagnóstico por imagen , Caries Dental/historia , Caries Dental/patología , Historia Antigua , Tercer Molar/diagnóstico por imagen , Tercer Molar/patología , Paleodontología , Sudáfrica , Raíz del Diente/diagnóstico por imagen , Raíz del Diente/patología , Microtomografía por Rayos X
5.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 169(2): 287-301, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964556

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This article reports on diet variability in the Dogon Country (Mali) through a bio-archeological study of pre-Dogon and early Dogon human remains (7th century to 19th century AD) from collective burial caves in the Bandiagara Escarpment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty crania from collections curated in Leiden, Paris, and Bamako were studied for dental diseases. In a subset of teeth (n = 175), δ13 C and δ15 N were measured in bulk dentine samples. RESULTS: δ13 C and δ15 N values vary widely (-15.4 to -6.0‰ for δ13 C, 6.0-14.8‰ for δ15 N, n = 175), and indicate diets dominated by C4 -based foods with a focus on plants; animal products played a minor role. There are significant differences between the δ13 C values from older (pre-Dogon) and younger (Dogon) periods. Frequencies of caries, antemortem tooth loss, and abscesses increase significantly through time. Individuals from northern caves have more positive δ13 C and δ15 N values than southern ones. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The temporal shifts are probably due to progressive diversification of foods, consistent with archeological evidence showing the addition of rice and vegetables to pearl millet. The geographical disparity is explained by a combination of climatic, environmental, and cultural factors. Last, intersite differences imply that different communities (or subsections thereof) disposed of their dead in different caves. Based on a large sample extending over a wider area and longer time frame than previous work, our study shows that diets in the Dogon Country were neither uniform nor continuous through time, as previously proposed. Our results attest to a complex history of settlement and foodways.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Caries Dental , Dieta , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Antropología Física , Caries Dental/historia , Caries Dental/patología , Dieta/historia , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Malí
6.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(2): 147-151, abr. 30, 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145328

RESUMEN

Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental paleopathologies in a Peruvian prehispanic population. Material and Method: A descriptive, observational and transversal study was carried out. The sample consisted of 106 skeletal remains of pre-hispanic inhabitants, over 18 years of age, found in the El Brujo - Magdalena de Cao Archaeological Complex, Lambayeque - Peru. The selection criteria were defined and the presence of dental caries, malocclusion, crowding, dental anomalies of direction and site, age and sex of each bone was assessed using a data collection instrument designed for that purpose. Results: The sample showed presence of dentin caries (62.3%), enamel caries (37.7%), Class I malocclusion (76.4%), Class II malocclusion (4.7%), Class III malocclusion (4.7%), maxillary crowding (15.1%), mandibular crowding (19.8%), crowding in both jaws (13.2%), gyroversion (20.8%), vestibule-versions (15.1%), linguo-versions (17.9%) and dental transposition (5.7%). Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of caries and malocclusions in this Peruvian pre-hispanic population.


Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de paleopatologías dentales en una población prehispánica peruana. Material y Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal cuya muestra estuvo conformada por 106 restos óseos de habitantes prehispánicos, mayores de 18 años, hallados en el Complejo Arqueológico El Brujo ­ Magdalena de Cao, Lambayeque ­ Perú. Se definieron los criterios de selección y se evaluó la presencia de caries dental, maloclusión, apiñamiento, anomalías de dirección, anomalías de sitio, edad y género de cada uno de los restos óseos utilizando un instrumento de recolección de datos destinado para tal fin. Resultados: La muestra mostró presencia de caries de dentina (62.3%), caries de esmalte (37.7%), maloclusión clase I (76.4%), maloclusión clase II (4.7%), maloclusión clase III (4.7%), apiñamiento en el maxilar superior (15.1%), apiñamiento mandibular (19.8%), apiñamiento en ambos maxilares (13.2%), giroversiones (20.8%), vestíbulo-versiones (15.1%), linguo-versiones (17.9%) y transposición dental (5.7%). Conclusión: Los resultados demuestran una alta prevalencia de caries y maloclusiones en la población peruana prehispánica.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Caries Dental/historia , Maloclusión/historia , Paleodontología , Paleopatología , Perú , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Prevalencia , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Historia Antigua , Desgaste de los Dientes/historia
7.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 40(3): 158-163; quiz 164, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829497

RESUMEN

The use of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for management of dental caries has gained considerable attention due to recent regulatory clearance in the United States. The primary focus of policies, presentations, and publications has been the arrest of caries lesions (cavities) because of the material's unique ability to non-invasively achieve this elusive and clinically important goal. However, SDF also has proven efficacy in prevention, ie, decreasing the incidence of new caries lesions. Analysis of nine clinical trials in children shows that SDF prevented 61% of new lesions compared to controls. To prevent one new caries lesion, clinicians need to treat four primary teeth (one patient) or 12.1 permanent molars (three patients) with SDF. The preventive effect appears to be immediate and maintains at the same fraction over time. Direct comparisons of SDF applied once per year with alternative treatments show that SDF is more effective than other topical fluorides placed two to four times per year and more cost-effective than dental sealants. Enamel lesions may be even more responsive than cavitated dentin lesions. Annual application of SDF to high-risk surfaces (eg, mesial surfaces of permanent first molars where the distal surface of the second primary molar is carious) in patients with any risk of new caries lesions appears to be the most cost-effective approach available to prevent dental caries. SDF is an underutilized evidence-based preventive agent for dental caries.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/prevención & control , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/uso terapéutico , Compuestos de Plata/uso terapéutico , Niño , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Caries Dental/historia , Fluoruros Tópicos/efectos adversos , Fluoruros Tópicos/historia , Fluoruros Tópicos/uso terapéutico , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/efectos adversos , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/historia , Compuestos de Plata/efectos adversos , Compuestos de Plata/historia
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(4): 750-763, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784057

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Previous researchers have assumed that the Late Prehistoric Oneota were less reliant on maize agriculture than their Middle Mississippian neighbors to the south. This assumption is based on the idea that intensive maize agriculture is related to sociopolitical complexity, and that the climate of the Great Lakes region was less conducive to full-scale agriculture than that of the American Bottom. Here, we assess the diet of the Oneota using dental pathology to test the hypothesis that the Oneota in Eastern Wisconsin were highly reliant on maize agriculture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test our hypothesis, skeletal remains representing 187 individuals and 1,102 teeth were examined from nine Oneota sites from the Middle Fox and Koshkonong Localities, as well as the Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian site of Aztalan. Dental caries, antemortem tooth loss (AMTL), and dental abscesses were assessed for each individual in the sample. Dental pathologies in the Oneota groups were compared to each other based on Locality and to the Aztalan population using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Dental caries rates for the Oneota, based on the tooth count approach, were observed at 16.8% for the Middle Fox Locality, and 49% for the Koshkonong Locality. Comparatively, the Late Woodland/Middle Mississippian population from Aztalan had a tooth count rate of 19.5%. AMTL rates were similar across samples. Dental abscessing was universally low. DISCUSSION: The relatively high rate of dental caries among the Oneota is comparable to Middle Mississippian populations from throughout the Midwest, suggesting similar reliance on maize between the groups.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Indios Norteamericanos , Salud Bucal/historia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura/historia , Niño , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/historia , Caries Dental/patología , Dieta/historia , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos/etnología , Indios Norteamericanos/historia , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Paleodontología , Diente/patología , Wisconsin , Adulto Joven
10.
Int J Paleopathol ; 24: 245-251, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684911

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Documentation of an advanced case of tertiary stage treponemal disease. MATERIALS: The well-preserved cranium and mandible of an adult male (Burial G) from the Early Woodland period (900 BCE-200 CE) Wilhoite site (40GN10) from east Tennessee. METHODS: Macroscopic examination of the cranio-facial periostosis on Burial G for pathognomonic indicators of treponemal disease. RESULTS: There are extensive contiguous nodular lesions on the frontal, parietals, temporals, and occipital bones. The frontal squama additionally exhibits radial scaring and circumvallate cavitating lesions. Radial scars are also present on both zygomatic bones and the endocranial surface of the calotte. There is rounding of the nasal margins in addition to periostosis on the palate. CONCLUSIONS: Burial G unequivocally exhibits the pathognomonic reactive changes of caries sicca, radial scarring, and cavitating lesions. SIGNIFICANCE: The Early Woodland date in combination with the advanced degree of pathognomonic reactive change is exceptional, and to date, without parallel in the pre-Columbian archaeological record of North America. Any case approaching the severity displayed here is invariably late prehistoric. LIMITATIONS: The absence of postcrania does not permit assessment of frailty or synergism of secondary conditions. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: More comprehensive documentation of pre-Columbian treponemal cases is merited.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/patología , Infecciones por Treponema/patología , Adulto , Arqueología , Entierro , Caries Dental/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/patología , Paleopatología , Cráneo/patología , Tennessee , Infecciones por Treponema/historia
11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(4): 797-808, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693947

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of fluorescence-based caries detection systems (Diagnodent and VistaCam) for the assessment of carious lesions on archeological molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material consisted of teeth from the Cemetery of St. Mary Magdalene (Cmentarz sw. Marii Magdaleny) in Wroclaw, Poland. A sample of 178 permanent molars from 38 skulls were examined. Five surfaces of teeth (occlusal, mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual) were assessed on either basically cleaned or sandblasted teeth. Six diagnostic methods were used to detect carious lesions: the visual classification of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II), fluorescent methods (Diagnodent and VistaCam), X-ray, cone beam computed tomography and histological sections. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the correlation between the severity of dental caries and the readouts obtained with each method. RESULTS: In most cases, Diagnodent and VistaCam yielded unsatisfactory specificity and sensitivity values. The area under curve (AUC) values in ROC curves for Diagnodent and Vistacam were lower than the AUC values obtained for the ICDAS II visual classification. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, in the case of archeological teeth, neither Diagnodent nor VistaCam can be regarded as a better diagnostic method than the ICDAS II visual classification of caries.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/diagnóstico por imagen , Caries Dental/historia , Diente Molar/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen Óptica/métodos , Imagen Óptica/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueología , Niño , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
12.
Gerodontology ; 36(1): 36-44, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318791

RESUMEN

The consensus of a leading scientific panel in 1930 was that oral hygiene products could not prevent dental caries. Their view was that dental caries prevention required the proper mineralisation of teeth and that vitamin D could achieve this goal. Over a hundred subsequent controlled trials, conducted over seven decades, largely confirmed that this scientific panel had made the right decisions. They had, in 1930, when it comes to dental caries, correctly endorsed vitamin D products as dental caries prophylactics and oral hygiene products as cosmetics. And yet, despite this consistent scientific evidence for close to a century, an opposing conventional wisdom emerged which thrives to this day: oral hygiene habits (without fluoride) protect the teeth from dental caries, and vitamin D plays no role in dental caries prevention. This historical analysis explores whether persistent advertising can deeply engrain memes on dental caries prevention which conflict with controlled trial results. The question is raised whether professional organisations, with a dependence on advertising revenues, can become complicit in amplifying advertised health claims which are inconsistent with the principles of evidence-based medicine.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/historia , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/historia , Caries Dental/historia , Odontología Basada en la Evidencia/historia , Higiene Bucal/historia , Vitamina D/historia , American Dental Association/historia , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados como Asunto/historia , Cosmecéuticos/historia , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico
13.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 127(1): 52-64, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444290

RESUMEN

Women from ancient societies have shown a higher prevalence of dental caries in comparison with men. Recent research has shown that the relationship between increased oestrogen production during pregnancy and decreased salivary flow is a possible cause for the higher levels of caries in women, which is in contrast to the traditional view of sexual division of labour resulting in unequal access to cariogenic food. In order to test these two hypotheses, individuals exhumed from 12 South American archaeological sites were examined for markers of oral health (caries, ante mortem tooth loss, deep caries, and enamel hypoplasia) and compared in terms of fertility (Crude Birth Rate) and subsistence systems. Our results suggest that diet and other cultural practices remain the most important factors affecting oral health and that the effects of hormones can be masked by them. Such findings add to the discussion regarding the availability of micronutrients in such societies affecting caries experience in pregnant women, because of their special nutritional requirements.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/historia , Dieta/historia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tasa de Natalidad , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/etiología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Agricultores/historia , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Bucal , Factores Sexuales , América del Sur/epidemiología
14.
Arch Oral Biol ; 98: 176-181, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500667

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Increased prevalence of dental caries evidently is correlated with increasing intake of sugar and carbohydrate-rich foods. Preceding and accompanying this dietary alteration might have been a shift from a hunting-and-gathering subsistence strategy to one based on agriculture. We corroborated this conjecture by means of a study on the prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) and tooth wear among 16th to 19th century hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists who co-existed in West Siberia. DESIGN: Indigenous skeletons (n = 75) exhumed from Tatar, Selkup, Khant, and Nenet graves along with Russian settler skeletons (n = 79) from Izyuk were examined. The prevalence of caries, AMTL and tooth wear among the indigenous peoples were compared with those among the Russian settlers. The resulting statistical inferences were tested using package R. RESULTS: The agriculturalist Russian settlers showed a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries (11.88%) than did the non-agriculturalist indigenous Siberian people (3.85%). Among the latter, the prevalence was the lowest in the Khanty and the highest in the Tatars, suggesting that caries differently affected each sub-group of indigenous Siberian people. Correspondingly to the case of dental caries, the Russian settlers' AMTL prevalence also was higher than that of the indigenous Siberians, regardless of age. On the other hand, the native Siberians and the Russian settlers did not show statistical differences in tooth wear. CONCLUSION: In the study on 16th to 19th century West Siberian populations, we were able to corroborate our presumption that agriculturalists ingesting a carbohydrate-rich diet would have higher rates of dental caries and AMTL than would hunter-gatherers.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/historia , Pérdida de Diente/epidemiología , Pérdida de Diente/historia , Desgaste de los Dientes/epidemiología , Agricultura , Dieta , Femenino , Mapeo Geográfico , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Paleodontología , Prevalencia , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Siberia/epidemiología , Esqueleto
15.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 125(11): 571-576, 2018 11.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457577

RESUMEN

At the beginning of the twentieth century, children from poor families had less caries than children from affluent families. Later this changed: as the socio-economic status of the parents was higher, the children had less dental caries. The same relationship between socio-economic status and caries prevalence was later evident in adults. Throughout the twentieth century, in individuals with a low socio-economic status more teeth were extracted than in individuals with a high socio-economic status. At the end of the twentieth century, oral health in general was much better than at the beginning. That change is partly due to increased prosperity, increasing attention to oral hygiene, the introduction of fluoride toothpaste and the strong increase in the number of professionals in oral care. Increased knowledge of the causes and prevention of caries also played a role, if a less prominent one.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/historia , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Medio Social , Caries Dental/etiología , Dieta , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Países Bajos , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 167(4): 840-855, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281788

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Despite subsisting on a low-cariogenic diet comprising virtually nothing more than potatoes and dairy products, poor oral health affected the quality of life for the poor of nineteenth-century Ireland. This study investigates potential biocultural reasons that may explain why this was the case. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6,860 teeth and 9,889 alveoli from 363 permanent dentitions from the skeletal remains of impoverished adult Irish males and females who died between 1847 and 1851 in the Kilkenny Union Workhouse were examined for evidence of dental caries, periodontal disease and ante-mortem tooth loss. Caries rates were quantified and assessed by crude prevalence, frequencies, corrected caries rates and a t-health index, and evaluated by sex and age groups. RESULTS: A higher rate of caries was present among 18-25-year-old males than females, while the opposite relationship was evident for older age groups. The prevalence rates of periodontal disease and ante-mortem tooth loss increased with age. When assessed by corrected caries rates, tooth decay is observed at a lower rate compared to contemporaneous lower to upper-class population samples from London. DISCUSSION: Despite being low cariogenic foods, the potato starch and milk lactose of a nineteenth-century Irish laborer's diet would have lowered oral pH-values thereby increasing the risk of bacterial fermentation in dental plaque resulting in caries. Nutritional features alone cannot explain the high rates of dental caries observed in the Kilkenny workhouse population sample, however, and lifestyle factors, particularly habitual clay-pipe smoking, is considered a significant cause of poor oral health.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Salud Bucal , Pobreza/etnología , Pérdida de Diente , Adulto , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/historia , Dieta , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Bucal/etnología , Salud Bucal/historia , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/historia , Pérdida de Diente/epidemiología , Pérdida de Diente/historia
17.
J Hist Dent ; 66(1): 1-13, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184383

RESUMEN

Karius and Baktus, first published in 1949, is one of the most influential storybooks with dental caries as main theme and it remains in wide use for domestic health education. This study aimed at assessing oral health related contents of the historic storybook in the light of the current body of cariologic evidence. Two investigators independently identified phrases in the storybook with cariologically relevant content. Dental health related contents were systematically evaluated with respect to the current body of cariologic evidence. Karius and Baktus highlights important etiopathogenetic and preventive aspects such as sugars consumption and tooth brushing with toothpaste. Its behavior management techniques and narrative health didactics concerning dental care for children are, however, outmoded. The cariologic core statements in Karius and Baktus have remained valid whereas certain narrative features may have some drawbacks when employing the historic storybook for educational purposes for young children.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/historia , Literatura Moderna , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Higiene Bucal/historia , Niño , Atención Dental para Niños/historia , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Odontólogos/historia , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estereotipo
18.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0203307, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161214

RESUMEN

The formation of dental caries is mainly caused by dietary habits and therefore, may contain information for dietary reconstructions of fossil hominids. This study investigates the caries lesion in the 12.5 Ma old type specimen of Dryopithecus carinthiacus Mottl 1957 (Primates, Hominidae) from St. Stefan (Austria). Potential food sources are identified on associated palynological data, which allow conclusions about food quality, sugar availability and the hominid metabolism during the Middle Miocene. Using micro computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we provide a detailed analysis and characterization of the individuals' caries type. Its lesion is compared with a dataset of 311 wild chimpanzees, indicating morphological and etiological differences in caries formation between both species. The affected molar of D. carinthiacus reveals features known from severe dental caries in humans: (1) Cavitation with steep walls and smooth surface; (2) Reparative dentine at the roof of the pulp chamber; (3) Sclerotic dentine below the cavitation; (4) Association with dental calculus and (5) Unilateral usage of the healthy right tooth row. Its advanced primary caries, initiating on the intact enamel surface, indicates a frequent intake of highly cariogenic sugar-rich fruits, which likely exceeds the frugivory of extant chimpanzees. This finding corresponds with the associated palynological record, which infers a habitat with nearly year-round supply (9-10 months/year) of high quality foods (>carbohydrates; < fibers). Our conclusions challenge the model of a step-wise increase in dietary quality during hominid evolution and support the uricase hypothesis, which discusses the hominid autapomorphy of a fructose-based fat accumulation for periods of starvation. This model receives further validation by the identification of soft-tissue preservation, interpreted as fossilized white adipose cells, in the articulated hominid skeleton of Oreopithecus bamboli from Italy.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/historia , Sacarosa en la Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Fósiles , Hominidae , Diente/patología , Animales , Austria , Caries Dental/etiología , Caries Dental/patología , Fósiles/ultraestructura , Historia Antigua , Paleodontología , Diente/ultraestructura
20.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 6(1): 98-105, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-999018

RESUMEN

El concepto de la caries dental ha evolucionado a través del tiempo, y ha pasado por una diversidad de teorías para poder explicar su etiología. El propósito de esta revisión de literatura es relatar las teorías relacionadas al origen de la caries dental y la manera en que los conceptos se han modificado, producto de las diversas investigaciones. Múltiples teorías se desarrollaron, entre ellas la de Willoughtby Miller, uno de los principales investigadores, quien propuso la teoría químico-parasitaria, la cual refiere que la desmineralización del esmalte era el resultado de los ácidos producidos por microorganismos en la cavidad oral. Esta teoría supera a la de la triada ecológica, que identificó como agente cariogénico a la sacarosa, estableció el carácter infec- tocontagioso de la enfermedad y respon- sabilizó al Streptococcus mutans como principal agente causal. De la misma manera, surgen nuevas teorías que serán explicadas en el presente artículo, las cuales nos permiten establecer los conceptos actuales de la caries dental y su desarrollo. (AU)


The concept of dental caries has evolved over time, passing through a variety of theories in order to explain its etiology. The purpose of this literature review is to address theories related to the origin of dental caries and the ways in which concepts have been modified following research. Multiple theories have been developed, one of the most notable of which has been that of Willoughby Miller, a leading researcher, who proposed the "chemical-parasitic theory" for the demineralization of enamel as a result of the acids produced by microorganisms in the oral cavity. This led to the "ecological triad" theory, which identified sucrose as a cariogenic agent, establishing the infectious-contagious character of the isease and identifying S. mutans as the main causative agent. new theories have also emerged, as this article will explain, allowing us to develop our current concepts associated with dental caries disease and its development. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Streptococcus mutans , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Caries Dental , Caries Dental/historia
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