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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562467

RESUMEN

Introduction: Children are widely recognized as a vulnerable population during disasters and emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic, like a natural disaster, brought uncertainties and instability to the economic development of the society and social distancing, which might lead to child maltreatment. This study aims to investigate whether job loss, income reduction and parenting affect child maltreatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 600 randomly sampled parents aged 18 years or older who had and lived with a child under 10 years old in Hong Kong between 29 May to 16 June 2020. Participants were recruited from a random list of mobile phone numbers of a panel of parents. Of 779 recruited target parents, 600 parents completed the survey successfully via a web-based system after obtaining their online consent for participating in the survey. Results: Income reduction was found significantly associated with severe (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.06, 10.25) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 7.69, 95% CI = 2.24, 26.41) towards children. Job loss or large income reduction were also significantly associated with severe (OR= 3.68, 95% CI = 1.33, 10.19) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.17, 14.08) towards children. However, income reduction (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) and job loss (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28, 0.76) were significantly associated with less psychological aggression. Exposure to intimate partner violence between parents is a very strong and significant factor associated with all types of child maltreatment. Having higher levels of difficulty in discussing COVID-19 with children was significantly associated with more corporal punishment (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), whereas having higher level of confidence in managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was negatively associated with corporal punishment (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.99) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.93). Conclusions: Income instability such as income reduction and job loss amplified the risk of severe and very severe child physical assaults but protected children from psychological aggression. Also, confidence in teaching COVID-19 and managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was significantly negatively associated with corporal punishment during pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta , Pandemias , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Castigo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(724): 248-253, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538137

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic underlines how vulnerable our societies are to health and economic shocks. It reveals and exacerbates existing inequalities in terms of health status, income, or employment. In Switzerland, as well as globally, most socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals are also the most exposed and vulnerable to the virus, both at work and in their homes. Our aim is to describe the mechanisms through which the pandemic has disproportionally affected some groups of the population. We are particularly interested in the concentration of health and economic risks in specific households and in the public policies implemented to fight the pandemic on the health front while attempting to reduce its economic impact.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Castigo , Suiza/epidemiología
4.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190088, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1133861

RESUMEN

Physical punishment - corporal punishment - of children/adolescents is highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to verify if, in a sample of parents/caregivers, there would be subgroups that would differentiate themselves regarding the behavior of physically punishing the children, in terms of modalities, frequency, body parts of the child affected, and presence of parental anger in the act of punishing, denoting severity levels associated with differences in the psychosocial variables pointed out in the literature as risk factors for physical abuse. A quantitative approach was adopted, with a cross-sectional design and cluster method. The study included 87 parents/caregivers who practice physical punishment. The analyses indicated the existence of three clusters that differed in the level of severity of corporal punishment and some of the psychosocial variables, denoting the importance of developing services/programs to cope with violence against children/adolescents and specific psychosocial intervention strategies.


A punição física - castigos corporais - de crianças/adolescentes é altamente prevalente. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se em uma amostra de pais/cuidadores existiriam subgrupos que se diferenciariam quanto ao comportamento de punir/castigar fisicamente os filhos. As modalidades analisadas foram de frequência com que a punição ocorria, de partes do corpo da criança que se punia e de presença de sentimento de irritação/raiva durante o castigo físico, denotando níveis de gravidade associados a diferenças em variáveis psicossociais apontadas como fatores de risco para os abusos físicos. Adotou-se uma abordagem quantitativa, com delineamento transversal e método de clusterização. Participaram 87 pais/cuidadores adeptos a práticas de punição física. As análises indicaram a existência de três agrupamentos que se diferenciaram no tocante à gravidade da punição corporal e em algumas das variáveis psicossociais, denotando a importância de os serviços/programas voltados ao enfrentamento da violência contra as crianças/adolescentes considerarem estratégias de intervenção psicossocial distintas e específicas a cada grupo.


Asunto(s)
Castigo , Servicio Social , Maltrato a los Niños , Relaciones Familiares
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0225023, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326450

RESUMEN

Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more 'pessimistic' in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.


Asunto(s)
Mascotas/psicología , Refuerzo en Psicología , Afecto/fisiología , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Condicionamiento Psicológico/fisiología , Perros , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Masculino , Castigo/psicología , Recompensa , Saliva/química , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Grabación en Video
6.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 18(2): 148-168, jul.-dic. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144716

RESUMEN

Resumo (analítico) O objetivo do artigo é analisar os processos judiciais relativos ao ato infracional de tráfico de drogas, em Petrolina-PE (2011-2014), com base na revisão analítica das instituições e leis historicamente voltadas para a menoridade, segundo a Theory of Sentencing. Apreciou-se o conteúdo social das variáveis legais e extralegais, analisando o efeito cumulativo dos determinantes das sentenças. As decisões judiciais mais encontradas foram extinção processual e absolvição. Medidas socioeducativas de advertência, liberdade e semiliberdade são mais recorrentes que a internação. No entanto, há disparidades das sentenças em casos análogos e imputação de penas análogas em casos díspares. Conclui-se que o sistema penal é produtor e reprodutor de desigualdades sociais e a punição é percebida e utilizada como técnica de controle e transformação de adolescentes pobres apreendidos com pequenas quantidades de drogas.


Abstract (analytical) The purpose of this article is to analyze the legal sentences for drug trafficking offense in Petrolina, a city in the state of Pernambuco, in the period 2011-2014 based on the analytical review of institutions and laws that have historically targeted minorities and the Theory of Sentencing. The social content of legal and extralegal variables was analyzed, analyzing the cumulative effect of determinants for the sentences. The most frequent judicial decisions were procedural extinction and acquittal. Socioeducational measures of warnings, dropping of all charges and suspended sentences are more common than imprisonment. However, there are disparities in sentences for similar cases and the handing down of analogous sentences in disparate cases. It is concluded that the penal system is a producer and reproducer of social inequalities and punishment is perceived and used as a technique for the control and transformation of poor adolescents who are caught with small amounts of drugs.


Resumen (analítico) El objetivo del artículo es analizar los procesos judiciales de tráfico de drogas, en Petrolina-PE (2011-2014) de adolescentes, basado en la revisión analítica de las instituciones y leyes históricamente orientadas hacia las minorías y la Theory of Sentencing. Se apreció el contenido social de las variables legales y extralegales, analizando el efecto acumulativo de los determinantes de las sentencias. Las decisiones judiciales más encontradas fueron la extinción procesal y la absolución. Las medidas socioeducativas de advertencia, libertad y semilibertad son más recurrentes que la internación. Sin embargo, hay disparidades de sentencias en casos análogos e imputación de penalización análogas en casos dispares. Se concluye que el sistema penal es productor de desigualdades sociales y el castigo es percibido y utilizado como técnica de control y transformación de adolescentes pobres incautados con pequeñas cantidades de drogas.


Asunto(s)
Castigo , Decisiones Judiciales , Estado , Control
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238359, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986731

RESUMEN

Based on the characteristics of expressway driving behavior, a punishment avoidance variable is introduced in this study to modify the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and the analysis model of expressway speeding behavior is improved and verified through survey data. The mechanism of the effects of attitude to behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and punishment avoidance on expressway speeding behavior is analyzed. The results show that drivers lack a correct understanding of expressway speeding behavior and that punishment avoidance has a significant effect on expressway speeding behavior. Younger drivers (25-34), men, High income earners, and those who received more penalty points are considered prone to speeding. The study provides valuable contributions to the development of the Chinese version of the expressway speeding analysis model.


Asunto(s)
Aceleración , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Teoría Psicológica , Castigo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , China , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sociológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236544, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941442

RESUMEN

A team contest entails both public good characteristics within the teams as well as a contest across teams. In an experimental study, we analyse behaviour in such a team contest when allowing to punish or to reward other team members. Moreover, we compare two types of contest environment: One in which two teams compete for a prize and another one in which we switch off the between-group element of the contest. We find that reward giving, as opposed to punishing, induces higher contributions to the team contest. Furthermore, expenditures on rewarding other co-players are significantly higher than those for punishing.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Competitiva , Conducta Cooperativa , Modelos Psicológicos , Castigo , Recompensa , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236764, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735624

RESUMEN

Do people punish more than they would if the decision costs were more transparent? In two Internet-based vignette experiments, we tested whether juvenile sentencing recommendations among U.S. adults are responsive to variation in the salience of the taxpayer costs and public safety benefits of incarceration. Using a 2 Cost (present vs. absent) x 2 Benefit (present vs. absent) factorial design, Experiment 1 (N = 234) found that exposure to information about the direct costs of incarcerating the juvenile offender reduced sentencing recommendations by about 28%, but exposure to the public safety benefits had no effect on sentences. Experiment 2 (N = 301) manipulated cost-benefit salience by asking participants to generate their own list of costs of incarceration, benefits of incarceration, or an affectively neutral, unrelated word list. Results revealed a similar selective effect whereby sentencing recommendations were reduced in the cost condition relative to the benefits and control conditions, but sentences in the benefit condition did not differ from the control. This combined pattern suggests that laypeople selectively neglect to factor cost considerations into these judgments, thereby inflating their support for punishment, unless those costs are made salient. These findings contribute to the debate on transparency in sentencing.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio/estadística & datos numéricos , Juicio , Castigo , Adolescente , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20474-20482, 2020 08 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778580

RESUMEN

How likely is it that someone would approve of using a nuclear weapon to kill millions of enemy civilians in the hope of ending a ground war that threatens thousands of American troops? Ask them how they feel about prosecuting immigrants, banning abortion, supporting the death penalty, and protecting gun rights and you will know. This is the finding from two national surveys of Democrats and Republicans that measured support for punitive regulations and policies across these four seemingly unrelated issues, and a fifth, using nuclear weapons against enemy civilians (in survey 1) or approving of disproportionate killing with conventional weapons (in survey 2). Those who support these various policies that threaten harm to many people tend to believe that the victims are blameworthy and it is ethical to take actions or policies that might harm them. This lends support to the provocative notion of "virtuous violence" put forth by Fiske and Rai [A. P. Fiske, T. S. Rai, Virtuous Violence: Hurting and Killing to Create, Sustain, End, and Honor Social Relationships (2014)], who assert that people commit violence because they believe it is the morally right thing to do. The common thread of punitiveness underlying and connecting these issues needs to be recognized, understood, and confronted by any society that professes to value fundamental human rights and wishes to prevent important decisions from being affected by irrelevant and harmful sociocultural and political biases.


Asunto(s)
Guerra Nuclear/psicología , Política , Castigo/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Pena de Muerte , Deshumanización , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Armas Nucleares , Adulto Joven
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751948

RESUMEN

Schools are increasingly concerned about student cannabis use with the recent legalization in Canada; however, little is known about how to effectively intervene when students violate school substance use policies. The purpose of this study is to assess the disciplinary approaches present in secondary schools prior to cannabis legalization and examine associations with youth cannabis use. This study used Year 6 (2017/2018) data from the COMPASS (Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, Sedentary behavior) study including 66,434 students in grades 9 through 12 and the 122 secondary schools they attend in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. Student questionnaires assessed youth cannabis use and school administrator surveys assessed potential use of 14 cannabis use policy violation disciplinary consequences through a ("check all that apply") question. Regression models tested the association between school disciplinary approaches and student cannabis use with student- (grade, sex, ethnicity, tobacco use, binge drinking) and school-level covariates (province, school area household median income). For first-offence violations of school cannabis policies, the vast majority of schools selected confiscating the product (93%), informing parents (93%), alerting police (80%), and suspending students from school (85%), among their disciplinary response options. Few schools indicated requiring students to help around the school (5%), issuing a fine (7%), or assigning additional class work (8%) as potential consequences. The mean number of total first-offence consequences selected by schools was 7.23 (SD = 2.14). Overall, 92% of schools reported always using a progressive disciplinary approach in which sanctions get stronger with subsequent violations. Students were less likely to report current cannabis use if they attended schools that indicated assigning additional class work (OR 0.57, 95% CI (0.38, 0.84)) or alerting the police (OR 0.81, 95% CI (0.67, 0.98)) among their potential first-offence consequences, or reported always using the progressive discipline approach (OR 0.77, 95% CI (0.62, 0.96)) for subsequent cannabis policy violations. In conclusion, results reveal the school disciplinary context in regard to cannabis policy violations in the year immediately preceding legalization. Various consequences for cannabis policy violations were being used by schools, yet negligible association resulted between the type of first-offence consequences included in a school's range of disciplinary approaches and student cannabis use.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Uso de la Marihuana , Política Organizacional , Castigo , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Alberta , Colombia Británica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontario , Quebec , Estudiantes
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3432, 2020 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647165

RESUMEN

Across societies, humans punish norm violations. To date, research on the antecedents and consequences of punishment has largely relied upon agent-based modeling and laboratory experiments. Here, we report a longitudinal study documenting punishment responses to norm violations in daily life (k = 1507; N = 257) and test pre-registered hypotheses about the antecedents of direct punishment (i.e., confrontation) and indirect punishment (i.e., gossip and social exclusion). We find that people use confrontation versus gossip in a context-sensitive manner. Confrontation is more likely when punishers have been personally victimized, have more power, and value offenders more. Gossip is more likely when norm violations are severe and when punishers have less power, value offenders less, and experience disgust. Findings reveal a complex punishment psychology that weighs the benefits of adjusting others' behavior against the risks of retaliation.


Asunto(s)
Castigo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Conducta , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Principios Morales , Motivación , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235253, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603338

RESUMEN

Killing people is universally considered reprehensible and evokes in observers a need to punish perpetrators. Here, we explored how observers' personality is associated with their cognitive, emotional, and punishing reactions towards perpetrators using data from 1,004 participants who responded to a set of fifteen third-party perspective moral dilemmas. Among those, four scenarios (architect, life boat, footbridge, smother for dollars) describing deliberate killings were compared to investigate the role of the content features "motive for killing" (selfish vs. utilitarian) and "evitability of victims' death". Participants' moral appropriateness ratings, emotions towards perpetrators, and assigned punishments revealed complex scenario-personality interactions. Trait psychopathy was associated with harsher punishments in all scenarios but also with less concern about killing in general, an increased moral appreciation of utilitarian motives for killing, and a reduced concern about the killing of avoidable victims. Need for cognition was associated with considering a utilitarian motive for killing as a mitigating factor, while intuitive/authority-obedient thinking was linked to a strong focus on avoidability of harm as an aggravating factor when assigning punishments. Other-oriented empathy, trait anxiety, and justice sensitivity did not account for differences in third-party punishments. Our explorative findings highlight the importance of inter-individual differences for moral decision making and sense of justice.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Homicidio/psicología , Juicio , Adulto , Emociones , Empatía , Teoría Ética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Principios Morales , Motivación , Castigo/psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20201036, 2020 07 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605518

RESUMEN

Human groups have long faced ecological threats such as resource stress and warfare, and must also overcome strains on coordination and cooperation that are imposed by growing social complexity. Tightness-looseness (TL) theory suggests that societies react to these challenges by becoming culturally tighter, with stronger norms and harsher punishment of deviant behaviour. TL theory further predicts that tightening is associated with downstream effects on social, political and religious institutions. Here, we comprehensively test TL theory in a sample of non-industrial societies. Since previous studies of TL theory have sampled contemporary countries and American states, our analysis allows us to examine whether the theory generalizes to societies in the ethnographic record and also to explore new correlates of tightness that vary more in non-industrial societies. We find that tightness covaries across domains of social norms, such as socialization, law and gender. We also show that tightness correlates with several theorized antecedents (ecological threat, complexity, residential homogeneity) and several theorized consequences (intergroup contact, political authoritarianism, moralizing religious beliefs). We integrate these findings into a holistic model of tightness in non-industrial societies and provide metrics that can be used by future studies on cultural tightness in the ethnographic record.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Comparación Transcultural , Humanos , Castigo , Religión , Normas Sociales
15.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 594-606, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602596

RESUMEN

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, societies face the formidable challenge of developing sustainable forms of sociability-cumsocial-distancing - enduring social life while containing the virus and preventing new outbreaks. Accordant public policies often balance between retributive (punishment-based) and assistance (solidarity-based) measures to foster responsible behaviour. Yet, the uncontrolled spreading of the disease has divided public opinion about which measures are best suited, and it has made salient group disparities in behaviour, potentially straining intergroup relations, elevating heated emotions, and undercutting coordinated international responses. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, British citizens (N = 377) read about national in-group or outgroup members (categorical differentiation), who were either conforming to or deviating from the corona regulations (normative differentiation). Participants then reported moral emotions towards the target national group and indicated support for public policies. In general, support for assistance policies outweighed support for retributive measures. Second, however, norm deviation was associated with less positive and more negative moral emotions, the latter category further relating to more punitiveness and less assistance support. Finally, respondents who read about norm-violating outgroup members especially reported support for retributive measures, indicating that people might use norm deviation to justify outgroup derogation. We discuss implications for policymakers and formulate future research avenues.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Procesos de Grupo , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Castigo/psicología , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Emociones , Femenino , Política de Salud , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Principios Morales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Opinión Pública , Reino Unido
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3192, 2020 06 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581214

RESUMEN

Resolving approach-avoidance conflicts relies on encoding motivation outcomes and learning from past experiences. Accumulating evidence points to the role of the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) and Medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) in these processes, but their differential contributions have not been convincingly deciphered in humans. We detect 310 neurons from mPFC and MTL from patients with epilepsy undergoing intracranial recordings and participating in a goal-conflict task where rewards and punishments could be controlled or not. mPFC neurons are more selective to punishments than rewards when controlled. However, only MTL firing following punishment is linked to a lower probability for subsequent approach behavior. mPFC response to punishment precedes a similar MTL response and affects subsequent behavior via an interaction with MTL firing. We thus propose a model where approach-avoidance conflict resolution in humans depends on outcome value tagging in mPFC neurons influencing encoding of such value in MTL to affect subsequent choice.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Objetivos , Neuronas/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Lóbulo Temporal/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Neurológicos , Corteza Prefrontal/citología , Castigo , Tiempo de Reacción , Recompensa , Lóbulo Temporal/citología , Adulto Joven
17.
J Neurosci ; 40(26): 5063-5077, 2020 06 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409619

RESUMEN

Actions executed toward obtaining a reward are frequently associated with the probability of harm occurring during action execution. Learning this probability allows for appropriate computation of future harm to guide action selection. Impaired learning of this probability may be critical for the pathogenesis of anxiety or reckless and impulsive behavior. Here we designed a task for punishment probability learning during reward-guided actions to begin to understand the neuronal basis of this form of learning, and the biological or environmental variables that influence action selection after learning. Male and female Long-Evans rats were trained in a seek-take behavioral paradigm where the seek action was associated with varying probability of punishment. The take action remained safe and was followed by reward delivery. Learning was evident as subjects selectively adapted seek action behavior as a function of punishment probability. Recording of neural activity in the mPFC during learning revealed changes in phasic mPFC neuronal activity during risky-seek actions but not during the safe take actions or reward delivery, revealing that this region is involved in learning of probabilistic punishment. After learning, the variables that influenced behavior included reinforcer and punisher value, pretreatment with the anxiolytic diazepam, and biological sex. In particular, females were more sensitive to probabilistic punishment than males. These data demonstrate that flexible encoding of risky actions by mPFC is involved in probabilistic punishment learning and provide a novel behavioral approach for studying the pathogenesis of anxiety and impulsivity with inclusion of sex as a biological variable.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Actions we choose to execute toward obtaining a reward are often associated with the probability of harm occurring. Impaired learning of this probability may be critical for the pathogenesis of anxiety or reckless behavior and impulsivity. We developed a behavioral model to assess this mode of learning. This procedure allowed us to determine biological and environmental factors that influence the resistance of reward seeking to probabilistic punishment and to identify the mPFC as a region that flexibly adapts its response to risky actions as contingencies are learned.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Castigo , Recompensa , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Long-Evans , Asunción de Riesgos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232369, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407328

RESUMEN

Individuals high in socioeconomic status (SES) are often viewed as valuable members of society. However, the appeal of high-SES people exists in tension with our aversion to inequity. Little experimental work has directly examined how people rectify inequitable distributions between two individuals varying in SES. The objective of the present study was to examine how disinterested third parties adjudicate inequity in the context of concrete financial allocations between a selfish allocator and a recipient who was the victim of the allocator's selfish offer. Specifically, this study focused on whether knowing the SES of the victim or the allocator affected the participant's decisions to punish the selfish allocator. In two experiments (N = 999), participants completed a modified third-party Ultimatum Game in which they arbitrated inequitable exchanges between an allocator and a recipient. Although participants generally preferred to redistribute inequitable exchanges without punishing players who made unfair allocations, we observed an increased preference for punitive solutions as offers became increasingly selfish. This tendency was especially pronounced when the victim was low in SES or when the perpetrator was high in SES, suggesting a tendency to favor the disadvantaged even among participants reporting high subjective SES. Finally, punitive responses were especially likely when the context emphasized the allocator's privileged status rather than the recipient's underprivileged status. These findings inform our understanding of how SES biases retributive justice even in non-judicial contexts that minimize the salience of punishment.


Asunto(s)
Castigo , Clase Social , Justicia Social , Adulto , Sesgo , Humanos , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232652, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407329

RESUMEN

Would the affected communities voluntarily obtain herd immunity if a cure for COVID-19 was available? This paper experimentally investigates people's vaccination choices in the context of a nonlinear public good game. A "vaccination game" is defined in which costly commitments (vaccination) are required of a fraction of the population to reach the critical level needed for herd immunity, without which defectors are punished by the natural contagion of epidemics. Our experimental implementation of a vaccination game in a controlled laboratory setting reveals that endogenous epidemic punishment is a credible threat, resulting in voluntary vaccination to obtain herd immunity, for which the orthodox principle of positive externalities fails to account. The concave nature of the infection probability plays a key role in facilitating the elimination of an epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Juegos Experimentales , Inmunidad Colectiva , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Castigo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232298, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353076

RESUMEN

According to a socio-functional perspective on emotions, displaying shame with averted gaze and a slumped posture following a norm violation signals that the person is ready to conform to the group's moral standards, which in turn protects the person from social isolation and punishment. Although the assumption is intuitive, direct empirical evidence for it remains surprisingly limited and the mediating social-psychological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, three experimental studies were conducted to investigate the social function of nonverbal displays of shame in the context of everyday norm violations. In Study 1, participants evaluated ten different expressions of emotion in regard to their affective valence, arousal, dominance, as well as social meaning in the context of norm violations. Displays of shame and sadness were seen as the most similar expressions with respect to the three affective dimensions and were perceived to communicate the perpetrator's understanding of the group's moral standards most effectively. In Study 2, participants read vignettes concerning norm violations and afterward saw a photograph of the perpetrator displaying nonverbal shame, sadness or a neutral expression. Perpetrators' displays of shame and sadness increased perceived moral sense and amplified the observers' willingness to cooperate with the perpetrators. However, neither display weakened the observer's willingness to punish the perpetrator. In Study 3, the perpetrator was shown to display shame, sadness, anger or a neutral expression after getting caught at mild or severe norm violation. The results replicated previous findings but revealed also that the social effects of shame and sadness displays on punitive and cooperative intentions were mediated by different social appraisals. For example, display of shame uniquely reduced punitive intentions by increasing the perpetrator's perceived moral sense, whereas expressions of both shame and sadness evoked empathy in the observers, which in turn reduced the punitive intentions. These results give support to the assumption that nonverbal shame displays serve a unique social function in preventing moral punishment and social exclusion. However, this support is only partial as the social functions of displaying shame are largely parallel to those of expressing sadness in the situation.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Juicio/fisiología , Adulto , Ira/fisiología , Empatía/fisiología , Expresión Facial , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Principios Morales , Castigo , Vergüenza , Conducta Social , Percepción Social
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