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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 628-643, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146341

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play pivotal roles in plant responses to stress. Although glycine betaine (GB) and hot water (HW) treatments are effective in reducing chilling injury (CI), little is known about the characterization of the Hsfs gene family and its potential roles in alleviating CI by regulating antioxidant systems in peach fruit. RESULTS: In this study, 17 PpHsfs were identified in the peach genome and were investigated using bioinformatics, including chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, motifs, and promoter analyses. The expression patterns of PpHsfs under GB and HW treatments were also investigated. The PpHsfs showed different expression patterns in GB- and HW-treated fruit, and most of them were significantly up-regulated by both treatments, especially PpHsfA1a/b, PpHsfA2a, PpHsfA9a, and PpHsfB2a/b. Meanwhile, GB and HW treatments induced higher levels of gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared to the control, contributing to the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and superoxide anion (O2 .- ) production. Moreover, the correlation analysis between PpHsfs and antioxidant-related genes showed that three PpAPXs were significantly correlated with ten PpHsfs, whereas PpCAT and PpSOD had no significant correlations with PpHsfs, which indicated that PpAPX might be regulated by PpHsfs. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that GB and HW treatments induced different PpHsfs transcript levels to regulate the antioxidant gene expressions, which might be beneficial in inhibiting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and protecting the integrity of cell structure, thus alleviating the development of CI in peach fruit during cold storage. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Betaína/farmacología , Genoma de Planta , Factores de Transcripción del Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus persica/efectos de los fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Factores de Transcripción del Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Calor , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118389, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687779

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) toxicity is a problem that needs to be solved in terms of both human health and agricultural production in the vast majority of the world. The presence of As causes biomass loss by disrupting the balance of biochemical processes in plants and preventing growth/water absorption in the roots and accumulating in the edible parts of the plant and entering the food chain. A critical method of combating As toxicity is the use of biosafe, natural, bioactive compounds such as hesperidin (HP) or chlorogenic acid (CA). To this end, in this study, the physiological and biochemical effects of HP (100 µM) and CA (50 µM) were investigated in Zea mays under arsenate stress (100 µM). Relative water content, osmotic potential, photosynthesis-related parameters were suppressed under stress. It was determined that stress decreased the activities of the antioxidant system and increased the level of saturated fatty acids and, gene expression of PHT transporters involved in the uptake and translocation of arsenate. After being exposed to stress, HP and CA improved the capacity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and then ROS accumulation (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were effectively removed. These phenolic compounds contributed to maintaining the cellular redox status by regulating enzyme/non-enzyme activity/contents involved in the AsA-GSH cycle. HP and CA reversed the adverse effects of excessive metal ion accumulation by re-regulated expression of the PHT1.1 and PHT1.3 genes in response to stress. Exogenously applied HP and CA effectively maintained membrane integrity by regulating saturated/unsaturated fatty acid content. However, the combined application of HP and CA did not show a synergistic protective activity against As stress and had a negative effect on the antioxidant capacity of maize leaves. As a result, HP and CA have great potentials to provide tolerance to maize under As stress by reducing oxidative injury and preserving the biochemical reactions of photosynthesis.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Hesperidina , Antioxidantes , Arsénico/toxicidad , Catalasa/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogénico , Ácidos Grasos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo , Agua , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131707, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365170

RESUMEN

2-Pentanone is an excellent organic solvent and extractant, which is widely used in industrial production. 2-Pentanone is harmful to soil organisms when it enters the soil. However, current studies have not clarified the response of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) to 2-Pentanone and its mechanism. In this study, the response of earthworm antioxidant enzyme SOD to 2-Pentanone and its molecular mechanism was investigated at organism molecular levels. The results showed that the SOD activity of earthworms under 2-Pentanone stress was significantly inhibited, and the inability of superoxide anion radicals (·O2-) to be scavenged in time might be one of the reasons for the increase of lipid peroxidation. Under 2-Pentanone exposure conditions, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme closely related to SOD, and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of earthworms were activated to resist oxidative damage. On the other hand, the observation of earthworm microstructure provided evidence of a direct risk of 2-Pentanone on earthworm body wall tissues. Molecular-level assays have shown that 2-pentanone altered the secondary structure of SOD, which further led to the loosening of the SOD backbone structure and the extension of the polypeptide chain. On the other hand, 2-pentanone quenched the endogenous fluorescence of SOD in the form of static quenching and formed the 2-pentanone/SOD complex. Molecular simulation results suggested that 2-pentanone tended to bind on the surface of SOD rather than close to the active site, and it is speculated that the alteration of SOD structure is the key reason for the change in its activity. This study enriches the toxicological data of 2-Pentanone on soil organisms, thus responding to the current concerns about its ecological risk.


Asunto(s)
Oligoquetos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Malondialdehído , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Pentanonas , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132167, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509010

RESUMEN

A comparative analysis of physio-biochemical indices and transcriptional activity of oxidative stress genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings after 7-days exposure to bulk- and nano-ZnO (300 and 2000 mg/L) was carried out. A dose-dependent reduction in the length and weight of roots and shoots, as well as a significant accumulation of Zn in plant parts, was shown. Alterations in the shape and size of organelles, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and chloroplast and mitochondrial disorganization were also revealed. These processes are particularly pronounced when H. vulgare is exposed to the higher concentrations of nano-ZnO. The study of the antioxidant defense system revealed mainly an increase in the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The increases in activity, by 4-fold and 3-fold, was found for glutathione transferase in the roots when exposed to 2000 mg/L bulk- and nano-ZnO, respectively. The study of transcriptional activity demonstrated that in the roots under the influence of bulk- and nano-ZnO, along with Mn-SOD, Fe-SOD is highly expressed, mainly associated with the protection of chloroplasts. Analysis of the Cat 1 and Cat 2 gene expression showed that the main contribution to the increase in catalase activity in treated H. vulgare is made by the CAT-1 isozyme. Generally, in response to the impact of the studied ZnO forms, the antioxidant defense system is activated in H. vulgare, which effectively prevents the progression of oxidative stress in early stages of plant ontogenesis. Nevertheless, with constant exposure to bulk- and nano-ZnO at high concentrations, such activation leads to a depletion of the plant's energy resources, which negatively affects its growth and development. The results obtained could be useful in predicting the risks associated with the further transfer of nano-ZnO to the environment.


Asunto(s)
Hordeum , Óxido de Zinc , Antioxidantes , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Óxido de Zinc/toxicidad
5.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 131882, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509012

RESUMEN

Glyphosate's primary metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA) is known to alter embryonic development at environmentally relevant concentrations in amphibians. However, we have limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms through which AMPA affects organisms. In this study, we tested whether alteration of the oxidative status is one mechanism through which AMPA affects organism performance. To this end, we analysed several oxidative status markers in hatchling tadpoles that were exposed to sublethal concentrations of AMPA during embryonic development (~16 days). We compared the influence of environmentally relevant concentrations of AMPA (from 0.07 to 3.57 µg l-1) on the relation between developmental traits (i.e, embryonic development duration, embryonic mortality and hatchling size) and oxidative status markers known to alter homeostasis when unbalanced (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), thiols and ratios thereof). We included measures of telomere length as an indicator of physiological state. We found that AMPA concentrations induce non-monotonic effects on some oxidative status markers with hatchlings displaying elevated antioxidant responses (elevated thiols and unbalanced SOD/(GPx + CAT) ratio). The lack of effect of AMPA on the relation between developmental traits, oxidative status and telomere length suggests that selective mortality of embryos susceptible to oxidative stress may have occurred prior to hatching in individuals less resistant to AMPA which display lower hatching success. Future studies are required to disentangle whether oxidative unbalance is a cause or a consequence of AMPA exposition. This study highlights the need to investigate effects of the metabolites of contaminants at environmental concentrations to comprehensively assess impacts of anthropogenic contamination on wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Embrionario , Superóxido Dismutasa , Anfibios , Animales , Antioxidantes , Catalasa/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Organofosfonatos , Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113080, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929504

RESUMEN

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a highly consumed staple crop worldwide, but abiotic/heavy metal stresses acting on the plant cause reduction in yield and quality, thereby impacting global food security. In the present study, we examined the effect of ß-pinene against Arsenic (As)-induced oxidative damage vis-à-vis regulation of activities of enzymatic antioxidants in roots of O. sativa. Effect of As (50 µM), ß-pinene (10 µM; ß-10) and As + ß-10 treatments on root length, shoot length, As accumulation, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde [MDA] content), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, and activities of lipoxygenase (LOX) and enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was determined. Exposure of As caused a decline in root and shoot length, and enhancement in As accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and activities of enzymatic antioxidants. However, supplementation of ß-10 (i.e., As + ß-10 treatments) led to an increase in root and shoot length. Treatment with As + ß-10 resulted in a decline in As accumulation, H2O2 content, and MDA content; however, the effect on LOX activity was non-significant, as compared to control. Similarly, with As + ß-10 treatment a reduction in the activities of APX, GPX, GR, SOD, and CAT was observed as compared with As-alone treatment. Pearson's correlation matrix exhibited strong negative correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and root/shoot length, whereas a strong positive correlation was observed between antioxidant enzymes and ROS. The present study demonstrated that ß-pinene significantly ameliorates As-induced oxidative stress and provides tolerance to O. sativa against As-induced toxicity, and thus offer an option of As-mitigation using environment friendly natural plant products. However, to gain insights into the function of ß-pinene in modulating As-induced oxidative damage in plants, further field investigations and exploration of its mechanism of action are needed.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Oryza , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsénico/toxicidad , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Catalasa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Peroxidación de Lípido , Oryza/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
7.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112030, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508771

RESUMEN

The study was designed to determine the impact of acute toxicity of fumaronitrile exposure through tissue damaging, oxidative stress enzymes and histopathological studies in gills, liver and muscle cells of freshwater tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). In gill, liver, and muscle cells, biochemical indicators such as tissue damage enzymes (Acid Phosphatase (ACP), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)) and antioxidative enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase (SOD); Catalase (CAT); Glutathione-S-transferase (GST); Reduced Glutathione (GSH); Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were quantified in the time interval of 30, 60 and 90 days exposure to the fumaronitrile. After 90 days, under 6 ppb exposure conditions, the acid phosphatase (ACP) levels of fish increased significantly in the gills (3.439 µmol/mg protein/min), liver (1.743 µmol/mg protein/min), and muscles (2.158 µmol/mg protein/min). After 90 days of exposure to the same concentration and days, ALP activity increased significantly in gills (4.354 µmol/mg protein/min) and liver (1.754 µmol/mg protein/min), but muscle cells had a little decrease in ALP activity (2.158 µmol/mg protein/min). The LDH concentration in gills following treatment with fumaronitrile over a period of 0-90 days was 3.573 > 3.521 > 2.245 µmol/mg protein/min over 30 > 60 > 90 days. However, at the same dose and treatment duration, a greater LDH level of 0.499 µmol/mg protein/min was found in liver and muscle cells. Histopathological abnormalities in the gills, liver, and muscle cells of treated fish were also examined, indicating that fumaronitrile treatment generated the most severe histological changes. The current study reveals that fumaronitrile exposure has an effect on Oreochromis mossambicus survival, explaining and emphasising the risk associated with this POP exposure to ecosystems and human populations.


Asunto(s)
Tilapia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Fumaratos , Branquias , Residuos Industriales , Peroxidación de Lípido , Hígado , Estrés Oxidativo , Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Tilapia/metabolismo , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
8.
Acta Cir Bras ; 36(11): e361108, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932672

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the oxidative stress in swine neonates submitted to hypoxia. METHODS: Ten large white piglets, healthy newborns, of both sexes, were divided into two groups and submitted to an experimental hypoxia protocol with reduced inspired oxygen fraction. The hypoxia group, composed of six animals, was submitted to oxygen reduction for 180 min. The animals in the control group, n = 4, were handled and evaluated simultaneously, but without oxygen reduction. RESULTS: 180 min after the start of the hypoxic insult, a significant difference was observed in the oximetry, and heart rate of the hypoxia group was compared to the control group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the oxidative stress analyses. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the piglets' brain tissue were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia causes adverse effects in swine neonates, although there is a natural physiological resistance of swine neonates to respond to this insult. Analyses of GSH, SOD, CAT, TBARS, MPO, and PC were tabulated and are presented as parameters for further studies to be carried out on an animal model of swine hypoxia.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Glutatión/metabolismo , Hipoxia , Peroxidación de Lípido , Masculino , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Porcinos , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
9.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2187-2191, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725298

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to study the dynamics of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in the blood of patients with generalized periodontitis accompanied by normo-, hyper- and hyporeactivity of the body after patch surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 216 people aged 45 between 55 years with a diagnosis of generalized periodontitis of II, III degree of severity, chronic course were examined. Depending on the condition of reactivity of the organism, patients were divided into three groups: the first consisted of people with normoreaction; the second included patients with hyperreaction; the third group was made up by people with hyporeaction. Patients after initial therapy, underwent patch surgery. Blood sampling was performed after surgery on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 9th day. The content of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde and peroxide hemolysis of erythrocytes, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase, and total antioxidant activity was determined by the biochemical method. RESULTS: Results: Normoreaction was characterized by two-phase moderate activation of lipid peroxidation with maxima on the 1st and 6th day against the normalization of the balance of oxidative systems by the end of observations. For hyperreaction pronounced activation of lipid peroxidation (significant increase in the content of diene conjugates and malonic dialdehyde with a maximum on the 1st day) accompanied by depletion of antioxidant protection activity was typical. Hyporeaction was characterized by slow activation of lipid peroxidation (increase in diene conjugates and malonic dialdehyde with a maximum on the 4th day) accompanied by insufficient activity of antioxidant protection. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: Correction of altered parameters in patients with generalized periodontitis accompanied by impaired (hyper- and hypo-) reactivity of the body with bringing them to values of normoreactivity is considered to be a condition for optimizing mucosal wound healing after surgery and further stabilization of the periodontal tissues.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Periodontitis , Catalasa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Periodo Posoperatorio , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
10.
Physiol Plant ; 173(4): 2323-2333, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625976

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to evaluate root cortical aerenchyma formation in response to Cd-driven hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the alleviation of Cd oxidative stress in maize roots and its effects on aerenchyma development. Maize plants were subjected to continuous flooding for 30 days, and the following treatments were applied weekly: Cd(NO3 )2 at 0, 10, and 50 µM and Na2 [Fe(CN)5 NO]·2H2 O (an NO donor) at 0.5, 0.1, and 0.2 µM. The root biometrics; oxidative stress indicators H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA); and activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were analyzed. The root dry and fresh masses decreased at higher concentrations of NO and Cd. H2 O2 also decreased at higher NO concentrations; however, MDA increased only at higher Cd levels. SOD activity decreased at higher concentrations of NO, but CAT activity increased. Aerenchyma development decreased in response to NO. Consequently, NO acts as an antagonist to Cd, decreasing the concentration of H2 O2 by reducing SOD activity and increasing CAT activity. Although H2 O2 is directly linked to aerenchyma formation, increased H2 O2 concentrations are necessary for root cortical aerenchyma development.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Óxido Nítrico , Antioxidantes , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Cadmio/toxicidad , Catalasa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Estrés Oxidativo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 474, 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plant annexins are calcium- and lipid-binding proteins that have multiple functions, and a significant amount of research on plant annexins has been reported in recent years. However, the functions of annexins in diverse biological processes in rice are largely unclear. RESULTS: Herein, we report that OsANN4, a calcium-binding rice annexin protein, was induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Under ABA treatment, the plants in which OsANN4 was knocked down by RNA interference showed some visible phenotypic changes compared to the wild type, such as a lower rooting rate and shorter shoot and root lengths. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of the RNAi lines were significantly lower and further resulted in higher accumulation of O2.- and H2O2 than those of the wild-type. A Non-invasive Micro-test Technology (NMT) assay showed that ABA-induced net Ca2+ influx was inhibited in OsANN4 knockdown plants. Interestingly, the phenotypic differences caused by ABA were eliminated in the presence of LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel inhibitor). Apart from this, we demonstrated that OsCDPK24 interacted with and phosphorylated OsANN4. When the phosphorylated serine residue of OsANN4 was substituted by alanine, the interaction between OsANN4 and OsCDPK24 was still observed, however, both the conformation of OsANN4 and its binding activity with Ca2+ might be changed. CONCLUSIONS: OsANN4 plays a crucial role in the ABA response, partially by modulating ROS production, mediating Ca2+ influx or interacting with OsCDPK24.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Anexinas/metabolismo , Calcio/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/farmacología , Proteínas Quinasas/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Anexinas/genética , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiología , Fenotipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinasas/genética , Interferencia de ARN , Plantones/genética , Plantones/fisiología , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 240: 105985, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634712

RESUMEN

Alexandrium affine is a global harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming dinoflagellate. In this study, the effect of non-toxin-producing A. affine on the gill and liver tissues of red seabream, Pagrus major, was analyzed over 24 h exposure and 2 h depuration phases. After exposure to three concentrations of A. affine (4,000, 6,000, and 7,000 cells mL-1), survival rates, respiration rates, immunities (lysozyme, total Ig), hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; and alkaline phosphatase, ALP), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA), and antioxidant defense systems (glutathione, GSH; catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; and glutathione reductase, GR) were analyzed in gill and liver tissues. Dose-dependent decreases in survival and respiration rates were detected in red seabream. A. affine levels of to 6,000 and 7,000 cells mL-1 induced immunosuppression and hepatic impairment in both tissues, as measured by significant decreases in lysozyme activity, total Ig level, ALT, AST, and ALP content. The levels of GSH, CAT, SOD, GPx, and GR were significantly decreased in the gills and liver in response to 7,000 cells mL-1 of A. affine at 24 h, and MDA was elevated. However, different response patterns were observed between tissues in response to 4,000 cells mL-1. Activity of antioxidant defense enzymes was significantly elevated in the liver but decreased in the gills. This suggests that the gills were more vulnerable than the liver. In the case of 6,000 and 7,000 cells mL-1 treatments, higher susceptibility was also detected at 3 h in the gill compared to the overall responses of each parameter measured in liver. Taken together, direct attachment of A. affine to the gill tissue strongly affects immunity and antioxidant capacity of red seabream even after a short exposure period. These results could be helpful for understanding HAB-mediated effects in marine fish.


Asunto(s)
Dinoflagelados , Dorada , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Branquias/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Peroxidación de Lípido , Hígado/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Dorada/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/efectos adversos
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 240: 105987, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644674

RESUMEN

The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and the insecticide fipronil have been used widely in agriculture and detected in aquatic ecosystems, where they threaten wildlife. This study evaluated the whole-body bioconcentration and the biochemical and morphological changes in the gills of the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus exposed for 96 h to 2,4-D or fipronil as single compounds or as a mixture (2,4-D + fipronil). Fish exposed to either compound alone bioconcentrated 2,4-D (77 ± 23 ng g - 1 fish dry mass) and fipronil (789 ± 178 ng g - 1 fish dry mass). Fish exposed to 2,4-D + fipronil bioconcentrated fipronil (683 ± 73 ng g - 1 fish dry mass) but not 2,4-D. In the gills, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level increased after exposure to 2,4-D. GST activity increased after exposure to fipronil. Conversely, no changes occurred in CAT and GST activities and LPO upon exposure to 2,4-D + fipronil. Histopathological changes such as hyperplasia, cellular hypertrophy, epithelial lifting, and vascular congestion were frequent in the gills of fish exposed to 2,4-D or fipronil individually or 2,4-D + fipronil. The mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) density increased on gill surface in fish exposed to fipronil or 2,4-D + fipronil. Only exposure to 2,4-D alone induced oxidative stress in the gills. Most morphological changes showed defense responses against the pesticides; however, hypertrophy and the change in MRC indicated compensatory responses to maintain the gill osmoregulatory function. The 2,4-D + fipronil mixture showed antagonistic interaction, except for the MRC fractional area at gill surface, which showed synergistic interaction. This is the first report showing antagonistic interaction of 2,4-D and fipronil in the gills after exposing fish to the mixture of both pesticides. The biochemical and morphological changes in gills endanger the gill functions, a phenomenon that implies an energy cost for fish.


Asunto(s)
Characiformes , Herbicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidad , Animales , Bioacumulación , Catalasa/metabolismo , Characiformes/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Branquias/metabolismo , Glutatión Transferasa/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Peroxidación de Lípido , Hígado/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Pirazoles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639267

RESUMEN

Background: The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) tadalafil, in addition to its therapeutic role, has shown antioxidant effects in different in vivo models. Supplementation with antioxidants has received interest as a suitable tool for preventing or reducing exercise-related oxidative stress, possibly leading to the improvement of sport performance in athletes. However, the use/abuse of these substances must be evaluated not only within the context of amateur sport, but especially in competitions where elite athletes are more exposed to stressful physical practice. To date, very few human studies have addressed the influence of the administration of PDE5Is on redox balance in subjects with a fitness level comparable to elite athletes; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether acute ingestion of tadalafil could affect plasma markers related to cellular damage, redox homeostasis, and blood polyamines levels in healthy subjects with an elevated cardiorespiratory fitness level. Methods: Healthy male volunteers (n = 12), with a VO2max range of 40.1-56.0 mL/(kg × min), were administered with a single dose of tadalafil (20 mg). Plasma molecules related to muscle damage and redox-homeostasis, such as creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG), free thiols (FTH), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), protein carbonyls (PrCAR), and polyamine levels (spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd)) were evaluated immediately before and 2, 6 and 24 hours after the acute tadalafil administration. Results: A single tadalafil administration induced an increase in CK and LDH plasma levels 24 after consumption. No effects were observed on redox homeostasis or antioxidant enzyme activities, and neither were they observed on the oxidation target molecules or polyamines levels. Conclusion: Our results show that in subjects with an elevated fitness level, a single administration of tadalafil induced a significant increase in muscle damage target without affecting plasma antioxidant status.


Asunto(s)
Glutatión , Poliaminas , Antioxidantes , Catalasa/metabolismo , Ejercicio Físico , Glutatión/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa , Homeostasis , Humanos , Masculino , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Tadalafilo
15.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718645

RESUMEN

Radiation is considered as a promising insect pest control strategy for minimizing postharvest yield losses. Among various techniques, irradiation is a method of choice as it induces lethal biochemical or molecular changes that cause a downstream cascade of abrupt physiological abnormalities at the cellular level. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 60Co-γ radiation on various developmental stages of Zeugodacus cucurbitae Coquillett and subsequent carry-over effects on the progeny. For this purpose, we treated eggs with 30- and 50-Gy radiation doses of 60Co-γ. We found that radiation significantly affected cellular antioxidants, insect morphology, and gene expression profiles. Our results indicate that in response to various doses of irradiation reactive oxygen species, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were increased along with a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. We observed higher mortality rates during the pupal stage of the insects that hatched from irradiated eggs (50 Gy). Furthermore, the life span of the adults was reduced in response to 50 Gy radiation. The negative effects carried over to the next generation were marked by significantly lower fecundity in the F1 generation of the irradiation groups as compared to control. The radiation induced morphological abnormalities at the pupal, as well as the adult, stages. Furthermore, variations in the gene expression following irradiation are discussed. Taken together, our results signify the utility of 60Co-γ radiation for fruit fly postharvest management.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de la radiación , Rayos gamma , Expresión Génica/efectos de la radiación , Tephritidae/efectos de la radiación , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/efectos de la radiación , Apoptosis/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Catalasa/efectos de la radiación , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/farmacología , Control de Insectos/métodos , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insectos/efectos de la radiación , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/fisiología , Larva/efectos de la radiación , Longevidad/efectos de la radiación , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/efectos de la radiación , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Peroxidasa/efectos de la radiación , Control de Plagas/métodos , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Pupa/fisiología , Pupa/efectos de la radiación , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/efectos de la radiación , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Tephritidae/fisiología
16.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684532

RESUMEN

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and linseed oil (LO) supplementation are effective strategies to reduce obesity-induced oxidative stress. Our aim was to determine whether the HIIT + LO combination prevents obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. HFD-fed 8-week-old, male, Wistar rats were subdivided in four groups: HFD, LO (2% of sunflower oil replaced with 2% of LO in the HFD), HIIT (4 days/week for 12 weeks), and HIIT + LO. Wistar rats fed a low-fat diet (LFD) were used as controls. Epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, liver, and plasma samples were collected to measure oxidative stress markers (AOPP, oxLDL), antioxidant (SOD, CAT, and GPx activities) and pro-oxidant (NOx and XO) enzyme activities. Compared with the LFD, the HFD altered the pro/antioxidant status in different tissues (increase of AOPP, oxLDL, SOD and catalase activities in plasma, and SOD activity increase in liver and decrease in adipose tissues) but not in gastrocnemius. LO upregulated CAT activity and decreased NOx in liver. HIIT alleviated HFD negative effects in liver by reducing SOD and NOx activities. Moreover, the HIIT + LO combination potentiated SOD activity upregulation in subcutaneous tissue. HIIT and LO supplementation have independent beneficial effects on the pro/antioxidant balance. Their association promotes SOD activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Conducta Alimentaria , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad , Aceite de Linaza/farmacología , Obesidad/patología , Estrés Oxidativo , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangre , Catalasa/metabolismo , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitratos/metabolismo , Obesidad/sangre , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas Wistar , Tejido Subcutáneo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Subcutáneo/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684776

RESUMEN

Oxidative stress in aquatic organisms might suppress the immune system and propagate infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of polyphenolic extracts from spent coffee grounds (SCG) against oxidative stress, induced by H2O2, in C. viridis brain cells, through an in vitro model. Hydrophilic extracts from SCG are rich in quinic, ferulic and caffeic acids and showed antioxidant capacity in DPPH, ORAC and FRAP assays. Furthermore, pretreatment of C. viridis brain cells with the polyphenolic extracts from SCG (230 and 460 µg/mL) for 24 h prior to 100 µM H2O2 exposure (1 h) significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and reduced lipid peroxidation (measured by MDA levels). These results suggest that polyphenols found in SCG extracts exert an antioxidative protective effect against oxidative stress in C. viridis brain cells by stimulating the activity of SOD and CAT.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Café/química , Perciformes/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Encéfalo/citología , Catalasa/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Coffea/química , Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/química , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/aislamiento & purificación , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polifenoles , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
18.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(4): R625-R633, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494473

RESUMEN

Mitochondria are the main organelles for mammalian energy metabolism and have been implicated in the regulation of germ cell maintenance and spermatogenesis. However, little is known about the changes in the mitochondria of the testis of seasonal breeders. Here, we characterized the seasonal changes in the mitochondria in the testis of the wild ground squirrels. Increased testicle weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, and sperm count were observed in the wild ground squirrels at the breeding season. RNA-seq analysis of the wild ground squirrel testes revealed that mitochondrial-related genes were expressed differentially between the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Immunohistochemical staining showed that key mitophagy factors including PINK1, MFN2, and PARKIN were highly expressed in various cell types of testis during the breeding season. In addition, the abundance and enzymatic activities of mitochondrial-localized antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and Catalase were decreased in the testis during the breeding season, suggesting a tightly controlled redox balance at least partially facilitated by mitophagy during the seasonal breeding. Taken together, our study reveals that mitochondrial autophagy and oxidative stress may be implicated in the seasonal reproductive recrudescence of the wild ground squirrels, which deepens our understanding of the mitochondrial regulation of seasonal reproductivity in wildlife and provides new insights into the development of potential therapeutic interventions of male infertility.


Asunto(s)
Cruzamiento , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Estrés Oxidativo , Sciuridae/metabolismo , Estaciones del Año , Testículo/metabolismo , Animales , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocondrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriales/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriales/metabolismo , Tamaño de los Órganos , Sciuridae/genética , Espermatogénesis , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/metabolismo
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201938, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550207

RESUMEN

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial and antimycotic agent widely used in personal care products. In aquatic environments, both TCS and its biomethylated more persistent form, methyl-triclosan (MeTCS), are usually detected in wastewater effluents and rivers, where are commonly adsorbed to suspended solids and sediments. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and physiological effects in Danio rerio after a short term (2 days) and prolonged (21 days) exposures to sediment spiked with TCS acting as the source of the pollutant in the assay. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione-s transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), total capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity (AChE) were measured in liver, gills, and brain. Most of TCS on the spiked sediment was biotransformed to MeTCS and promoted different adverse effects on D. rerio. Gills were the most sensitive organ after 2 day-exposure, showing lipid damage and increased SOD activity. After 21 days of exposure, liver was the most sensitive organ, showing lower ACAP, increased LPO levels, and SOD and CAT activities. This is the first study reporting the effects on biochemical markers in D. rerio from a MeTCS sink resulting from sediment spiked with TCS.


Asunto(s)
Triclosán , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Acetilcolinesterasa , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Triclosán/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Pez Cebra/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257023, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555032

RESUMEN

Abiotic stress, especially a lack of water, can significantly reduce crop yields. In this study, we evaluated the physiological and biochemical effects of potassium sulfate (K2SO4) fertilizer and varied irrigation regimes on the economically significant oilseed crop, Brassica juncea L, under open field conditions. Two cultivars (RH-725 and RH-749) of B. juncea were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with three replicates. Irrigation regimes consisted of a control (double irrigation: once at the 50% flowering and another at 50% fruiting stages), early irrigation (at 50% flowering only), late irrigation (at 50% fruiting only) and stress (no irrigation). The K2SO4 applications were: control (K0, no fertilization); K1, 10 kg ha-1; and K2, 20 kg ha-1. We measured growth via fresh and dry plant weight, plant height, root length, and leaf area. All the growth parameters were higher in RH-749. The physiological attributes, including the membrane stability index and relative water content, were higher at the 50% flowering stage in RH-749. The amount of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) was enhanced when both plants were fertilized during water stress. All of these enzymes had higher activity in RH-749. The total chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rate were considerably higher in RH-749, which leaked fewer electrolytes and maintained a less destructive osmotic potential under limited water conditions. The results indicated that it is water-stress tolerant when given a high concentration of K2SO4, which alleviated the adverse effects of water stress on growth and physiology.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análisis , Planta de la Mostaza/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Sulfatos/farmacología , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Sequías , Flores/efectos de los fármacos , Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Planta de la Mostaza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Planta de la Mostaza/metabolismo , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidad de la Especie , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
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