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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8470, 2024 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605046

RESUMEN

The nasal microbiota is a key contributor to animal health, and characterizing the nasal microbiota composition is an important step towards elucidating the role of its different members. Efforts to characterize the nasal microbiota composition of domestic pigs and other farm animals frequently report the presence of bacteria that are typically found in the gut, including many anaerobes from the Bacteroidales and Clostridiales orders. However, the in vivo role of these gut-microbiota associated taxa is currently unclear. Here, we tackled this issue by examining the prevalence, origin, and activity of these taxa in the nasal microbiota of piglets. First, analysis of the nasal microbiota of farm piglets sampled in this study, as well as various publicly available data sets, revealed that gut-microbiota associated taxa indeed constitute a substantial fraction of the pig nasal microbiota that is highly variable across individual animals. Second, comparison of herd-matched nasal and rectal samples at amplicon sequencing variant (ASV) level showed that these taxa are largely shared in the nasal and rectal microbiota, suggesting a common origin driven presumably by the transfer of fecal matter. Third, surgical sampling of the inner nasal tract showed that gut-microbiota associated taxa are found throughout the nasal cavity, indicating that these taxa do not stem from contaminations introduced during sampling with conventional nasal swabs. Finally, analysis of cDNA from the 16S rRNA gene in these nasal samples indicated that gut-microbiota associated taxa are indeed active in the pig nasal cavity. This study shows that gut-microbiota associated taxa are not only present, but also active, in the nasal cavity of domestic pigs, and paves the way for future efforts to elucidate the function of these taxa within the nasal microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Cavidad Nasal , Porcinos , Animales , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/análisis , Nariz/microbiología , Microbiota/genética , Sus scrofa/genética
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8482, 2024 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605156

RESUMEN

Decongestion reduces blood flow in the nasal turbinates, enlarging the airway lumen. Although the enlarged airspace reduces the trans-nasal inspiratory pressure drop, symptoms of nasal obstruction may relate to nasal cavity air-conditioning. Thus, it is necessary to quantify the efficiency of nasal cavity conditioning of the inhaled air. This study quantifies both overall and regional nasal air-conditioning in a cohort of 10 healthy subjects using computational fluid dynamics simulations before and after nasal decongestion. The 3D virtual geometry model was segmented from magnetic resonance images (MRI). Each subject was under two MRI acquisitions before and after the decongestion condition. The effects of decongestion on nasal cavity air conditioning efficiency were modelled at two inspiratory flowrates: 15 and 30 L min-1 to represent restful and light exercise conditions. Results show inhaled air was both heated and humidified up to 90% of alveolar conditions at the posterior septum. The air-conditioning efficiency of the nasal cavity remained nearly constant between nostril and posterior septum but dropped significantly after posterior septum. In summary, nasal cavity decongestion not only reduces inhaled air added heat by 23% and added moisture content by 19%, but also reduces the air-conditioning efficiency by 35% on average.


Asunto(s)
Cavidad Nasal , Obstrucción Nasal , Humanos , Cavidad Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Cavidad Nasal/fisiología , Aire Acondicionado , Estudios de Cohortes , Cornetes Nasales , Hipertrofia , Simulación por Computador
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e17227, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618567

RESUMEN

Background: Nasal sprays are widely used in treating nasal and sinus diseases; however, there are very few studies on the drug delivery efficiency of nasal sprays. In this study, the drug delivery efficiency of three different nasal spray devices was evaluated in vitro using a 3D printed cast model of nasal cavity. Methods: Three nasal spray devices with different nozzles and angles of administration were used in the 3D model of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The spraying area (SA), maximal spraying distance (MSD), and spraying distribution scores on the nasal septum and lateral nasal wall were recorded. Results: Different nasal spray devices have their own characteristics, including volume of each spray, SA, and plume angle. The SA of the three nozzles on the nasal septum increased with an increasing angle of administration. When the angle of administration was 50°, each nozzle reached the maximal SA. There was no statistically significant difference in MSD among the three nozzles at the three angles. The total scores for each nozzle using the three different spraying angles were as follows: nozzle A, 40° > 30° > 50°; nozzle B, 30° > 40° > 50°; and nozzle C, 30° > 40° > 50°. The total scores for different nozzles using the same angle were statistically significantly different and the scores for nozzle C were the highest. Nozzle C had the minimum plume angle. None of the three nozzles could effectively delivered drugs into the middle meatus at any angle in this model. Conclusions: The design of the nozzle affects drug delivery efficiency of nasal spray devices. The ideal angle of administration is 50°. The nozzle with smaller plume angle has higher drug delivery efficiency. Current nasal spray devices can easily deliver drugs to most areas of the nasal cavity, such as the turbinate, nasal septum, olfactory fissure, and nasopharynx, but not the middle meatus. These findings are meaningful for nozzle selection and device improvements.


Asunto(s)
Cavidad Nasal , Rociadores Nasales , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Tabique Nasal , Impresión Tridimensional
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37720, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579026

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Epistaxis is one of the common emergencies in otolaryngology. There are many causes of epistaxis, but reports of epistaxis due to nasal foreign bodies like leeches are rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old male presented with "repeated epistaxis for over 20 days." Nasal endoscopy revealed a live leech in the olfactory area of the left nostril. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with epistaxis caused by a live leech in the nasal cavity. INTERVENTIONS: Under nasal endoscopy, the leech was grasped with a vascular clamp and removed from the nasal cavity. The leech measured 8 cm in length. Hemostasis was achieved using a gelatin sponge at the wound site, and the nasal cavity was packed with Vaseline gauze. OUTCOMES: The live leech was removed via nasal endoscopy. Two days later, the Vaseline gauze packing was removed, and the patient experienced no further nasal bleeding. CONCLUSION: Live leeches in the nasal cavity can cause epistaxis. Nasal endoscopic removal of the live leech is an effective treatment. LESSON: There are many causes of epistaxis, which are nonspecific and prone to missed or incorrect diagnosis. In patients with a history of fieldwork or direct contact with leeches who present with recurrent nasal bleeding, the possibility of epistaxis caused by a live leech should be considered, and timely and effective treatment should be provided.


Asunto(s)
Epistaxis , Sanguijuelas , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epistaxis/etiología , Epistaxis/terapia , Epistaxis/diagnóstico , Cavidad Nasal , Nariz , Endoscopía/efectos adversos , Vaselina
5.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561258

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the correlations between subjective nasal patency, nasal valve area size and aerodynamic parameters in normal nasal cavity by means of numerical simulation, and to explore the effect of nasal valve on nasal subjective sensation and nasal airflow regulation. Methods: A total of 52 healthy participants (31 males and 21 females) with the average age of 37.8 years, were recruited from the outpatient Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to the Medical College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University between January and August 2023. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for unilateral nasal subjective sensation were obtained from all participants. Additionally, the aerodynamic characteristics of inspiratory airflow were simulated. A correlation matrix analysis was conducted to identify the correlation strength between these subjective and objective parameters. Results: VAS scores showed negative correlations with unilateral nasal valve cross-sectional area (r=-0.85, P<0.01) and unilateral intranasal airflow (r=-0.57, P<0.01), and was a positive correlation with unilateral nasal resistance (NR) at the front-end of inferior turbinate (r=0.61, P<0.01). The average cross-sectional area of unilateral nasal valve was (0.85±0.35) cm2. The cross-sectional area of unilateral nasal valve was negatively correlated with unilateral NR (r=-0.50, P<0.01), and positively correlated with unilateral nasal airflow (r=0.61, P<0.01). The NR at the nasal valve area accounted for (40.41±23.54)% of the total unilateral NR. Nearly half of the unilateral NR [(46.74±21.38)%] and air warming [(49.96±10.02)%] occurring before the front end of inferior turbinate were achieved. Conclusions: The nasal valve area plays a crucial role in influencing nasal NR, unilateral nasal airflow, and changes in nasal airflow temperature. Moreover, it is associated with subjective perception of nasal patency.


Asunto(s)
Obstrucción Nasal , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Obstrucción Nasal/cirugía , Correlación de Datos , China , Cavidad Nasal , Cornetes Nasales
6.
Comput Biol Med ; 173: 108383, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555704

RESUMEN

Septoplasty and turbinectomy are among the most common interventions in the field of rhinology. Their constantly debated success rates and the lack of quantitative flow data of the entire nasal airway for planning the surgery necessitate methodological improvement. Thus, physics-based surgery planning is highly desirable. In this work, a novel and accurate method is developed to enhance surgery planning by physical aspects of respiration, i.e., to plan anti-obstructive surgery, for the first time a reinforcement learning algorithm is combined with large-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations. The method is integrated into an automated pipeline based on computed tomography imaging. The proposed surgical intervention is compared to a surgeon's initial plan, or the maximum possible intervention, which allows the quantitative evaluation of the intended surgery. Two criteria are considered: (i) the capability to supply the nasal airway with air expressed by the pressure loss and (ii) the capability to heat incoming air represented by the temperature increase. For a test patient suffering from a deviated septum near the nostrils and a bony spur further downstream, the method recommends surgical interventions exactly at these locations. For equal weights on the two criteria (i) and (ii), the algorithm proposes a slightly weaker correction of the deviated septum at the first location, compared to the surgeon's plan. At the second location, the algorithm proposes to keep the bony spur. For a larger weight on criterion (i), the algorithm tends to widen the nasal passage by removing the bony spur. For a larger weight on criterion (ii), the algorithm's suggestion approaches the pre-surgical state with narrowed channels that favor heat transfer. A second patient is investigated that suffers from enlarged turbinates in the left nasal passage. For equal weights on the two criteria (i) and (ii), the algorithm proposes a nearly complete removal of the inferior turbinate, and a moderate reduction of the middle turbinate. An increased weight on criterion (i) leads to an additional reduction of the middle turbinate, and a larger weight on criterion (ii) yields a solution with only slight reductions of both turbinates, i.e., focusing on a sufficient heat exchange between incoming air and the air-nose interface. The proposed method has the potential to improve the success rates of the aforementioned surgeries and can be extended to further biomedical flows.


Asunto(s)
Hidrodinámica , Obstrucción Nasal , Humanos , Simulación por Computador , Obstrucción Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Obstrucción Nasal/cirugía , Cornetes Nasales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cornetes Nasales/cirugía , Cavidad Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Cavidad Nasal/cirugía
7.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 89(1): 45-51, 2024.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506026

RESUMEN

Intraosseous vascular pathology of the turbinates is extremely rare in the practice of an otorhinolaryngologist and can be presented in various histopathological variants. The article presents two clinical cases in which an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma was hidden under the mask of a hypertrophied middle turbinate. The final diagnosis was established by the results of histological examination. The analysis of these clinical cases indicates that, despite the low prevalence, atypical clinical and CT picture, intraosseous formations of the nasal cavity can be of a vascular nature and certainly require a comprehensive examination, including CT, CT with contrast and/or MRI of the nose and paranasal sinuses. These clinical observations indicate that preliminary embolization of feeding vessels before surgical treatment is not required.


Asunto(s)
Hemangioma Cavernoso , Cráneo/anomalías , Columna Vertebral/anomalías , Cornetes Nasales , Malformaciones Vasculares , Humanos , Cornetes Nasales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cornetes Nasales/cirugía , Cornetes Nasales/patología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Hemangioma Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagen , Hemangioma Cavernoso/cirugía , Cavidad Nasal/cirugía
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297536, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478548

RESUMEN

Nasal endoscopy is routinely performed to distinguish the pathological types of masses. There is a lack of studies on deep learning algorithms for discriminating a wide range of endoscopic nasal cavity mass lesions. Therefore, we aimed to develop an endoscopic-examination-based deep learning model to detect and classify nasal cavity mass lesions, including nasal polyps (NPs), benign tumors, and malignant tumors. The clinical feasibility of the model was evaluated by comparing the results to those of manual assessment. Biopsy-confirmed nasal endoscopic images were obtained from 17 hospitals in South Korea. Here, 400 images were used for the test set. The training and validation datasets consisted of 149,043 normal nasal cavity, 311,043 NP, 9,271 benign tumor, and 5,323 malignant tumor lesion images. The proposed Xception architecture achieved an overall accuracy of 0.792 with the following class accuracies on the test set: normal = 0.978 ± 0.016, NP = 0.790 ± 0.016, benign = 0.708 ± 0.100, and malignant = 0.698 ± 0.116. With an average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.947, the AUC values and F1 score were highest in the order of normal, NP, malignant tumor, and benign tumor classes. The classification performances of the proposed model were comparable with those of manual assessment in the normal and NP classes. The proposed model outperformed manual assessment in the benign and malignant tumor classes (sensitivities of 0.708 ± 0.100 vs. 0.549 ± 0.172, 0.698 ± 0.116 vs. 0.518 ± 0.153, respectively). In urgent (malignant) versus nonurgent binary predictions, the deep learning model achieved superior diagnostic accuracy. The developed model based on endoscopic images achieved satisfactory performance in classifying four classes of nasal cavity mass lesions, namely normal, NP, benign tumor, and malignant tumor. The developed model can therefore be used to screen nasal cavity lesions accurately and rapidly.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cavidad Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Algoritmos , Endoscopía/métodos
9.
Zootaxa ; 5410(2): 222-238, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480247

RESUMEN

The present study integrates molecular and morphological data to support the proposal of new species of Telethecium Kritsky, Van Every & Boeger, 1996 and Diaphorocleidus Jogunoori, Kritsky & Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from the nasal cavities of Bryconops melanurus (Bloch) of the coastal drainages of the Eastern Amazon. Telethecium tiquira sp. n. is characterized by possessing a male copulatory organ (MCO) with two circular sclerotized brims on the base, a coiled tubular shaft having 1 counterclockwise rings, an accessory piece with enlarged base, pincer-shaped at the distal portion; a sclerotized calyx-shaped vaginal vestibule, and hooks with proximal shank dilatation comprising 3/4 of the shank length. Also, Telethecium tiquira sp. n. can be easily distinguished from other species of the genus by the absence of a protruding bag located at the level of the copulatory complex. Diaphorocleidus forficata sp. n. is characterized by having a MCO with two counterclockwise rings, circular sclerotized tandem brim associated with the base of the MCO; accessory piece non-articulated with the MCO, bifurcate, pincer-shaped; vaginal pore sinistral-ventral with opening marginal, vaginal canal sclerotized, elongated, comprising one loop in the proximal portion before entering to the seminal receptacle; ventral anchor with shaft elongated and evenly curved on the axis; point short and slightly curved, and hooks similar in shape and size, hooks with proximal dilatation comprising approximately of the shank length. Furthermore, D. forficata sp. n. is supported by phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the partial 28S rDNA gene, which placed D. forficata sp. n. in a well-supported clade of Diaphorocleidus spp. of characiform fishes. Thus, the two new species described here expand our knowledge about the diversity of monopisthocotylan parasites from the nasal cavities of Neotropical fishes. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the biodiversity of the region and highlight the importance of further research in this area.


Asunto(s)
Cefalosporinas , Characiformes , Enfermedades de los Peces , Trematodos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Femenino , Masculino , Animales , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Brasil , Filogenia , Cavidad Nasal , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Branquias , Trematodos/anatomía & histología
10.
Cancer Med ; 13(5): e6943, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497548

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We investigated the outcomes of postoperative radiation therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and our cross-departmental collaboration to enhance the effectiveness of cancer treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 22 patients with ONB who underwent postoperative radiotherapy after tumor resection. En bloc resection was performed; pathology specimens were prepared in coronal sections; and irradiation fields were determined after discussion with radiation oncologists, head and neck surgeons, and pathologists. RESULTS: The overall survival and local control rates were 95.5% and 100%, respectively, at a median 37-month follow-up. The 3- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.4% and 56.3%, respectively. Of the 22 patients, 9 (8 Kadish C and 1 Kadish B) had disease recurrence. Of the nine patients, five had positive margins and two had closed margins; cervical lymph node recurrence occurred in six, and distant metastasis with or without cervical lymph node recurrence occurred in three. DFS analysis of risk factors showed no statistically significant differences, but positive margins were a significant recurrence factor in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The local control rate of ONB treated with postoperative radiation therapy was 100%. This may be attributed to cross-departmental cooperation between head and neck surgeons, pathologists, and radiation oncologists, which resulted in accurate matching of CT images for treatment planning with the location of the tumor and positive margins. Longer follow-up periods are required to evaluate the effectiveness of our strategy.


Asunto(s)
Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatorio , Neoplasias Nasales , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatorio/radioterapia , Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatorio/cirugía , Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatorio/patología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Nasales/patología , Cavidad Nasal/patología , Cavidad Nasal/cirugía
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 125-135, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453495

RESUMEN

The present study characterized the filamentous and yeast-like fungal microbiota of the nasal cavity and rectum of Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) undergoing rehabilitation at the Laboratory of Aquatic Mammals, National Institute of Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas, and determined the antifungal susceptibility of these organisms. Nasal and rectal swabs were collected from 22 calves and three juveniles. The samples were seeded in Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol 10%, incubated at 26°C, and observed daily for up to 7 d. The growth of different filamentous and yeast-like fungi was observed among the two anatomical sites. Filamentous fungi were categorized by macro- and microscopic characteristics of the colonies. Representatives of each group were selected for molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer region. Yeast identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS and molecular analyses. Thirteen genera of filamentous fungi and six genera of yeasts were isolated and identified. The dominant filamentous species were Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Cochliobolus lunatus in the nostril samples and Aspergillus melleus in the rectal samples. Candida was the dominant genus among the identified yeasts at both anatomical sites. In the antifungal susceptibility test, 28 isolates showed resistance to fluconazole (78%), itraconazole (39%), and nystatin (42%). The knowledge of fungal microbiota composition of Amazonian manatees provides information that assists in monitoring the health status of individuals maintained in captivity, as these organisms can behave either as opportunists or as primary pathogens. Moreover, the composition and resistance of these organisms may vary among different rehabilitation institutions or different time frames of search, reinforcing the importance of constant in loco surveillance of these microorganisms. This study provides new perspectives on the fungal diversity in the microbiota of manatees and supports future studies concerning the clinical and epidemiological aspects and the impacts of these agents on the health of Amazonian manatees undergoing rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Micobioma , Trichechus inunguis , Animales , Bovinos , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Brasil/epidemiología , Recto , Cavidad Nasal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Trichechus , Hongos
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 122: 93-102, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492512

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Though the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is a widely accepted treatment for skull base tumors, the specific use of EEA for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) is debated, with variable outcomes reported in the literature. We review the surgical results of OGM resections for one surgeon including the operative approach, surgical nuances, and outcomes, with a focus on factors relating to patient selection which favor EEA over transcranial approaches. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed thirteen cases of endoscopic endonasal resection of olfactory groove meningiomas. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, surgical outcomes, and complications were analyzed. Extent of resection was determined based on volumetric analysis of pre- and postoperative MRI. RESULTS: Anatomic characteristics that render a tumor difficult to access fully are lateral extension beyond the mid-orbit and anterior extension to the falx. Simpson Grade I resection was achieved in 11/13 (84.6 %) cases. Mean pre-operative tumor volume was 8.99 cm3 (range 2.19-16.79 cm3), and 92 % of tumors were WHO grade I. We demonstrate 2 cases of smell preservation, possible with small unilateral tumors and tumors that are confined to either the anterior or posterior portion of the cribriform plate. The post-operative CSF leak rate was 7.7 %, without prophylactic lumbar CSF drainage. The mortality rate was 7.7 % (n = 1) after infectious complications following CSF leak. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic endonasal resection of olfactory groove meningiomas is an effective and safe operative method with outcomes and complication rates comparable to transcranial approaches. Key considerations include careful patient selection and familiarity with technical nuances of endoscopic endonasal approach for this specific tumor type.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Neoplasias de la Base del Cráneo , Humanos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirugía , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagen , Meningioma/cirugía , Meningioma/patología , Cavidad Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Cavidad Nasal/cirugía , Nariz/cirugía , Nariz/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de la Base del Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Base del Cráneo/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Head Face Med ; 20(1): 20, 2024 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532483

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nasal airway stenosis may lie anterior and/or posterior to the piriform aperture. We intended to compare the nasal airway anterior and posterior to the piriform aperture in patients with and without nasal obstruction. METHODS: Segmented computed tomography cross-sectional areas of the nasal airway anterior (CT-CSAant) and posterior to the piriform aperture (at the level of the head of the inferior turbinate; CT-CSApost) were compared between patients with nasal obstruction (cases) and trauma controls. CT-CSA were approximately perpendicular to the direction of the nasal airflow. Anterior to the piriform aperture, they were tilted about 30o, 60o and 90o to the nasal floor. Posterior to the piriform aperture, they were tilted about 50o, 80o and 100o to the nasal floor. In cases, we examined the Pearson's correlation of active anterior rhinomanometry with CT-CSAant and CT-CSApost. RESULTS: Narrow and bilateral CT-CSApost were similarly large between 56 cases and 56 controls (all p > 0.2). On the contrary, narrow and bilateral CT-CSAant were significantly smaller in cases than in controls (all p < 0.001). The ratio of the size of CT-CSAant-30 to that of CT-CSApost-80 was significantly lower in cases (median: 0.84; lower to upper quartile: 0.55-1.13) than in controls (1.0; 0.88-1.16; Mann-Whitney U test; p = 0.006). Bilateral CT-CSAant correlated significantly with total inspiratory flow (all p < 0.026) in contrast to bilateral CT-CSApost (all p > 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: The nasal airway anterior to the piriform aperture was smaller in patients with nasal obstruction due to skeletal nasal stenosis than that in controls. On the contrary, the nasal airway posterior to the piriform aperture was similarly large between patients with and without nasal obstruction. Furthermore, in patients with nasal obstruction, the anterior nasal airway was narrower compared to that located posterior to it. On the contrary, control patients' anterior nasal airway was as large as the posterior one.


Asunto(s)
Obstrucción Nasal , Humanos , Constricción Patológica , Nariz , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Cavidad Nasal
14.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 46(3): 327-332, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438716

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Variations in nasal wall anatomy are crucial in patients with dentofacial deformities undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy. These structural variations heighten the potential for complications during surgical procedures. Hence, the study focused on evaluating the differences in the lateral nasal wall anatomy across different skeletal Classes. METHODS: This study evaluated 86 patients aged 18-43 years with different skeletal Classes. In the axial images acquired from coronal sections, two angulations and the linear distances of the lateral nasal wall were measured in Class I, II, and III patients. The measurement between the piriform opening and the most anterior point of the greater palatine foramen was evaluated in three parts regarding the osteotomy line. Differences between the skeletal patterns were analyzed using an independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U test with a significance level of 0.05. The intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated for inter-observer and intra-observer agreement. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between Class I and Class II subjects regarding the anterior lateral nasal wall (p = 0.011) and anterior nasal thickness (a) (0.004). There was a significant difference between Class I and Class III patients regarding anterior nasal thickness (a) (p < 0.001) and total lateral nasal wall length (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: For instance, the measurements of Class III and Class II patients were relatively different from those of the Class I patients. Therefore, preoperative Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic analysis should be performed for each patient prior to Le Fort I osteotomy to ensure that the procedure is performed safely.


Asunto(s)
Maxilar , Osteotomía Le Fort , Humanos , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/cirugía , Osteotomía Le Fort/métodos , Cavidad Nasal , Nariz , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos
15.
Inhal Toxicol ; 36(1): 44-56, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343121

RESUMEN

Objective: The nasal cavity effectively captures the particles present in inhaled air, thereby preventing harmful and toxic pollutants from reaching the lungs. This filtering ability of the nasal cavity can be effectively utilized for targeted nasal drug delivery applications. This study aims to understand the particle deposition patterns in three age groups: neonate, infant, and adult.Materials and methods: The CT scans are built using MIMICS 21.0, followed by CATIA V6 to generate a patient-specific airway model. Fluid flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 2021 R2. Spherical monodisperse microparticles ranging from 2 to 60 µm and a density of 1100 kg/m3 are simulated at steady-state and sedentary inspiration conditions.Results: The highest nasal valve depositions for the neonate are 25% for 20 µm, for infants, 10% for 50 µm, 15% for adults, and 15% for 15 µm. At mid nasal region, deposition of 15% for 20 µm is observed for infant and 8% for neonate and adult nasal cavities at a particle size of 10 and 20 µm, respectively. The highest particle deposition at the olfactory region is about 2.7% for the adult nasal cavity for 20 µm, and it is <1% for neonate and infant nasal cavities.Discussion and conclusions: The study of preferred nasal depositions during natural sedentary breathing conditions is utilized to determine the size that allows medication particles to be targeted to specific nose regions.


Asunto(s)
Cavidad Nasal , Nariz , Adulto , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Cavidad Nasal/diagnóstico por imagen , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagen , Tamaño de la Partícula
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 44, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A multimodal approach for diagnostic tests under anesthesia is required to diagnose nasal cavity pathology (NP) reliably in dogs. Blood test results may provide clues to the suspected NP. METHODS: This prospective blinded study assessed 72 dogs with chronic nasal discharge due to NPs, and 10 healthy dogs as the control group (CG). NPs were diagnosed using whole-body computed tomography (CT), upper airway endoscopy, examination of nasal mucosal swabs by bacterial and fungal culture, and histopathological examination of nasal mucosa biopsies. The exclusion criteria were the presence of any additional diseases or corticosteroid pre-treatment. In consideration of these exclusion criteria, 55 dogs entered the study. Dogs were classified into benign (benign tumors, idiopathic rhinitis (IR), and others) and malignant (carcinomas and sarcomas) NP groups. Blood count and blood chemistry tests were performed. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) were calculated and compared. RESULTS: 25 dogs with malignant NP (13 and 12 with carcinomas and sarcomas, respectively) and 30 dogs with benign NP (seven with benign tumors,13 with IR, and 10 others) were included. In general, in dogs with NP there were only slight abnormalities in complete blood count. However, PLR was significantly higher in dogs with malignant NP (carcinoma and sarcoma) than in those with benign NP and in the CG. Compared with the CG, the NLR was significantly increased in all dogs with NP, and the AGR was mild but significantly lower, except in dogs with sarcomas and benign tumors. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with nasal disease alone, there are usually no marked abnormalities in blood count. However, while mildly increased NLR and decreased AGR can be observed in almost all NPs, an increased PLR may indicate a malignant NP and can be used as an additional screening tool in dogs with nasal discharge due to nasal cavity pathology.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma , Enfermedades de los Perros , Globulinas , Rinitis , Sarcoma , Perros , Animales , Neutrófilos/patología , Cavidad Nasal/patología , Estudios Prospectivos , Rinitis/diagnóstico , Rinitis/microbiología , Rinitis/veterinaria , Linfocitos , Mucosa Nasal , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/veterinaria , Albúminas , Carcinoma/veterinaria , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología
17.
Oral Oncol ; 150: 106715, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340546

RESUMEN

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) represents an uncommon spindle cell sarcoma predominantly situated within soft tissue, with a notably infrequent occurrence in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. In this report, we present a case involving a middle-aged male with a sizable solitary fibrous tumor affecting both the nasal and oral cavities.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Nasales , Senos Paranasales , Sarcoma , Tumores Fibrosos Solitarios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Nasales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasales/patología , Tumores Fibrosos Solitarios/diagnóstico , Senos Paranasales/patología , Cavidad Nasal/patología , Sarcoma/patología
18.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(3): 150, 2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329552

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Many patients experience oral adverse events during head and neck cancer radiotherapy (RT). The methods of management of such events are under debate. One such technique is the intraoral stent (IOS) technique, which removes normal tissue from the irradiation field. This retrospective study examined the factors associated with the occurrence of oral mucositis (OM) and dysgeusia and the efficacy of IOSs in preventing them. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients who underwent RT in the maxilla or nasal cavity between 2016 and 2022 were included. They were investigated for background characteristics, treatment factors (IOS and dose-volume histogram), and oral adverse events (OM and dysgeusia). RESULTS: Significant risk factors for the incidence of grade ≥ 2 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0) OM were the non-use of IOSs (p = 0.004) and diabetes (p = 0.025). A significant risk factor for the incidence of grade ≥ 1 dysgeusia was concomitant chemotherapy (p = 0.019). The radiation dose to the tongue was significantly lower in the IOS group than in the non-IOS group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the use of an IOS during RT reduces the severity of OM by reducing irradiation to the tongue. Therefore, the use of an IOS is recommended during RT performed in the maxilla or nasal cavity.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Estomatitis , Humanos , Maxilar , Disgeusia/epidemiología , Disgeusia/etiología , Disgeusia/prevención & control , Cavidad Nasal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Stents , Estomatitis/epidemiología , Estomatitis/etiología , Estomatitis/prevención & control
19.
Vet J ; 304: 106085, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401643

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown that the most reliable external conformational risk factor of whether a brachycephalic dog will develop Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS) is the status of nostril stenosis, assessed as a static observation using the brachycephalic nostril grading scheme. The nostrils however are a dynamic structure, opening further when the dog is exercising, sniffing or panting. The hypothesis of this study was that brachycephalic dogs with open or mildly stenotic nostrils are more likely to have nostril mobility whilst dogs with moderately or severely stenotic nostrils are more likely to have immobile nostrils. A retrospective study of dogs presented for BOAS assessment at two UK referral centres between 2012 and 2020 was performed. Data extracted included nares stenosis status and nares mobility. A mesocephalic pilot control group was recruited from a third referral centre. Statistical analysis was performed with χ2, Cochran-Armitage, spearman's rho and linear-by-linear tests as appropriate. Of the 974 brachycephalic dogs included in the study: 124 had open nostrils (68.5% mobile); 212 mildly stenotic nostrils (58.5% mobile); 379 moderately stenotic nostrils (35% mobile) and 259 severely stenotic nostrils (19.3% mobile). The nostril stenotic status was significantly associated with nostril wing mobility (χ2 =135.55; P<0.0001). When considering open and mildly stenotic (considered acceptable) nostrils versus moderate and severely stenotic nostrils, mobility was 62% versus 25.5% (χ2= 135.88; P = <0.0001). All 27 mesocephalic dogs had nostril mobility. Brachycephalic dogs with moderate and severely stenotic nares have reduced nasal mobility compared to brachycephalic dogs with mildly stenotic and open nares. Data is further evidence that dogs with moderately and severely stenotic nares should not be bred.


Asunto(s)
Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas , Craneosinostosis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Perros , Animales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Constricción Patológica/veterinaria , Constricción Patológica/complicaciones , Enfermedades de los Perros/etiología , Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas/veterinaria , Cavidad Nasal , Craneosinostosis/veterinaria , Síndrome
20.
Pathol Res Pract ; 253: 155040, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171083

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a useful marker for pathological diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. In the present study, we investigated the association between INSM1 expression and prognosis in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and assessed the usefulness of INSM1 as a prognostic biomarker in these patients. METHOD: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 109 ONB patients who underwent endoscopic surgery at Beijing Tong Ren Hospital (Beijing, China) between June 2006 and November 2021 Patient age at the time of surgery ranged from 10 months to 72 years (mean age, 43.55 ± 13.47 years). In total, 63 (57.8%) and 46 (42.2%) tumors occurred in male and female patients, respectively. The percentages of grade I-IV cases were 13.8% (15/109), 36.7% (40/109), 29.4% (32/109) and 20.2% (22/109), respectively. RESULTS: The expression rate (moderately/strongly positive) of INSM1 was significantly higher in high-grade (Ⅲ/Ⅳ; 83%; 45/54) than low-grade (Ⅰ/Ⅱ; 27%; 15/55) ONB cases. High expression levels of INSM1 were significantly positively associated with high pathological stage (p < 0.001), local recurrence, and death. Kaplan­Meier analysis revealed that patients with high INSM1 expression had significantly shorter disease­free survival (DFS) and mean survival (75.01 ± 10.71 vs. 158.56 ± 10.32) times, and shorter overall survival (OS). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that INSM1 was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 4.963, 95%CI [2.11-10.84] p < 0.001) and OS (HR: 4.791, 95%CI [2.117-10.485], p < 0.001) after adjusting for sex, age, and tumor grade. In addition, INSM1 was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in patients treated with surgery (HR: 3.714, 95%CI [1.267-10.889], p = 0.017) and chemotherapy (HR: 5.574, 95%CI [1.584-19.612], p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: INSM1 expression had a positive association with the prognosis of patients with ONB and could serve as a prognostic biomarker in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Estesioneuroblastoma Olfatorio , Insulinoma , Neoplasias Nasales , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Lactante , Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Proteínas Represoras/metabolismo , Pronóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Cavidad Nasal/patología
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