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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22778, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To analyze the sagittal positions of the mandibular prominence and maxillary central incisors in adult Chinese Han men to establish their aesthetic profile characteristics. METHODS: Seventy-four Chinese Han men aged 18 to 40 years underwent cone beam computed tomography for detecting the distances between Glabella and Subnasale, Subnasale and Menthon of soft tissue, Condyle and Gonion, Pogonion and Pogonion's Anterior Limit Line, Facial Axis point of maxillary central incisor and the Goal Anterior Limit Line as well as the angle of the Occlusal Plane. Dolphin Imaging and Photoshop software packages were used to generate silhouette profiles. Thirteen orthodontists assessed the silhouette profiles and assigned visual analog scale scores. Scores >70 were assigned to the aesthetic (group 1), scores of 60to 70 to the general (group 2), scores of 50 to 60 to the acceptable (group 3), and scores of <50 to the unaesthetic profile (group 4). RESULTS: A total of 15 men were assigned to group 1, 35 to group 2, 14 to group 3, and 10 to group 4. There were no significant differences in the variables examined between groups 1, 2, and 3, but comparing group 1 with group 4, Pogonion and Pogonion's Anterior Limit Line (1.16 ±â€Š2.61 mm vs -1.44 ±â€Š2.92 mm, P = .046) and Facial Axis-Goal Anterior Limit Line (-0.61 ±â€Š2.54 mm vs 1.70 ±â€Š2.62 mm, P = .038) there were significant differences. CONCLUSION: Compared with the unaesthetic profile group, the sagittal positions of the maxillary central incisors were slightly posterior, and the chin was slightly anterior in adult Chinese Han men with an aesthetic profile.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Incisivo/anatomía & histología , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría/métodos , Mentón/anatomía & histología , Mentón/diagnóstico por imagen , China , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Valores de Referencia , Adulto Joven
2.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101770, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795932

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A missing mandible is a common problem in facial identification cases requiring forensic facial approximation or reconstruction. The Sassouni and Sassouni-Plus methods which are currently used to predict the missing mandible from the cranium produce low levels of accuracy. AIMS: This study proposes a new method for the estimation of the overall dimensions of the mandible based upon linear cranial measurements, the proposed method has the potential to be utilised in the facial reconstruction of a range of adult skulls with dentition. SAMPLE AND METHOD: 21 measurements were taken from a sample of 90 skulls, 44 male, 43 female and three juvenile, originating from 9 different geographical areas. Ordinary least-squares regression, hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to investigate trends in the data and to produce equations for the estimation of condylar height, corpus length and anterior height. CONCLUSION: When tested the equations produced an overall mean error of 0.09 mm with a standard deviation of ±4.84. The proposed method offers an improvement upon the currently used methods. It can be used to estimate the overall mandibular dimensions with a good level of accuracy.


Asunto(s)
Restos Mortales/anatomía & histología , Cefalometría/métodos , Cara/anatomía & histología , Antropología Forense/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Adulto Joven
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820067

RESUMEN

An 11-week-old unvaccinated, term Amish boy initially presented with poor feeding, microcephaly, failure to thrive, and developmental delays. His physical examination was significant for both weight and head circumference being less than the third percentile, and he was noted to have micrognathia, truncal hypotonia, and head lag. He was admitted to the pediatric hospital medicine service for further diagnostic evaluation. Laboratory studies assessing for endocrinological and metabolic etiologies yielded negative results, and imaging studies (including a chest radiograph, echocardiogram, and abdominal ultrasound) were normal. However, intracranial calcifications were noted on a head ultrasound. The etiology of his constellation of symptoms was initially thought to be infectious, but the ultimate diagnosis was not made until after discharge from the pediatric hospital medicine service.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcinosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipotonía Muscular/diagnóstico por imagen , Malformaciones del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Autoinmunes del Sistema Nervioso/sangre , Enfermedades Autoinmunes del Sistema Nervioso/complicaciones , Calcinosis/sangre , Calcinosis/complicaciones , Cefalometría/métodos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Microcefalia/sangre , Microcefalia/complicaciones , Hipotonía Muscular/sangre , Hipotonía Muscular/complicaciones , Malformaciones del Sistema Nervioso/sangre , Malformaciones del Sistema Nervioso/complicaciones
4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 599-610, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842109

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association of isolated craniosynostosis and the influence of syndromic forms confound the understanding of craniofacial morphologic development. This study attempts to clarify the individual influences of isolated bicoronal synostosis, Apert syndrome, and Crouzon syndromes on skull base morphology. METHODS: One hundred seventeen computed tomographic scans were included (nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis, n = 36; Apert syndrome with bicoronal synostosis, n = 25; Crouzon syndrome with bicoronal synostosis, n = 11; controls, n = 45). Cephalometric measurements were analyzed using Materialise software. RESULTS: Nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis patients developed a shortened cranial base length, with a significantly shortened distance between nasion and sella (p = 0.005). The cranial base angles of nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis in both the cranial side (N-S-BA) and facial side (N-SO-BA) increased significantly, by 17.04 degrees (p < 0.001) and 11.75 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, both the N-S-BA and N-SO-BA angles of Apert syndrome and Crouzon syndrome were narrowed more than that of nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis [by 12.11 degrees (p < 0.001) and 12.44 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively, in Apert syndrome; and by 11.66 degrees (p = 0.007) and 13.71 degrees (p = 0.007), respectively, in Crouzon syndrome]. However, there is no statistically significant difference of these two angles between Apert syndrome and Crouzon syndrome, when they were only associated with bicoronal synostosis. Contrary to the relatively normal subcranial space of nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis, both Apert and Crouzon syndromes developed a reduced subcranial space. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated bicoronal synostosis resulted in a flattened cranial base, whereas Apert syndrome and Crouzon syndrome developed a normal cranial base angle when only associated with bicoronal synostosis. The syndromic skulls had additional significantly reduced subcranial space.


Asunto(s)
Acrocefalosindactilia/diagnóstico por imagen , Suturas Craneales/diagnóstico por imagen , Disostosis Craneofacial/diagnóstico , Base del Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adolescente , Cefalometría/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino
5.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101743, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659706

RESUMEN

The aim in this study was to evaluate the influence of skeletal class, facial type, and sex on soft tissue thickness (STT) of the craniofacial midline in a Brazilian subpopulation. Thus, 121 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans (54 males and 67 females, age 21 to 40 yrs) composed the study sample. Patients were classified according to skeletal class (class I, II, and III) and facial type (brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic), and STT was measured (mm) in 10 landmarks in the craniofacial midline for each CBCT scan. Multivariate analysis of covariance evaluated facial STT with regard to multiple independent variables (sex, age - covariate, facial type, and skeletal class). TEM and rTEM assessed the intra-examiner agreement. STT was significantly greater in males than in females for all regions measured (p < 0.05), except for the pogonion-pogonion' landmark (p>0.05). In general, class III individuals had significantly thicker soft tissue in the maxilla - subspinale-subnasale', prosthion-labrale superius', and incision-stomion' regions, while class II subjects had thicker soft tissue in the infradentale-labrale inferius' mandibular landmark (p < 0.05). Regarding facial type, dolichocephalic individuals showed significantly thicker soft tissue in the supramentale-supramentale' mandibular landmark, whereas brachycephalic subjects had thicker soft tissue in maxillary regions - prosthion-labrale superius' and incision-stomion' (p < 0.05). rTEM values were below 5% for most landmarks, and all TEM values were below 1 mm. Skeletal class and facial type influence STT, showing a soft tissue compensation, with deeper soft tissue in areas with lower skeletal development, and/or where bone is positioned more posteriorly.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Tejido Conectivo/anatomía & histología , Tejido Conectivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cara/anatomía & histología , Cara/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos Faciales/anatomía & histología , Huesos Faciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Antropología Forense/métodos , Odontología Forense/métodos , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales , Adulto Joven
6.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(9): 1723-1731, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Congenital microtia may be associated with hemifacial microsomia, but little is known about their correlation and development with aging. Historically, facial asymmetry is easily assessed by observing the occlusal cant using a tongue depressor. We serially measured the occlusal cant in children with microtia to evaluate change in facial asymmetry with growth. METHODS: Since 2011, frontal photographs of patients with congenital microtia biting a tongue depressor were obtained and reviewed. The occlusal angle was compared between the baseline and final photographs, and the change was compared between cant-positive (>3° at baseline) and cant-negative (<3° at baseline) groups. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine variables associated with the change in occlusal angle. RESULTS: Overall, 105 patients were enrolled. With a mean age of 5.4 years at baseline and a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, clinically significant aggravation was observed in 15.4% and 24.2% of cant-positive and cant-negative patients, respectively. Hemifacial microsomia (OR, 4.825; p = 0.005) and occlusal angle at baseline (OR, 0.821; p = 0.045) were associated with aggravation, but the severity of microtia showed no significant association. CONCLUSIONS: When hemifacial microsomia was present, the occlusal cant seemed to be aggravated in children with microtia at later ages. When the occlusal cant was present without noticeable hemifacial microsomia, some compensation in facial asymmetry was expected. The use of a wooden tongue depressor is a simple, non-invasive, and radiologic hazard-free aid to detect notable change in facial asymmetry in children with microtia.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría/instrumentación , Cefalometría/métodos , Microtia Congénita/complicaciones , Asimetría Facial/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Fotograbar , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098303

RESUMEN

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Estatura , Cefalometría/métodos , Cabeza/anatomía & histología , Antropología , Factores de Tiempo , Albania , Cara/anatomía & histología , Kosovo
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 963e-974e, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332545

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates for the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 46 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients underwent bimaxillary surgery with computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates (experimental group) or computer-aided design and manufacturing splints (control group). Preoperative and postoperative imaging data were collected and then analyzed using Mimics Research 19.0, Geomagic Studio, and IBM SPSS Version 21.0. RESULTS: Deformity evaluation and posttreatment assessment were performed for all patients. The experimental group had fewer postoperative complications. Comparison of the linear and angular differences to facial reference planes revealed more accurate repositioning of the mandible and condyles in the experimental group, although the position of several landmarks still requires small adjustments. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates effectively corrected skeletal class III malocclusion, providing positional control of segments with reasonable surgical accuracy. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Asunto(s)
Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos/instrumentación , Osteotomía Le Fort/instrumentación , Cirugía Asistida por Computador/instrumentación , Adulto , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Placas Óseas , Cefalometría/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/cirugía , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteotomía Le Fort/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Férulas (Fijadores) , Cirugía Asistida por Computador/métodos , Titanio , Tomografía Computarizada Espiral , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
9.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 17(1): 57-63, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-189750

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica para evaluar la posible relación entre los patrones de crecimiento facial con la maduración dental y esquelética en pacientes en crecimiento. La maduración dental y esquelética son dos indicadores que nos permiten es-tablecer en qué momento del desarrollo se encuentra el paciente en crecimiento. Actualmente, para la valoración de la maduración esquelética se emplea la visualización de las vértebras cervicales en la radiografía lateral de cráneo, ya que es un método que permite disminuir la exposición radiológica del paciente que se encuentra en estudio ortodóncico, en comparación con la radiografía de muñe-ca, la cual suponía la realización de una radiografía adicional. Para el análisis de la maduración dental, la radiografía panorámica es la más empleada mediante la visualización del desarrollo de los siete dientes mandibulares izquierdos. Los pacientes que se encuentran en edad infantil presentan diversos patrones de crecimiento facial, entre los que podemos encontrar, braquifacial, mesofacial y dolicofacial. Para poder establecer el patrón de crecimiento que presenta el paciente existen diversos métodos que, a través de mediciones cefalométricas, nos clasifican al paciente en uno de los tres grupos. Existen diversos trabajos que estudian la posible relación entre los patrones de crecimiento facial y la maduración dental y esquelética. Según la literatura revisada podemos concluir que los pacientes que presentan un patrón de crecimiento vertical muestran una maduración dental y esquelética más avanzada en comparación con los pacientes que presentan un patrón de crecimiento horizontal


The objective of this paper is to present a bibliographical review to evaluate the possible relationship between facial growth patterns and dental and skeletal maturation in growing patients.Dental and skeletal maturation are two indicators that allow us to establish at what point the patient is in his growth. Currently, for the evaluation of skeletal maturation, the visualisation of the cervical vertebrae in the lateral x-ray of the skull is used, since this is a method that diminishes the radiological exposure of the patient undergoing an orthodontic study, in comparison with the x-ray of the wrist, which means taking an additional x-ray.For the analysis of dental maturation, the panoramic x-ray is the most used through visualisation of the development of the seven left jaw teeth. Children in young ages present different facial growth patterns, among which we can find brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial. In order to establish the growth pattern the patient presents, there are different methods that, through cephalometric measurements, classify the patient in one of the three groups. Different papers study the possible relationship between facial growth patterns and dental and skeletal maturation. According to the reviewed literature, we can conclude that the patients who present a vertical growth pattern show more advanced dental and skeletal maturation in comparison with the patients who present a horizontal growth pattern


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Arco Dental/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Maxilofacial/fisiología , Maxilar/crecimiento & desarrollo , Huesos Faciales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Longitudinales , Radiografía Panorámica , Cefalometría/métodos
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 790e-802e, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Apert syndrome causes normal or enlarged intracranial volume overall as patients grow. This study aimed to trace the segmental anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae volume and structural morphology in these patients, to help discern a more focused and individualized surgical treatment plan for patients with Apert syndrome. METHODS: This study included 82 preoperative computed tomographic scans (Apert, n = 32; control, n = 50) divided into five age-related subgroups. The scans were measured using image processing and three-dimensional modeling software. RESULTS: The middle cranial fossa volume was increased and was the earliest change noted. It was increased by 45 percent (p = 0.023) compared with controls before 6 months of age and remained increased into adulthood (161 percent, p = 0.016), with gradually increasing severity. The anterior and posterior cranial fossae volumes also increased, by 35 percent (p = 0.032) and 39 percent (p = 0.007), respectively. Increased depth of cranial fossae contributed most to the increase in volumes of patients with Apert syndrome, with correlation coefficients of 0.799, 0.908, and 0.888 for anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossa, respectively. The intracranial volume was increased 12 percent (p = 0.098) across the entire test age range (0 to 26 years old), but only had statistical significance during the age range of 6 to 18 years (22 percent, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Malformation of the middle cranial fossa is an early, perhaps the initial, pivotal cranial morphologic change in Apert syndrome. Increased cranial fossae depth is an inherent characteristic of the maldevelopment. Normalization of cranial volume and circumference overall may not achieve a normal skull structure, as it does not correct regional craniocerebral disproportion.


Asunto(s)
Acrocefalosindactilia/cirugía , Cefalometría/métodos , Desarrollo Infantil , Planificación de Atención al Paciente , Base del Cráneo/patología , Acrocefalosindactilia/diagnóstico por imagen , Acrocefalosindactilia/patología , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Base del Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Base del Cráneo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(3): 291-297, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134025

RESUMEN

Aims: To evaluate the presence of dentofacial asymmetry in patients with odontoma by panoramic radiography. Methods: Panoramic images with odontoma were selected among all panoramic radiographs (3058 patients). Maxillary odontoma was detected in 27 patients while mandibular odontoma was detected in 25 patients. In addition, 30 patients with similar age and gender characteristics were selected as the control group. Skeletal angular, skeletal linear and dental measurements were performed on panoramic radiographs. The odontoma region and the opposite side of the odontoma of the individuals were examined. The dentofacial asymmetry of the odontoma groups was compared with the control group. Paired t-test was used to determine dentofacial asymmetry on the right and left side of the patients with odontoma. The ANOVA test was used for testing the differences among groups. Results: As a result of study, no significant difference was found between the region of the odontoma and the symmetrical region in the maxilla and mandibula (P > 0.05). In the control group, a statistically significant difference was found in the angle between the mandibular canal and the mental foramen, lower incisor size, PFH/CutCat(°), and Co-Mc-Me(°) measurements (P < 0.05). In the maxillary and mandibular odontoma groups, a statistically significant difference was found in the angle between the mandibular canal and the menton, CH (mm), RH (mm), and CrH (mm) in the comparison of the odontoma and the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: No difference was found between the right and left sides of the jaws related with the asymmetry of the maxilla and mandible.


Asunto(s)
Deformidades Dentofaciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Asimetría Facial/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Mandibulares/complicaciones , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Maxilares/complicaciones , Odontoma/complicaciones , Radiografía Panorámica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Incisivo , Masculino , Neoplasias Mandibulares/patología , Neoplasias Maxilares/patología , Odontoma/patología , Adulto Joven
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7238263, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149128

RESUMEN

This study focus on the changes of the position and morphology of jaw and condyle after MEAW (the multiloop edgewise arch wire) treatment in adults with a nonlow angle (mean angle or high angle SN - MP > 27°) of skeletal class III (mild to moderate skeletal classs III means -5° < ANB < 0°) malocclusions measured by CBCT (cone beam computed tomography). Twenty adult patients (aged 17-26) with a nonlow angle of skeletal class III malocclusions were selected in this study taken orthodontic treatment by MEAW. CBCT was taken before and after the treatment to analyze the changes of the jaw and condyle. After treatment, the angle of L7-MP decreased 12.2°, L6-MP decreased 10.5°, L1-MP decreased 8.8° (P < 0.001 for each) and U1-SN increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant changes between anterior and posterior APDI index and between anterior and posterior spaces of the TMJ (temporomandibular joint) (P > 0.05). The linear ratio of the TMJ was the LR > 12 before treatment, while it was -12 < LR < 12 after treatment; however, there was no statistically significant difference between them (P > 0.05). There was also no significant change in anterior and posterior position and morphology of the condyle within the joint fossa after the treatment by MEAW in this study. MEAW technology in correcting the class III with nonlow angle patients mainly relies on the compensation of distally and posterior mandibular teeth, rather than the mandible and condyle moving backward to establish a neutral occlusal. This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University (No. KYJJ2013002).


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Oclusión Dental , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/diagnóstico por imagen , Articulación Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Maxilares/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/patología , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/terapia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Cóndilo Mandibular/anatomía & histología , Cóndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagen , Soportes Ortodóncicos , Alambres para Ortodoncia , Articulación Temporomandibular/anatomía & histología , Adulto Joven
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 78-82, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056401

RESUMEN

Dentro del espectro de conformación del cráneo, se reconocen generalmente tres amplias categorías que se corresponden con el concepto de biotipo cefálico, determinado por el Índice Cefálico. El Estos tres biotipos cefálicos son: el braquiocefálico, mesaticefálico y dolicocefálico, pero están basados en medidas lineales. A fin de revisar esta clasificación en base a su geometría, se estudiaron 53 cráneos de perros adultos, correspondientes a los tres grupos craneométricos descritos: 16 braquicéfalos, 20 mesaticéfalos y 17 dolicocéfalos. Para ello se obtuvieron fotografías en el plano ventral, en las que posteriormente se ubicaron 17 hitos anatómicos que se analizaron mediante técnicas de morfometría geométrica. De estos hitos, 5 correspondían a la zona neurocraneal y el resto al esplacnocráneo. Los tres grupos craneométricos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos tanto por el tamaño como por la forma. Las variables que contribuyeron más a explicar la diferenciación fueron las ubicadas en el margen más lateral de los arcos cigomáticos y en la base de este mismo arco. Las variables esplacnocraneales presentaban una alometría mucho más marcada que las neurocráneos. Puesto que el arco cigomático debe ser considerado como parte del esplacnocráneo, sugerimos que es tan importante el índice cefálico (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cabeza) como el facial (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cara). La conformación neurocraneal sería mucho más conservativa y por ende el índice craneal, de mucho menor poder discriminatorio entre grupos. El cambio entre tipos se debería a los músculos masetero y temporal, que tienen su inserción en el arco.


Within the wide conformation of skull spectrum, there are generally three recognized broad categories that correspond to the concept of cephalic biotype, determined by the cephalic index. The three cephalic biotypes are: brachiocephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic, which are based on linear measures. In order to revise this classification based on its geometry, we studied 53 skulls of adult dogs, corresponding to the three craneometric groups previously described: 16 brachycephalic, 20 mesaticephalic and 17 dolichocephalic. Images on ventral plane were obtained and 17 anatomical landmarks were subsequently located and analyzed by means of geometric morphometric techniques. Five of those landmarks corresponded to the neurocraneal area and the rest of the splanchnocranium. The three craneometric groups showed statistically significant differences between them for both size and shape. The variables that contributed to the differentiation between them were located along the edge of the zygomatic arches and on the basis of this arch. Splanchnocranial variables also presented a much more marked allometry than the neurocraneal variables. Since the zygomatic arch should be considered as part of the splanchnocranium, we suggest that the cephalic index (which takes into account the maximum width of the head) is as important as the facial index (which takes into account the maximum width of the face). The neurocraneal index would be much more conservative, and therefore less discriminatory between the groups.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Cefalometría/métodos , Perros/anatomía & histología , Cigoma/anatomía & histología , Análisis Discriminante , Análisis de Componente Principal
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 42, 2020 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028948

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A number of reference patterns such as the interincisal line, curve of the upper lip, width of the smile or shape of the teeth have been studied in different populations. Determining the frequency of different smile aesthetic parameters in a European Caucasian population and exploring possible gender differences is important in order to obtain predictable treatment outcomes. METHODS: Photographs were obtained under resting and forced smiling conditions in 140 individuals (70 males and 70 females) with a mean age of 20.1 ± 4.3 years. Different variables were recorded, including the position of the maxillary interincisal midline in relation to the facial midline, the arc and width of the smile, and the shape of the teeth. The data were processed using the SPSS version 15.0 statistical package, with application of the chi-squared test and a confidence level of 95%. The statistical power was 80%, and the level of significance 5% (α = 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 94.3% of the sample presented a maxillary interincisal midline coinciding with the facial midline, and 80% had a consonant smile line. The curve of the upper lip was upwards in 47.1% of the cases, followed by a straight curve in 41.4%. Most of the subjects (84.3%) presented a medium smile line with tooth exposure to the second premolar (61.4%). There were no significant differences between males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of aesthetic criteria is needed in order to guarantee satisfactory and predictable dental treatment outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences between males and females. The maxillary interincisal midline coincided with the facial midline, with a consonant smile arc and a medium smile line, upward lip curve and oval tooth shape.


Asunto(s)
Estética Dental , Cara/anatomía & histología , Labio/anatomía & histología , Sonrisa , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Estudios Prospectivos , Diente , Adulto Joven
15.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(4): 934-939, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068728

RESUMEN

Resorbable and titanium systems have been used in maxillary fixation. The aim of this review was to evaluate stability and morbidity of Le Fort I osteotomy by comparing both systems. It was performed in 11 databases, and reported according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials, and retrospective comparative studies with patients who underwent nonsegmented Le Fort I osteotomy were included. Eleven articles were selected, with a total of 262 patients treated with resorbable and 252 with titanium fixation. The meta-analysis showed that when measured at point A, horizontal stability was 0.06 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.19, 0.30), vertical stability for impaction was -0.43 mm (95% CI -0.94, 0.07), and for inferior repositioning was -1.29 mm (95% CI -2.62, 0.04). Morbidity was similar in the groups. Regarding infection, resorbable presented an absolute risk (AR) = 0.032, and titanium an AR = 0.025 (P = 1.0). For soft tissue reaction, an AR = 0.120 was shown for resorbable, and an AR = 0.132 for titanium (P = 0.85). Removal of fixation showed an AR = 0.024 for resorbable, and an AR = 0.025 for titanium (P = 1.0). Based on these results, resorbable and metal fixation systems seem to be equivalent with respect to stability and morbidity. This review was limited by the quality of the studies. Future studies should address these quality limitations to improve comparison between these 2 fixation approaches.


Asunto(s)
Craneotomía , Osteotomía Le Fort , Titanio , Cefalometría/métodos , Humanos , Maxilar/cirugía
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 55, 2020 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066451

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the difference of palatal morphology in different vertical patterns between skeletal Class I subjects and skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible. METHODS: Seventy-six skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible (38 females, 38 males) and 85 skeletal Class I subjects (45 females, 40 males) were collected retrospectively and divided into hyperdivergent, normodivergent and hypodivergent groups. CBCT images of these subjects were reoriented by Dolphin 3D Imaging software. Three-dimensional (3D) maxilla was segmented by ProPlan software before using Geomagic Studio software to reconstruct 3D palatal morphology. Deviation patterns on 3D colored map analysis was performed to compare the difference of 3D palatal morphology between different groups. RESULTS: 3D colored map analysis showed that male's palate was higher and wider than that of female in the posterior part, regardless of different sagittal and vertical patterns. In skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible, males with hyperdivergent and normodivergent showed higher and narrower in the posterior part of palate, while females with hyperdivergent and normodivergent had a higher but no obviously narrow palate compared with the hypodivergent subjects. Skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible showed flatter and narrower in the posterior part of palate than that of skeletal Class I subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Sagittal and vertical patterns have great influence on the palatal morphology and as the vertical dimension increased, the palate tended to be higher and narrower.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría/métodos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Maloclusión de Angle Clase II/patología , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Paladar (Hueso)/patología , Dimensión Vertical , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maloclusión de Angle Clase II/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/patología , Radiografía Dental Digital/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(2): e163-e166, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934969

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lips and mouth are the most recognizable parts of the lower face. The morphometry of the facial organs is important for the balance of the face. Besides congenital anomalies occur on the lips, some kinds of deformities might be seen because of trauma or carcinoma. In this respect, lips are in the study of plastic surgery, maxillofacial surgery and orthodontics. Lip morphology also takes an important role in forensic facial reconstruction (facial approximation). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty parameters on the soft tissue and 12 parameters on the hard tissue were measured on three dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images belonging 50 individuals (25 female, mean age 35.40 ±â€Š9.97; 25 male, mean age 34.32 ±â€Š11.06). RESULTS: Statistical significance was observed on 4 parameters measured at soft tissue and 6 parameters measured in hard tissue. Statistical significance was not seen between the measurements taken bilaterally. Fourteen equations were developed in order to estimate the lip morphometry using the morphometric traits of hard tissue. CONCLUSION: We hope that the results of current study will be useful at surgery and forensic sciences.


Asunto(s)
Labio/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Cefalometría/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cirugía Bucal , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
18.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(1): 142-146, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of metopic craniosynostosis on intracranial volume (ICV) and ICV growth is unclear. In addition, the relationship between head circumference (HC) and ICV in these patients is not previously described. METHODS: A retrospective review of 72 patients with metopic craniosynostosis was performed. The ICVs were calculated from manually segmented preoperative computed tomography scans. Magnetic resonance imaging data for 270 healthy children were available. The ICVs were calculated in FreeSurfer.First, a growth curve for metopic patients was generated and a logarithmic best-fit curve was calculated. Second, the impact of metopic craniosynostosis on ICV relative to healthy controls was assessed using multivariate linear regression. Third, the growth curves for metopic patients and healthy children were compared.Pearson's correlation was used to measure the association between HC and ICV. RESULTS: Mean metopic ICV was significantly lower than normal ICV within the first 3 to 6 months (674.9 versus 813.2 cm; P = 0.002), 6 to 9 months (646.6 versus 903.9 cm; P = 0.005), and 9 to 12 months of life (848.0 versus 956.6 cm; P = 0.038). There was no difference in ICV after 12 months of age (P = 0.916).The ICV growth in patients with metopic craniosynostosis is defined by a significantly different growth curve than in normal children (P = 0.005).The ICV and HC were highly correlated across a broad range of ICVs and patient age (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with metopic craniosynostosis have significantly reduced ICVs compared to healthy children, yet greater than normal ICV growth, which allows them to achieve normal volumes by 1 year of age. The HC is a reliable metric for ICV in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Craneosinostosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Algoritmos , Cefalometría/métodos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Imagen Multimodal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110092, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816484

RESUMEN

Metric assessment of human crania can provide forensic practitioners and anthropological researchers with information on an individual's sex and biogeographical ancestry. However, metric methods rely on the ability of users to remain consistent with themselves and others, with any error in the data rendering conclusions invalid. Digital anthropology is a growing sub-field where human remains are digitised using a growing range of methods and technologies. These models have the potential to boost research collaboration and public engagement. However, not all of these digitisation methods have been examined critically to explore the veracity of their use within a research environment. There has also been limited research into the application of digital anthropology to craniometric analysis. This study examined the intra- and inter- observer variation of seven participants taking physical measurements from a human cranial cast with an associated set of reference values. The same measurements were also taken from three digital models of the cranial cast which were created using digital photogrammetry and laser scanning. This data was then compared to the reference values and the physical measurements taken by the lead author. This study found that there was excellent statistical agreement between the reference values and the measurements taken from the cranial cast, both physical and digital. However, the participants still exhibited variation within a range of -18mm and +30mm from the reference values. MANOVA tests showed between-subject effects on nine measurements across the participant data, and 12 measurements between the digital models. However, there is little consistency between this study and the anthropological literature as to which measurements are most prone to between-subject effects. Despite the excellent agreement shown between the reference values and the digital models this study raises a number of methodological questions regarding inter-observer error and the varying levels of data processing present in different digitisation methods.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Imagenología Tridimensional , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Antropología Forense , Humanos , Rayos Láser , Masculino , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Fotogrametría , Valores de Referencia
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1644-1653, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793469

RESUMEN

Objectives: To assess the validity of using the calibration ruler for correcting magnification of linear measurements and to explore and compare the vertical and horizontal magnification of four digital cephalometric units. Methods: An acrylic box was imaged at seven sagittal positions using four digital cephalometric units: Orthopantomograph OC100, Orthopantomograph OC200, Sirona Orthophos CD, and Sirona Orthophos DS. The true linear lengths of the phantom, corrected, and uncorrected linear lengths on the images were measured and compared. The validity of measurements using the calibration ruler was assessed. The magnification values and distortion indices were calculated and compared among the four cephalometric units. Results: For linear measurements on the mid-sagittal plane and averaged linear measurements on bilateral symmetric sagittal planes, the bias 1.96 STD of the calibration ruler ranged from 1% to 2% for the four cephalometric testing units. For linear measurements on the single lateral sagittal plane, the bias 1.96 STD ranged from 3% to 6%. The vertical scanning charge-coupled device cephalometric unit produced the greatest distortion, ranging from 1.029 to 0.964. Conclusion: The metal millimeter calibration ruler is an accurate reference for linear measurement magnification correction. Because of unpredictability and machine specificity, the magnification and distortion of a cephalometric unit should be calibrated for the estimation of cephalometric measurement error.


Asunto(s)
Calibración/normas , Cefalometría/métodos , Radiografía Dental Digital/instrumentación , Algoritmos , Cefalometría/normas , Humanos , Ortodoncia/instrumentación , Fantasmas de Imagen , Magnificación Radiográfica , Radiografía Dental Digital/métodos , Radiografía Panorámica , Pantallas Intensificadoras de Rayos X
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