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2.
Public Health Rep ; 135(3): 310-312, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228126

RESUMEN

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Global Rapid Response Team (GRRT) was launched in June 2015 to strengthen the capacity for international response and to provide an agency-wide roster of qualified surge-staff members who can deploy on short notice and for long durations. To assess GRRT performance and inform future needs for CDC and partners using rapid response teams, we analyzed trends and characteristics of GRRT responses and responders, for deployments of at least 1 day during October 1, 2018, through March 31, 2019. One hundred twenty deployments occurred during the study period, corresponding to 2645 person-days. The median deployment duration was 19 days (interquartile range, 5-30 days). Most deployments were related to emergency response (n = 2367 person-days, 90%); outbreaks of disease accounted for almost all deployment time (n = 2419 person-days, 99%). Most deployments were to Africa (n = 1417 person-days, 54%), and epidemiologists were the most commonly deployed technical advisors (n = 1217 person-days, 46%). This case study provides useful information for assessing program performance, prioritizing resource allocation, informing future needs, and sharing lessons learned with other programs managing rapid response teams. GRRT has an important role in advancing the global health security agenda and should continuously be assessed and adjusted to new needs.


Asunto(s)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./estadística & datos numéricos , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Salud Global , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Estados Unidos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18525, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914025

RESUMEN

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is important for prevention and treatment. Ending the HIV epidemic is unattainable if significant proportions of people living with HIV remain undiagnosed, making HIV testing critical for prevention and treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV testing for persons aged 13 to 64 years in all health care settings. This study builds on prior research by estimating the extent to which HIV testing occurs during physician office and emergency department (ED) post 2006 CDC recommendations.We performed an unweighted and weighted cross-sectional analysis using pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys namely National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2009 to 2014. We assessed routine HIV testing trends and predictive factors in physician offices and ED using multi-stage statistical survey procedures in SAS 9.4.HIV testing rates in physician offices increased by 105% (5.6-11.5 per 1000) over the study period. A steeper increase was observed in ED with a 191% (2.3-6.7 per 1000) increase. Odds ratio (OR) for HIV testing in physician offices were highest among ages 20 to 29 ([OR] 7.20, 99% confidence interval [CI: 4.37-11.85]), males (OR 1.34, [CI: 0.91-0.93]), African-Americans (OR 2.97, [CI: 2.05-4.31]), Hispanics (OR 1.80, [CI: 1.17-2.78]), and among visits occurring in the South (OR 2.06, [CI: 1.23-3.44]). In the ED, similar trends of higher testing odds persisted for African Americans (OR 3.44, 99% CI 2.50-4.73), Hispanics (OR 2.23, 99% CI 1.65-3.01), and Northeast (OR 2.24, 99% CI 1.10-4.54).While progress has been made in screening, HIV testing rates remains sub-optimal for ED visits. Populations visiting the ED for routine care may suffer missed opportunities for HIV testing, which delays their entry into HIV medical care. To end the epidemic, new approaches for increasing targeted routine HIV testing for populations attending health care settings is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consultorios Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Pruebas Serológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105219, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614120

RESUMEN

As the only specialized institution for research and control of parasitic diseases at the national level in China for almost 70 years, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) has been instrumental in supporting the remarkable progress from high prevalence to transmission interruption or low endemicity of several diseases, lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis in particular. This has taken place through technical guidance, emergency response and scientific research as well as providing technical service, education, training, health promotion and international cooperation. With China's increasing involvement in international cooperation and the increased risk for (re)emerging tropical diseases in mind, the Chinese Government designated in 2017 a new Chinese Center for Tropical Disease Research to NIPD. Responding to the expanded responsibilities, the institute is scaling up its activities in several ways: from parasitic diseases to the wider area of tropical diseases; from disease control to disease elimination; from biological research to policy evidences accumulation; and from public health to global health. Based on this new vision and China's previous accomplishments in the areas mentioned, the institute is in a position to move forward with respect to global health and equitable development according to the central principles of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Asunto(s)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Salud Global/normas , Cooperación Internacional , Enfermedades Parasitarias/epidemiología , Salud Pública/normas , Medicina Tropical/normas , Academias e Institutos , Animales , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionales , Estados Unidos
5.
Am J Public Health ; 110(1): 27-31, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725313

RESUMEN

The federal government has proposed an end to HIV transmission in the United States by 2030. Although the United States has made substantial overall progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS, data released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have raised concerns about widening, yet largely unrecognized, HIV infection disparities among Hispanic and Latino populations.This commentary identifies underlying drivers of increasing new HIV infections among Hispanics/Latinos, discusses existing national efforts to fight HIV in Hispanic/Latino communities, and points to gaps in the federal response. Consideration of the underlying drivers of increased HIV incidence among Hispanics/Latinos is warranted to achieve the administration's 2030 HIV/AIDS goals.Specifically, the proposed reinforcement of national efforts to end the US HIV epidemic must include focused investment in four priority areas: (1) HIV stigma reduction in Hispanic/Latino communities, (2) the availability and accessibility of HIV treatment of HIV-positive Hispanics/Latinos, (3) the development of behavioral interventions tailored to Hispanic/Latino populations, and (4) the engagement of Hispanic/Latino community leaders.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Hispanoamericanos , Vacunas contra el SIDA , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Homosexualidad Masculina/etnología , Humanos , Liderazgo , Masculino , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Asunción de Riesgos , Estigma Social , Personas Transgénero , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1): 18-24, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722186

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Supplemental federal funding is allocated to state and local tuberculosis (TB) programs using a formula that considers only countable cases reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS). Health departments submit reports of cases, which are countable unless another (US or international) jurisdiction has already counted the case or the case represents a recurrence of TB diagnosed ≤12 months after completion of treatment for a previous TB episode. Noncountable cases are a resource burden, so in 2009, NTSS began accepting noncountable case reports as an indicator of program burden. We sought to describe the volume and completeness of noncountable case reports. METHODS: We analyzed 2010-2014 NTSS data to determine the number and distribution of noncountable cases reported. We also surveyed jurisdictions to determine the completeness of noncountable case reporting and obtain information on jurisdictions' experience in reporting noncountable cases. In addition, we prepared a hypothetical recalculation of the funding formula to evaluate the effect of including noncountable cases on funding allocations. RESULTS: Of 54 067 TB case reports analyzed, 1720 (3.2%) were noncountable; 47 of 60 (78.3%) jurisdictions reported ≥1 noncountable case. Of 60 programs surveyed, 34 (56.7%) responded. Of the 34 programs that responded, 24 (70.6%) had not reported all their noncountable cases to NTSS, and 11 (32.4%) stated that reporting noncountable cases was overly burdensome, considering the cases were not funded. CONCLUSIONS: Complete data on noncountable TB cases help support estimates of programmatic burden. Ongoing training and a streamlined reporting system to NTSS can facilitate noncountable case reporting.


Asunto(s)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Notificación Obligatoria , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./normas , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Am J Public Health ; 109(11): 1548-1556, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577488

RESUMEN

This article examines the rise of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) small but influential program on the human toxicology of synthetic pesticides after World War II. For nearly 20 years, scientists working in the CDC's Toxicology Section conducted a range of laboratory, field, and clinical studies to assess whether pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), caused harm to humans. Applying an industrial hygiene approach to study pesticide toxicity, the team used the symptoms of poisoning as their criteria for harm and consistently found that, when used as intended, pesticides were generally safe for humans. In the post-Silent Spring era, these findings were increasingly challenged as the field of toxicology developed and different ways of understanding pesticide toxicity gained greater acceptance. While it is easy to dismiss the CDC's findings as excessively narrow, examining how the team arrived at their conclusions provides an instructive lesson about the powerful ways conceptual frameworks shape scientific inquiry and the unexpected ways data can be reinterpreted in different problem contexts. (Am J Public Health. 2019;109:1548-1556. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305260).


Asunto(s)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./historia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , DDT/envenenamiento , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Plaguicidas/farmacología , Investigación/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
8.
Lupus ; 28(12): 1441-1451, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594456

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects African Americans. We adapted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Popular Opinion Leader model to implement an intervention tailored for African American individuals that leverages an academic-community partnership and community-based social networks to disseminate culturally appropriate lupus education. METHODS: Academic rheumatologists, social scientists, and researchers in Boston, MA and Chicago, IL partnered with local lupus support groups, community organizations, and churches in neighborhoods with higher proportions of African Americans to develop curriculum and recruit community leaders with and without lupus (Popular Opinion Leaders; POLs). POLs attended four training sessions focused on lupus education, strategies to educate others, and a review of research methods. POLs disseminated information through their social networks and recorded their impact, which was mapped using a geographic information system framework. RESULTS: We trained 18 POLs in greater Boston and 19 in greater Chicago: 97% were African American, 97% were female; and the mean age was 57 years. Fifty-nine percent of Boston POLs and 68% of Chicago POLs had lupus. POLs at both sites engaged members of their social networks and communities in conversations about lupus, health disparities, and the importance of care. Boston POLs documented 97 encounters with 547 community members reached. Chicago POLs documented 124 encounters with 4083 community members reached. CONCLUSIONS: An adapted, community-based POL model can be used to disseminate lupus education and increase awareness in African American communities. Further research is needed to determine the degree to which this may begin to reduce disparities in access to care and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/educación , Concienciación , Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/epidemiología , Adulto , Afroamericanos/psicología , Anciano , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Enfermedad Crónica , Redes Comunitarias/tendencias , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica/instrumentación , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Liderazgo , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Opinión Pública , Proyectos de Investigación , Estados Unidos/etnología
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(5): 830-835, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877297

RESUMEN

Applied epidemiology training occurs throughout an epidemiologist's career, beginning with academic instruction before workforce entry, continuing as professional development while working, and culminating with mentoring the next generation. Epidemiologists need ongoing training on advancements in the field and relevant topics (e.g., informatics, laboratory science, emerging topics) to maintain and improve their skills. Even epidemiologists with advanced skills often want training on methodologic innovations or to practice a skill. Effective applied epidemiology training includes blended learning components of instruction that incorporate hands-on experiences such as simulations and experiential learning, allowing for real-time workflows and incorporation of feedback. To prepare epidemiologists for the future, public health training courses in applied epidemiology must consider the evolution in public health toward a focus on including informatics, technologic innovation, molecular epidemiology, multidisciplinary teams, delivery of population health services, and global health security. Supporting efforts by epidemiologists to increase their skills as part of their career paths ensures a strong workforce that able to tackle public health issues. We explore how to meet current training challenges for the epidemiology workforce, especially given limited resources, based on research and our experience in workforce development across federal agencies and state/local health departments, as well as with international governments and organizations.


Asunto(s)
Epidemiología/educación , Epidemiología/organización & administración , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Recursos Humanos/organización & administración , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Conducta Cooperativa , Difusión de Innovaciones , Educación Continua/organización & administración , Epidemiología/normas , Humanos , Sistemas de Información , Salud Poblacional , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/organización & administración , Administración en Salud Pública/normas , Desarrollo de Personal/organización & administración , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos/normas
15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 25(2): 113-120, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927899

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Human health is threatened by climate change. While the public health workforce is concerned about climate change, local health department (LHD) administrators have reported insufficient knowledge and resources to address climate change. Minigrants from state to LHDs have been used to promote a variety of local public health initiatives. OBJECTIVE: To describe the minigrant approach used by state health departments implementing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework, to highlight successes of this approach in promoting climate change preparedness at LHDs, and to describe challenges encountered. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey and discussion. INTERVENTION: State-level recipients of CDC funding issued minigrants to local public health entities to promote climate change preparedness, adaptation, and resilience. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The amount of funding, number of LHDs funded per state, goals, selection process, evaluation process, outcomes, successes, and challenges of the minigrant programs. RESULTS: Six state-level recipients of CDC funding for BRACE framework implementation awarded minigrants ranging from $7700 to $28 500 per year to 44 unique local jurisdictions. Common goals of the minigrants included capacity building, forging partnerships with entities outside of health departments, incorporating climate change information into existing programs, and developing adaptation plans. Recipients of minigrants reported increases in knowledge, engagement with diverse stakeholders, and the incorporation of climate change content into existing programs. Challenges included addressing climate change in regions where the topic is politically sensitive, as well as the uncertainty about the long-term sustainability of local projects beyond the term of minigrant support. CONCLUSIONS: Minigrants can increase local public health capacity to address climate change. Jurisdictions that wish to utilize minigrant mechanisms to promote climate change adaptation and preparedness at the local level may benefit from the experience of the 6 states and 44 local health programs described.


Asunto(s)
Defensa Civil/métodos , Cambio Climático , Organización de la Financiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Gobierno Local , Salud Pública/métodos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./estadística & datos numéricos , Defensa Civil/instrumentación , Estudios Transversales , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Emerg Med ; 56(1): 7-14, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342859

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the 2014 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that all emergency department (ED) patients undergo travel screening for risk factors of importing EVD. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the overall adherence rate to the recommended travel screening protocol and to identify factors associated with nonadherence to the protocol. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis of adherence to the travel screening program in an academic hospital and three affiliated community hospitals. A regression model identified patient and hospital factors associated with nonadherence. RESULTS: Of the 147,062 patients included for analysis, 93.7% (n = 137,834) had travel screenings completed. We identified several characteristics of patients that were most likely to be missed by the screening protocol-patients with low English proficiency, patients who arrive via ambulance or helicopter, and patients with more severe illness or injury based on initial triage acuity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should be used to improve adherence to the travel screening protocol for future emerging infectious disease threats.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/tendencias , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Medicina del Viajero/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , África Occidental , Anciano , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Ebolavirus/patogenicidad , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 13(3): 626-638, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419972

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) conducted research from 2008 to 2015 aimed to improve the complex public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) system. This paper summarizes PERRC studies that addressed the development and assessment of criteria for evaluating PHEPR and metrics for measuring their efficiency and effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed 171 PERRC publications indexed in PubMed between 2009 and 2016. These publications derived from 34 PERRC research projects. We identified publications that addressed the development or assessment of criteria and metrics pertaining to PHEPR systems and describe the evaluation methods used and tools developed, the system domains evaluated, and the metrics developed or assessed. RESULTS: We identified 29 publications from 12 of the 34 PERRC projects that addressed PHEPR system evaluation criteria and metrics. We grouped each study into 1 of 3 system domains, based on the metrics developed or assessed: (1) organizational characteristics (n = 9), (2) emergency response performance (n = 12), and (3) workforce capacity or capability (n = 8). These studies addressed PHEPR system activities including responses to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the 2011 tsunami, as well as emergency exercise performance, situational awareness, and workforce willingness to respond. Both PHEPR system process and outcome metrics were developed or assessed by PERRC studies. CONCLUSIONS: PERRC researchers developed and evaluated a range of PHEPR system evaluation criteria and metrics that should be considered by system partners interested in assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of their activities. Nonetheless, the monitoring and measurement problem in PHEPR is far from solved. Lack of standard measures that are readily obtained or computed at local levels remains a challenge for the public health preparedness field. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:626-638).


Asunto(s)
Benchmarking/métodos , Defensa Civil/normas , Salud Pública/normas , Benchmarking/tendencias , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./estadística & datos numéricos , Defensa Civil/métodos , Defensa Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 13(2): 256-264, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041706

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Literature explores which factors most impact resilience and how these factors impact an individual and communities' ability to cope with disaster. Less research has focused on how age impacts resilience. This research adapts several previous conceptual models used to investigate resilience. To investigate the unique vulnerabilities faced by older individuals in post-disaster settings, this analysis was undertaken to investigate predictors of individual resilience. METHODS: Data for the study were derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Gulf States Population Survey (GSPS). The final sample included 5,713 adult residents from 4 gulf-coast states. Multiple linear regression was used for the analysis. RESULTS: All models (demographic, health, social, and combined) acted as significant predictors of individual resilience. Health and social resilience models accounted for more of the variance in resilience scores. In all models, age was negatively associated with resilience scores. Being female was protective across all models. The results of the model testing indicate inequitable disaster mitigation, with social and health indicators explaining the most variance in the resilience levels. CONCLUSION: This research provides practitioners with the knowledge they need to focus their interventions on the areas where it is most needed to empower resilient individuals. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:256-264).


Asunto(s)
Predicción/métodos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Medicina de Desastres/instrumentación , Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Femenino , Golfo de México/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Public Health ; 109(1): 66-72, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30495994

RESUMEN

Pain is a significant public health problem that needs policy at the national and local level to resolve incidents of insufficient, ineffective, and disparate pain treatment while limiting the risk of inadvertently increasing the use of treatment such as opioids that can result in public harm.The National Pain Strategy serves as the first comprehensive approach to address pain and provides a roadmap with substantial broad and specific policy implications. Although much has been accomplished to date, transitions in political power, available data and funding, and the current opioid epidemic continue to have an impact on implementation of the National Pain Strategy.A sustained, coordinated effort with multipronged policies in many forms on both federal and state levels via regulations, laws, and guidelines is warranted. However, research is needed to evaluate the impact and potential unintended consequences of increased legislation and regulation. Nevertheless, policy related to the management of pain may provide the path to new treatments and models of care to reduce the impact of pain as a public health crisis in this country.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Política de Salud , Epidemia de Opioides/prevención & control , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S./organización & administración , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Relaciones Interinstitucionales , National Academy of Sciences, U.S./organización & administración , Formulación de Políticas , Política , Desarrollo de Programa , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Salud Pública , Investigación/organización & administración , Gobierno Estatal , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Health Promot Pract ; 20(2): 214-222, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566575

RESUMEN

The outcome indicator framework helps tobacco prevention and control programs (TCPs) plan and implement theory-driven evaluations of their efforts to reduce and prevent tobacco use. Tobacco use is the single-most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The implementation of public health best practices by comprehensive state TCPs has been shown to prevent the initiation of tobacco use, reduce tobacco use prevalence, and decrease tobacco-related health care expenditures. Achieving and sustaining program goals require TCPs to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of their programs. To guide evaluation efforts by TCPs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health developed an outcome indicator framework that includes a high-level logic model and evidence-based outcome indicators for each tobacco prevention and control goal area. In this article, we describe how TCPs and other community organizations can use the outcome indicator framework in their evaluation efforts. We also discuss how the framework is used at the national level to unify tobacco prevention and control efforts across varying state contexts, identify promising practices, and expand the public health evidence base.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/organización & administración , Agencias Estatales de Desarrollo y Planificación de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organización & administración , Implementación de Plan de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Práctica de Salud Pública , Estados Unidos
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