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1.
J Oral Sci ; 63(2): 191-194, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790090

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of slurry abrasive levels and acidic challenges on the development of non-carious cervical lesions. METHODS: Ninety-six extracted upper premolars were affixed in pairs to acrylic blocks and had their root surfaces covered by acrylic resin except for 2 mm from the cemento-enamel junction. The specimens were distributed into six groups (n = 8 pairs) based on two experimental factors: (1) slurry abrasivity level [low/medium/high] and (2) citric acid challenge [yes/no]. Specimens were brushed for 5,000, 15,000, 35,000, and 65,000 strokes. Volume loss (VL) was determined based on optical profilometry scans of specimens impressions at the baseline and at subsequent brushing levels. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni pairwise comparison (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Higher VL values were associated with high-abrasivity slurries relative to low- and medium-abrasivity slurries (P < 0.001). Increasing the slurry abrasivity level increased the VL regardless of the acidic challenge, which did not have a significant effect (P = 0.184). After 65,000 strokes, significant VL was recorded in all groups relative to preceding brushing levels (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Higher values of time-dependent surface loss were associated with increased dentifrice slurry abrasivity, regardless of the citric acid challenge.


Asunto(s)
Dentífricos , Abrasión de los Dientes , Erosión de los Dientes , Humanos , Abrasión de los Dientes/etiología , Cuello del Diente , Erosión de los Dientes/etiología , Cepillado Dental , Pastas de Dientes
2.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(4): 691.e1-691.e7, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820617

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The extrinsic characterization with pigments and glaze application on the surface of ceramic restorations promotes individualization and esthetics. However, whether this characterization is resistant to toothbrushing abrasive wear is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the abrasive wear resistance of characterized and glazed resin-modified ceramic with different surface treatments before characterization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty rectangular specimens (10×8×6 mm) were precision cut from Vita Enamic and randomly divided in 4 groups as per the surface treatment before the characterization technique. These groups included the following: no additional treatment or polishing only, acid etching, airborne-particle abrasion, and self-etching silanization. For each surface treatment, 2 subgroups were created considering the presence or absence of the glaze layer after shade characterization, totaling 8 groups (n=10). The specimens were submitted to toothbrushing simulation (150 000 cycles, 2.45-N, 180 strokes per minute) with a soft and straight toothbrush and a solution of toothpaste and distilled water (250 g/L). After each 50 000 cycles, the wear of the characterized surface was measured by using a contact profilometer in µm which was equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 years of simulated toothbrushing. The rates were analyzed by using 3-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey test (α=.05). Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to access the surface profile between the evaluated periods. RESULTS: The mean wear rate (Rz) of the characterized surface was affected by the isolated factors, including surface treatment, glaze, and time (P<.001), with no interactive effects noted. A higher mean value of Rz was observed for polishing only (12.9 ±4.4 µm), followed by airborne-particle abrasion (10.2 ±4.5 µm), acid etching (9.4 ±2.4 µm), and then self-etching silanization (7.6 ±2.9 µm). Mean wear rate was also increased by the glaze (11.1 ±4.7 µm) compared with its absence (9 ±3.2 µm) and by the length of time, with 15 years (11.3 ±4.5 µm) followed by 10 years (9.8 ±4.0 µm) and 5 years (9 ±3.6 µm). The scanning electron microscopy images showed similar worn surfaces for each subgroup, glaze removal after 150 000 cycles, and surface homogeneity in function of time. CONCLUSIONS: Self-etching silanization was found to be the treatment suitable for reducing the wear of characterized resin-modified ceramic during prolonged brushing of more than 5 years. Glaze application did not protect the characterization from surface wear, regardless of the ceramic surface treatment performed on the specimens.


Asunto(s)
Porcelana Dental , Cepillado Dental , Cerámica , Estética Dental , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Propiedades de Superficie
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652982

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn attention to microbial transmission risk via aerosols in dental practice. Demonstration electric toothbrushes are used intra-orally for education. The aim of this investigation was to measure the size of droplets emitted by the brush head of two demonstration oscillating-rotating electric toothbrushes. Measurement of droplet production and size was recorded in vitro using three methods: (1) Malvern Spraytec (LASER particle size measurement device with detectable particle size of 0.1-2500 µm) and brushes mounted on a 3D-printed, two-shell form-fit fixture with a supply of tap water; (2) a DustTrak aerosol measurement device and toothpaste slurry, with brushing simulated in the oral cavity of a phantom head; (3) high-speed visualization in a simulated-use situation in the oral cavity of a phantom head, with individual evaluation of tap water, water with detergent, 70% ethanol, glycerin and toothpaste slurry. Both brushes showed the size of emitted droplets was consistently between 200 and 1200 µm, categorized as splatter (dental aerosols are <50 µm diameter). No significant incremental aerosol-sized matter was detected during toothbrush operation. The high-speed video visualization confirmed only splatter-sized droplets during operation. These findings indicate that oscillating-rotating toothbrushes do not produce aerosol-sized particles during simulated use.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/análisis , Equipo Dental , Cepillado Dental/instrumentación , Diseño de Equipo , Pastas de Dientes
4.
Gen Dent ; 69(2): 34-39, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661112

RESUMEN

The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the 2-body wear resistance of 7 direct composite resin materials (Synergy, Filtek Supreme XTE, GrandioSO, Tetric EvoCeram, G-ænial Anterior, Venus Pearl, and Ceram.X Duo) following thermomechanical loading as well as their gloss stability following toothbrushing. For measurement of resistance to wear, 8 specimens of each material were thermomechanically challenged under 200,000 load cycles at a maximum force of 49 N and 500 thermal cycles between 5°C and 50°C simultaneously. Wear was analyzed by measuring the volume and vertical loss of the contact point area using a high-speed 3-dimensional scan. For gloss measurements, 8 additional specimens of each material were evaluated using a glossmeter after being subjected to 15 minutes of brushing with an electric toothbrush at a 200-N application force. Filtek Supreme XTE had the least volumetric wear, while G-ænial Anterior and Ceram.X Duo had the greatest. The greatest vertical loss was recorded for G-ænial Anterior and Ceram.X Duo. Ceram.X Duo also had the greatest loss of gloss units, together with Venus Pearl. The universal composite Filtek Supreme XTE demonstrated the lowest wear rates and the best gloss retention.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Compuestas , Cepillado Dental , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie
5.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 32, 2021 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While indoor microbiomes impact our health and well-being, much remains unknown about taxonomic and functional transitions that occur in human-derived microbial communities once they are transferred away from human hosts. Toothbrushes are a model to investigate the potential response of oral-derived microbiota to conditions of the built environment. Here, we characterize metagenomes of toothbrushes from 34 subjects to define the toothbrush microbiome and resistome and possible influential factors. RESULTS: Toothbrush microbiomes often comprised a dominant subset of human oral taxa and less abundant or site-specific environmental strains. Although toothbrushes contained lower taxonomic diversity than oral-associated counterparts (determined by comparison with the Human Microbiome Project), they had relatively broader antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) profiles. Toothbrush resistomes were enriched with a variety of ARGs, notably those conferring multidrug efflux and putative resistance to triclosan, which were primarily attributable to versatile environmental taxa. Toothbrush microbial communities and resistomes correlated with a variety of factors linked to personal health, dental hygiene, and bathroom features. CONCLUSIONS: Selective pressures in the built environment may shape the dynamic mixture of human (primarily oral-associated) and environmental microbiota that encounter each other on toothbrushes. Harboring a microbial diversity and resistome distinct from human-associated counterparts suggests toothbrushes could potentially serve as a reservoir that may enable the transfer of ARGs. Video abstract.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Cepillado Dental , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/efectos de los fármacos , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Boca/efectos de los fármacos , Triclosán/farmacología , Adulto Joven
6.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 19(2): 166-175, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523601

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of dental caries and to identify risk factors for dental caries in an elderly population between 2008 and 2018. METHODS: This longitudinal study used data from a questionnaire survey and a clinical examination administered on two occasions 10 years apart to 273 individuals who were 65 and 75 years of age in 2008. The variables included were prevalence of dental caries as well as socioeconomic and socio-behavioural factors. RESULTS: The number of teeth decreased in both age groups by a mean of 2 over the 10-year study period, but the prevalence of dental caries remained stable. Approximately, a quarter of the participants had caries lesions. Toothbrushing once a day or less was the factor most strongly correlated with dental caries lesions (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.68-8.66, p = 0.001), followed by need for homecare (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.55-7.93, p = 0.003) and interproximal cleaning less than once a day (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.36-5.19, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study revealed no increase in the prevalence of dental caries lesions, indicating that good oral health can be preserved among elderly people. The highest risk for dental caries lesions was among participants with inadequate oral hygiene routines (toothbrushing once a day or less and seldom using interproximal devices) and in need of help in daily living, emphasizing the importance of oral hygiene and collaboration between dental services and community-based health care.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Caries Dentarias , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Salud Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Prevalencia , Cepillado Dental
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578684

RESUMEN

Smart toothbrushes equipped with inertial sensors are emerging as high-tech oral health products in personalized health care. The real-time signal processing of nine-axis inertial sensing and toothbrush posture recognition requires high computational resources. This paper proposes a recurrent probabilistic neural network (RPNN) for toothbrush posture recognition that demonstrates the advantages of low computational resources as a requirement, along with high recognition accuracy and efficiency. The RPNN model is trained for toothbrush posture recognition and brushing position and then monitors the correctness and integrity of the Bass Brushing Technique. Compared to conventional deep learning models, the recognition accuracy of RPNN is 99.08% in our experiments, which is 16.2% higher than that of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and 21.21% higher than the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model. The model we used can greatly reduce the computing power of hardware devices, and thus, our system can be used directly on smartphones.


Asunto(s)
Redes Neurales de la Computación , Cepillado Dental , Monitoreo Fisiológico
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528457

RESUMEN

The goal of this multicenter randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed ionic-sonic electric toothbrush in terms of plaque removal and reduction of gingival inflammation. A total of 78 subjects from three dental centers were invited to join the study. They were randomized to receive either a manual toothbrush (control group) or an ionic-sonic electric brush (test group). Full-mouth prophylaxis and oral hygiene instructions based on the stationary bristle technique were provided 1 week prior to the baseline visit. At baseline and at each follow-up appointment, Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were recorded. In addition, probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing were recorded at baseline and at the last appointment (week 5). At completion of the study, subjects in the test group were given a questionnaire regarding their satisfaction with the toothbrush. Sixty-four subjects completed the study (control: 28; test: 36). The mean age of the subjects was 36.90 ± 12.19 years. No significant difference between the baseline and 5-week PD was found. Plaque removal efficacy and reduction in gingival inflammation were more significant for the test group at week 2. Both the control and test groups showed statistically significant improvement in PI and GI from baseline to week 5. The ionic-sonic toothbrush was more effective than manual toothbrush after a 1-week application.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Cepillado Dental , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Inflamación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Simple Ciego , Adulto Joven
9.
Am J Dent ; 34(1): 54-60, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544990

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This 6-month study compared the effects of a smart-connected oscillating-rotating (O-R) electric rechargeable toothbrush with micro-vibrations with those of a marketed smart-connected sonic rechargeable toothbrush for the reduction of gingivitis and plaque. METHODS: In this single-center, examiner-blind, two-treatment, open-label, parallel-group, randomized study, 110 adult subjects with evidence of gingivitis and plaque were randomized to use either the O-R brush (Oral-B iO) or the sonic brush (Philips Sonicare DiamondClean). Both groups were instructed to brush twice daily with a standard sodium fluoride dentifrice. Gingivitis and plaque were assessed at baseline, week 1, and week 24 using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Designation of gingivitis case status as "healthy" or " not healthy" was made according to the World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. RESULTS: A significantly greater percentage of subjects in the O-R brush group versus the sonic brush group transitioned from " not healthy" to " healthy" gingivitis case status at week 24 (96.4% vs. 81.8%; P= 0.029). The O-R toothbrush produced a significantly greater reduction in adjusted mean MGI score, adjusted mean GBI score, and adjusted mean number of bleeding sites than did the sonic brush (week 24, by 32.6% for MGI score, by 23.7% for GBI score, and by 26.1% for number of bleeding sites, P< 0.001). After a single use on day 1, plaque removal was statistically significantly greater for the O-R brush compared to the sonic brush (P< 0.001); by week 24, the O-R brush demonstrated greater reductions in whole mouth plaque (24.6%), gingival margin plaque (61.9%) and approximal region plaque 25.8% (P≤ 0.007 for all) compared to the sonic brush. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This 6-month study provides evidence supporting use of a smart-connected O-R electric toothbrush with micro-vibrations for plaque removal and gingivitis reductions, resulting in transitions to a healthy gingival state.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Método Simple Ciego , Cepillado Dental
10.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e025, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605355

RESUMEN

This in vitro study evaluated the biocompatibility and abrasivity of whitening and conventional toothpastes. Samples of conventional (non-whitening) - Edel White Infant (EWI) - and whitening toothpastes - Edel White Whitening (EWW), Edel White CAREFORTE (EWC), Colgate Total 12 Ò Professional (C), and Oral-B Whitening (OB) - were dissolved in culture medium (0.2 g sample weight per mL). Human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) were placed in contact with different dilutions of culture media that had been previously exposed to these toothpastes. Cytotoxicity was then assessed using the methyl tetrazolium test (MTT) and the cell survival rate was determined. Genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus test (MNT) and the number of micronuclei was determined before and after exposure to the toothpaste solutions. The enamel surface roughness was evaluated in specimens of bovine teeth (n = 10 per group) before and after 10,000 brushing cycles, using the investigated toothpastes. The results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). According to the MTT assay, EWW and OB presented significant cytotoxicity (p < 0.01), but no genotoxic (MNT) effects (p > 0.05). C toothpaste was statistically significantly abrasive to the enamel surface (p < 0.01). The findings of this study may be helpful for individualized selection of commercial toothpastes, as some whitening toothpastes present significant cytotoxicity and conventional toothpaste cause significant surface changes.


Asunto(s)
Esmalte Dental , Pastas de Dientes , Animales , Bovinos , Humanos , Fluoruro de Sodio , Cepillado Dental , Pastas de Dientes/toxicidad
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e29, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605359

RESUMEN

This study evaluated how Er,Cr:YSGG laser, associated or not with 5% fluoride varnish, influences the surface roughness and volume loss of bovine root dentin submitted to erosive and/or abrasive wear. One hundred and twenty dentin specimens were divided into the groups: without preventive treatment (WPT), 5% fluoride varnish (FV); Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (L), and varnish combined with laser (FV + L). The specimens (n = 10) were subdivided into: 1 = erosion (E); 2 = abrasion (A); and 3 = erosion followed by abrasion (E + A). The erosive solution used was a soft-drink (pH = 2.42 at 4ºC) applied in 5-min cycles twice a day for 10d. Abrasive wear involved brushing for 60s with an electric brush (1,600-oscillations/s) at a load of 2.0N. Surface roughness and volume loss were evaluated using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Roughness data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. For volume loss, the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests were used (α = 5%). The lowest values of roughness were found in the control areas of all subgroups (p > 0.05). In the experimental area, the [(WPT) + (E+A)] subgroup had a significantly higher roughness (5.712 ± 0.163 µm 2 ) than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). The L and (FV + L) groups had statistically similar roughness, regardless of the type of wear. The (FV + L) group had the lowest volume loss, regardless of the type of wear performed: [(FV + L) + (E)] = 7.5%, [(FV + L) + (A) = 7.3%, and [(FV + L) + (E + A)] = 8.1%. The subgroup [(WPT) + (E + A)] had the highest volume loss (52.3%). The proposed treatments were effective in controlling dentin roughness. Laser irradiation can be an effective method to increase root dentin resistance after challenges and limit problems related to non-carious lesions.


Asunto(s)
Láseres de Estado Sólido , Erosión de los Dientes , Animales , Bovinos , Dentina , Fluoruros , Láseres de Estado Sólido/uso terapéutico , Erosión de los Dientes/etiología , Raíz del Diente , Cepillado Dental
12.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 137-147, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615769

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes and oral fluid biomarkers in gingivitis subjects using an electric toothbrush/irrigator combination (test) or a manual toothbrush alone (control) over 8 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of n = 30. In both groups, toothbrushing was performed twice daily at home and no additional interdental cleaning aids were allowed. Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), whole saliva (WS), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, and 8. RESULTS: Subjects' mean age was 23 years and 52% were female. Overall baseline means were 1.31 for PLI, 1.07 for GI, and 34.9 for number of bleeding sites. At every follow-up visit, both groups differed statistically significantly (p < 0.001) from baseline for all clinical parameters. The test group demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater reductions in GI vs the control group by 18% at week 2, 17% at week 4 and 24% at week 8. The test group also demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.002) greater reductions in the number of bleeding sites vs the control group by 33% at week 2, 34% at week 4 and 43% at week 8. Between-group comparisons for both WS and GCF revealed numerical trends for decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß in GCF after 4 and 8 weeks, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In subjects using the electric toothbrush/irrigator combination, increased clinical improvements may be found accompanied by similarly improved trends for oral fluid biomarkers such as IL-1ß.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Gingivitis/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simple Ciego , Cepillado Dental , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478112

RESUMEN

Enzymes in toothpastes can support host immune responses, and thus maintain oral health. This study aimed to investigate gingival health and the plaque-reducing effects of enzyme-containing toothpastes. A laboratory study tested the antimicrobial potential of different enzyme-containing toothpaste formulations. Two promising formulations (enzyme-containing toothpastes with glucose oxidase and D-glucose with (C+) and without Citrox (C-) Citrox) were investigated in a clinical crossover trial (two slurries: sodium lauryl sulfate-containing (SLS), a toothpaste without SLS (reference), and water). Subjects (n = 20) abstained from toothbrushing for four days and rinsed with a toothpaste slurry. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices (PI) were measured. A mixed linear model was used to statistically compare the slurries with respect to BOP and PI change. The in vitro bacterial growth-inhibiting evaluation showed the best results for SLS, followed by C+ and C-. The change in BOP and PI exhibited statistically significant differences to water rinsing (BOP; PI changes in % points (difference of the baseline and post-rinse values: water = 8.8%; 90.0%; C+ = -1.4%; 80.4%; SLS = 1.5%; 72.1%; reference = 0.8%; 77.5%; C- = -1.8%; 75.1%). All slurries exhibited anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque effects, resulting in a prophylactic benefit for limited-access regions during brushing.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Pastas de Dientes , Método Doble Ciego , Encía , Humanos , Dodecil Sulfato de Sodio , Cepillado Dental
14.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 65-73, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427212

RESUMEN

The formation of a physiological biofilm cannot be avoided under normal circumstances. However, the consequences of a supragingivally located biofilm, such as caries, gingivitis and, as a further effect, periodontitis, are relatively easy to avoid. The simplest and most common method used worldwide for the elimination of biofilm is periodic mechanical removal using a toothbrush or similar tools, such as chewing sticks or woods. This method was already used in ancient Egypt, and is still being used today, albeit advanced and improved with the help of toothpastes. Here we give a summary of the most common toothbrushes, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the most common toothpastes, their ingredients, and functions. In addition, the ingredients will be critically evaluated and recommendations given for the use or non-use of certain ingredients for different target groups, such as children, healthy adults, or patients with special needs.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Biopelículas , Niño , Humanos , Cepillado Dental , Pastas de Dientes
15.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 91-97, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427225

RESUMEN

Caries and inflammatory periodontal diseases have a high prevalence worldwide. Although improvements in oral health status in our patients have been shown, there is still an increased demand for preventive measurements - especially in view of the systemic influence of the chronic disease periodontitis. The main focus of such measurements lies on an optimal biofilm management which can be divided into professional biofilm management and home care measurements. Since home care mechanical measurements such as toothbrushing and interdental cleaning are often insufficient or not on a regular basis, they can be supported by antibacterial agents which are able to inhibit or kill any oral microorganisms that remain. Besides a proven effect on plaque bacteria and gingival inflammation, agents should have a high substantivity in the oral cavity that outlast the short rinsing period. This chapter aims to present the background and rationale of using antibacterial mouth rinses, their common agents, to show sensible indications, and to evaluate the scientific evidence of their additional effect over toothbrushing alone.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis , Antisépticos Bucales , Biopelículas , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Inflamación , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Higiene Bucal , Cepillado Dental
16.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 74-79, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427231

RESUMEN

The intraoral biofilm requires mechanical removal due to its physical properties. When exposed to the biofilm, interdental areas need special devices to be used. The most effective ones and the first choice are interdental brushes. However, they may not be adequate in the case of very narrow interdental spaces. Despite the difficulties in handling, dental floss may have some advantage in subgingival cleaning. Data are present for gingivitis and periodontitis, but almost no information has been published on gingivally healthy individuals. With respect to interdental caries there is evidence that floss only has a protective value when used professionally and without sufficient fluoridation. There are no such data available on interdental brushes.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Biopelículas , Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Cepillado Dental
17.
Quintessence Int ; 0(0): 292-298, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491389

RESUMEN

Objectives: Recent data show that teeth prepared with horizontal finishing lines supporting crowns and fixed partial dentures present more periodontal disorders than untreated control teeth. Several studies have shown that NitrAdine (bonyf) induces a significant reduction of dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that 10-day use of PerioTabs (bonyf), a NitrAdine-based gingiva brushing solution, is effective in treating gingival inflammation of prosthodontic patients. Method and materials: Forty-nine subjects were instructed to brush their teeth, gingivae, and prostheses with the PerioTabs solution for 10 days (treatment group) and 49 with any toothpaste (control group). The initial and 11-day Plaque Index and Bleeding Index were recorded. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the level of patient satisfaction. The Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to compare the results for the two groups. Results: Highly significant differences between the treatment and control group (P < .001) for the Plaque Index and Bleeding Index resulted. The treatment group patients' satisfaction was high: 31 (63.3%) reported the highest level, 5, on the Likert scale, and 18 (36.7%) declared they were satisfied (level 4). Conclusions: The use of a NitrAdine-based gingiva brushing solution (PerioTabs) was effective in reducing the gingival inflammation in periodontally affected patients treated with fixed partial dentures. Clinical relevance: The NitrAdine-based gingiva brushing solution (PerioTabs) was highly accepted by the patients and seems to be a promising alternative to the solutions widely used.


Asunto(s)
Encía , Gingivitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Dentadura Parcial Fija , Humanos , Cepillado Dental
18.
Quintessence Int ; 52(2): 176-186, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433083

RESUMEN

At present, the most important criterion for the size selection of interdental brushes is the PHD-value (passage hole diameter) according to the ISO standard for interdental brushes ISO 16409:2016. The PHD size range of commercially available products currently lies between 0.6 and 5.2 mm. With the exceptions of special situations, a range between 0.7 and 2.9 mm is sufficient for clinical routine. As most products have longer filaments nowadays, one brush can often be applied for two PHD intervals. Consequently, adequate patient counseling and the individual selection of the appropriate interdental brushes can generally be achieved with an assortment of 12 systematically arranged interdental brush sizes. An application example is the "Heidelberg set" described herein. It is crucial that the correct choice of size is based upon continuously rising PHD-values, and not upon parameters such as stem size, outer diameter of filaments, or similar, as these do not allow for a reliable conclusion regarding the interdental passage. The usage of ISO sizes is also not recommendable due to their insufficient size differentiation. (Quintessence Int 2021;52: 176-186; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b872241; Revised from an article originally published (in German) in Parodontologie 2020;31(1)37-49)

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Asunto(s)
Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Cepillado Dental
19.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 105-114, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358239

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors of this study aimed to evaluate the clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of 3 oral hygiene regimens: toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride, zinc lactate, and fluoride (CPC + Zn + F) in an alcohol-free base; toothbrushing with standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush and using a mouthrinse containing essential oils (EO) in an alcohol-free base; and toothbrushing with manual toothbrush and standard fluoride toothpaste and manual toothbrush (control). METHODS: The participants (N = 120) were randomly assigned to study groups and followed the assigned regimens twice daily for 6 weeks. The participants were examined by a calibrated examiner for the Quigley-Hein plaque index (Turesky modification) and Löe-Silness gingival index at baseline, week 4, and week 6. Statistical analyses were performed separately for plaque and gingival indexes by means of analysis of variance, paired t test, and analysis of covariance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: At week 4, the CPC + Zn + F group presented additional reductions in dental plaque compared with EO and control groups of (21.4% [P < .001] and 31.4% [P < .001], respectively). After 6 weeks, these values were 26.7% (P < .001) and 44.8% (P < .001), respectively. For Löe-Silness gingival index, additional reduction in the CPC + Zn + F group compared with EO were 10.6% (P < .001) and 13.7% (P < .001) at 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Compared with control, these reductions were 13.6% (P < .001) and 17.8% (P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The regimen including a mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F presented higher antiplaque and antigingivitis effects than EO and control regimens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A mouthrinse containing CPC + Zn + F is an effective protocol for the control of dental plaque and gingivitis.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales , Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Aceites Volátiles , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Cetilpiridinio/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactatos , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Aceites Volátiles/uso terapéutico , Cepillado Dental , Zinc/uso terapéutico
20.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(2): 115-126.e4, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of oscillating rotating (OR) versus side-to-side (SS) powered toothbrushes on plaque and gingival index reduction. METHODS: The authors searched 3 electronic databases and the gray literature for randomized clinical trials in which investigators compared OR with SS powered toothbrushes. Two authors independently screened the studies, performed data abstraction, and assessed the risk of bias. The authors used random-effects model meta-analyses to pool results across trials and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: This systematic review included 24 trials in which researchers enrolled a total of 2,998 patients. There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in plaque index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.46 to 0.42). There was moderate-certainty evidence that SS toothbrushes may result in little to no difference in gingival index reduction from baseline to 4 weeks compared with OR toothbrushes (standardized mean difference, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, -0.47 to 0.22). There was moderate-quality evidence suggesting little to no difference in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence does not suggest the superiority of either OR or SS toothbrushes for plaque or gingival index reduction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians and patients considering the use of either of these toothbrushes are unlikely to observe more benefits with one type versus the other.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Cepillado Dental
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