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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(8): 201-206, 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106215

RESUMEN

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States; 148,869 lung cancer-associated deaths occurred in 2016 (1). Mortality might be reduced by identifying lung cancer at an early stage when treatment can be more effective (2). In 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) for adults aged 55-80 years who have a 30 pack-year* smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years (2).† This was a Grade B recommendation, which required health insurance plans to cover lung cancer screening as a preventive service.§ To assess the prevalence of lung cancer screening by state, CDC used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data¶ collected in 2017 by 10 states.** Overall, 12.7% adults aged 55-80 years met the USPSTF criteria for lung cancer screening. Among those meeting USPSTF criteria, 12.5% reported they had received a CT scan to check for lung cancer in the last 12 months. Efforts to educate health care providers and provide decision support tools might increase recommended lung cancer screening.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevención & control , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 168, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While smoking elevates the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, whether smoking cessation after AF diagnosis actually leads to reduced CVD risk is unclear. We aimed to determine the association of smoking cessation after AF diagnosis with subsequent CVD Risk among South Korean men. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 2372 newly diagnosed AF male patients during 2003-2012 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Self-reported smoking status within 2 years before and after diagnosis date were determined, after which the participants were divided into continual smokers, quitters (smokers who quit after AF diagnosis), sustained-ex smokers (those who quit prior to AF diagnosis), and never smokers. Participants were followed up from 2 years after AF diagnosis until 31 December 2015 for CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for CVD according to the change in smoking habits before and after AF diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation, minimum-maximum) age of the study subjects was 62.5 (8.6, 41-89) years. Among AF patients, quitters had 35% reduced risk (aHR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and never smokers had 32% reduced risk (aHR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.90) for CVD compared to continual smokers (p for trend 0.020). Similarly, compared to continual smokers, quitters had 41% risk-reduction (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99) and never smokers 34% risk-reduction (aHR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.93) for total stroke (p for trend 0.047). Quitters had 50% reduction (aHR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94), sustained ex-smokers had 36% reduction (aHR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.99), and never smokers had 39% reduction (aHR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.91) in ischemic stroke risk (p for trend 0.047). The risk-reducing effect of quitting on CVD risk tended to be preserved regardless of aspirin or warfarin use. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation after AF diagnosis was associated with reduced CVD, total stroke, and ischemic stroke risk.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18994, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000438

RESUMEN

Many lifelong smokers establish smoking habits during young adulthood. A university can be an effective setting for early smoking cessation. We evaluated long-term predictors of smoking cessation among smokers in a university setting.We longitudinally followed a cohort of smokers enrolled in a university smoking cessation program in Seoul, South Korea. Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related variables, and changes in smoking habits were assessed during 6-week visit sessions and follow-up telephone interviews conducted 1 year or more later.A total of 205 participants were followed up (mean follow-up duration: 27.1 months). Cessation rates were 47.3% at the end of the visit sessions and 28.8% at follow-up. The long-term persistent smoking rate was significantly higher among individuals with peers who smoked (odds ratio [OR] = 8.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75, 42.80), with family members who smoked (OR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.20, 9.00), and who smoked 10 to 19 cigarettes/day (OR = 4.83; 95% CI = 1.49, 15.69). Conversely, persistent smoking was less likely among those who attended the program regularly (OR = 0.84 per visit; 95% CI = 0.72, 0.99) and attempted quitting more frequently (OR = 0.93 per attempt; 95% CI = 0.87, 0.99). Use of smoking cessation medications (varenicline or bupropion) was not significantly associated with long-term quitting (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.26, 1.93).Peer influences were the strongest predictors of failure in long-term cessation among smokers who attempted to quit. Similarly, the existence of smokers in the family was negatively associated with successful quitting. Regular attendance at a smoking cessation program and a high number of attempts to quit were positively associated with successful quitting. Targeting peer and family smoking groups together rather than targeting individual smokers alone, implementing active cessation programs encouraging regular attendance, and providing comprehensive antismoking environments might be effective strategies in a university setting.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , República de Corea , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 7, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906908

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reaching tobacco users is a persistent challenge for quitlines. In 2014, ClearWay MinnesotaSM changed its quitline services and media campaign, and observed substantial increases in reach and strong quit outcomes. Oklahoma and Florida implemented the same changes in 2015 and 2016. We examined whether the strategies used in Minnesota could be replicated with similar results. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of Minnesota's QUITPLAN® Services, the Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline, and Florida's Quit Your Way program. Each program offers free quitline services to their state's residents. For each state, data were compared for 1 year prior to service changes to 1 year after services changed and promotions began. Registration and program utilization data from 21,918 (Minnesota); 64,584 (Oklahoma); and 141,209 (Florida) program enrollees were analyzed. Additionally, outcome study data from 1542 (Minnesota); 3377 (Oklahoma); and 3444 (Florida) program enrollees were analyzed. We examined treatment reach, satisfaction, 24-h quit attempts, 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates, select demographic characteristics, registration mode (post period only), and estimated number of quitters. Data were analyzed using χ2 analyses and t-tests. RESULTS: Treatment reach rates increased by 50.62% in Oklahoma, 66.88% in Florida, and 480.56% in Minnesota. Significant increases in the estimated number of quitters were seen, ranging from + 42.75% to + 435.90%. Statistically significant changes in other variables (satisfaction, 24-h quit attempts, 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates, gender, and race) varied by state. During the post period, participants' method of registration differed. Online enrollment percentages ranged from 19.44% (Oklahoma), to 54.34% (Florida), to 70.80% (Minnesota). In Oklahoma, 71.63% of participants enrolled by phone, while 40.71% of Florida participants and 26.98% of Minnesota participants enrolled by phone. Fax or electronic referrals comprised 8.92% (Oklahoma), 4.95% (Florida), and 2.22% (Minnesota) of program enrollees, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Changing quitline services and implementing a new media campaign increased treatment reach and the estimated number of participants who quit smoking in three states. Quitline funders and tobacco control program managers may wish to consider approaches such as these to increase quitline utilization and population health impact.


Asunto(s)
Difusión de Innovaciones , Líneas Directas/organización & administración , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minnesota , Oklahoma , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
AIDS Behav ; 24(4): 1056-1063, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115754

RESUMEN

Understanding contributors to smoking and quitting cigarettes is important to developing effective cessation programs and addressing smoking related morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Using data from a large cross-sectional study of Australian PLHIV we provide a smoking prevalence estimate and explore the relationship between socio-demographic variables and smoking status. We also explore the relationship between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and quitting smoking. Of the 1011 respondents included in the analysis, 30.6% were current smokers. The strongest predictor of smoking was regular cannabis use (AOR 6.2, 95% CI 3.6-10.8) while the strongest predictor of being a past smoker was receiving ART (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quitting also increased around the time of diagnosis and ART initiation, highlighting the potential for these events to be optimal times to address smoking among PLHIV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
6.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 171-178, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646623

RESUMEN

Free nicotine patches may promote pre-operative smoking cessation. Smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes.day-1 ) awaiting non-urgent surgery were randomly assigned (3:1) to an offer of free nicotine patches or a control group who were not offered free nicotine patches. The suggested regimen lasted 5 weeks, with patch strength decreasing incrementally after 3 and 4 weeks. The primary outcome was smoking abstinence for ≥ 4 weeks, as self-reported by participants on the day of surgery, including, where possible, corroboration using exhaled carbon monoxide testing. Out of 600 included smokers, 447 (74.5%) were randomly assigned to an offer of pre-operative nicotine patches, with 175 (39.1%) of these accepting the offer and 56 (12.5%) using patches for ≥ 3 weeks. Out of 396 participants offered nicotine patches who were included for analysis, 36 (9.1%) quit smoking for ≥ 4 weeks before surgery as compared with 8 (5.9%) controls, OR 1.5 [95%CI 0.7-3.2], p = 0.300. Sixty-three (15.9%) quit smoking for 24 h before surgery as compared with 15 (11.1%) controls, OR 1.4 [95%CI 0.8-2.4], p = 0.200. Participants offered nicotine patches were more likely to engage in a cessation attempt lasting more than 24 h, 46 (11.6%) vs. 5 (3.7%), OR 3.4 [95%CI 1.8-8.8], p = 0.010. Out of 78 participants who quit smoking by the day of surgery and were followed up at 6 months, 46 (59%) had relapsed. Offering free nicotine patches stimulated interest in quitting compared with controls, but our protocol had limited effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/terapia , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(2): 200-206, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842162

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a known risk factor for recurrence of Crohn's disease after surgical resection. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of smoking cessation on long-term surgical recurrence after primary ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease. DESIGN: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted. SETTINGS: Patient demographic data and medical and surgical details were combined from 2 specialist centers. After ethical approval, patients were contacted in case of missing data regarding smoking habit. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing ileocolic resection between 2000 and 2012 for histologically confirmed Crohn's disease were included. Those with previous intestinal resection, strictureplasty for Crohn's disease, leak after ileocolic resection, or who were never reversed were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was surgical recurrence measured by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and secondary medical therapy at time of follow-up. RESULTS: Over a 12-year period, 290 patients underwent ileocolic resection. Full smoking data were available for 242 (83%) of 290 patients. There were 169 nonsmokers (70%; group 1), 42 active smokers at the time of ileocolic resection who continued smoking up to last follow-up (17%; group 2), and 31 (13%) who quit smoking after ileocolic resection (group 3). The median time of smoking exposure after ileocolic resection for group 3 was 3 years (interquartile range, 0-6 y), and median follow-up time for the whole group was 112 months (9 mo; interquartile range, 84-148 mo). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significantly higher surgical recurrence rate for group 2 compared with group 3 (16/42 (38%) vs 3/31 (10%); p = 0.02; risk ratio = 3.9 (95% CI, 1-12)). In addition, significantly more patients in group 2 without surgical recurrence received immunomodulatory maintenance therapy compared with group 3 (12/26 (46%) vs 4/28 (14%); p = 0.01; risk ratio = 3.2 (95% CI, 1-9)). LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective design and small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation after primary ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease may significantly reduce long-term risk of surgical recurrence and is associated with less use of maintenance therapy. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B86. ¿DEJAR DE FUMAR REDUCE LA RECURRENCIA QUIRÚRGICA DESPUÉS DE LA RESECCIÓN ILEOCÓLICA PRIMARIA PARA LA ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN?: Fumar tabaco es un factor de riesgo conocido para la recurrencia de la enfermedad de Crohn después de la resección quirúrgica.Evaluar el efecto de dejar de fumar en la recurrencia quirúrgica a largo plazo después de la resección ileocólica primaria para la enfermedad de Crohn.Revisión retrospectiva de una base de datos mantenida prospectivamente.Se combinaron datos demográficos del paciente, así como detalles médicos y quirúrgicos de dos centros especializados. Después de la aprobación ética, se contactó a los pacientes en caso de falta de datos sobre el hábito de fumar.Todos los pacientes sometidos a resección ileocólica entre 2000 y 2012 por enfermedad de Crohn confirmada histológicamente. Se excluyeron aquellos con resección intestinal previa, estenosis por enfermedad de Crohn, fuga después de resección ileocólica o que nunca se revirtieron.La principal variable fue la recurrencia quirúrgica medida por análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier, terapia médica secundaria en el momento del seguimiento.Durante un período de 12 años, 290 pacientes fueron sometidos a resección ileocólica. Se dispuso de datos completos sobre el tabaquismo para 242/290 (83%). Hubo 169 no fumadores (70%) (grupo 1), 42 (17%) fumadores activos en el momento de la resección ileocólica que continuaron fumando hasta el último seguimiento (grupo 2) y 31 (13%) que dejaron de fumar después de resección ileocólica (grupo 3). La mediana del tiempo de exposición al tabaquismo después de la resección ileocólica para el grupo 3 fue de 3 años (IQR 0-6) y la mediana del tiempo de seguimiento para todo el grupo fue de 112 meses (9 años) (IQR 84-148). El análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier mostró una tasa de recurrencia quirúrgica significativamente mayor para el grupo 2 en comparación con el grupo 3 (16/42 (38%) frente a 3/31 (10%), p = 0.02; razón de riesgo 3.9 (IC 95% 1-12)). Además, un número significativamente mayor de pacientes del grupo 2 sin recurrencia quirúrgica recibieron terapia de mantenimiento inmunomoduladora en comparación con el grupo 3 (12/26 (46%) frente a 4/28 (14%), p = 0.01; razón de riesgo 3.2 (IC 95% 1-9)).Diseño retrospectivo y pequeño número de pacientes.Dejar de fumar después de la resección ileocólica primaria para la enfermedad de Crohn puede reducir significativamente el riesgo a largo plazo de recurrencia quirúrgica y se asocia con un menor uso del tratamiento de mantenimiento. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B86. (Traducción-Dr. Gonzalo Federico Hagerman).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Crohn/cirugía , Intestinos/cirugía , Reoperación/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anastomosis Quirúrgica , Enfermedad de Crohn/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/patología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Inmunomodulación/fisiología , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Intestinos/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1420-1425, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838815

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the trends of smoking and passive smoking exposure in adults in Shaanxi province from 2007 to 2015. Methods: Data was from China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2015 to calculate the rates of smoking, smoking cessation and passive smoking exposure, as well as the amount of smoking of smokers indicated by each surveillance. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess the trends across survey periods. The weighting rate was calculated by using sampling weight and data from the 6(th) national census in 2010. Sensitivity analysis was done to test the trends as well. Results: The results of the surveillance indicated that the smoking rate in 2007 was 38.26%, highest in the results of four surveys, it decreased to 30.95% in 2013 and then increased to 34.11% in 2015 (Cochran-Armitage test: Z=2.46, P=0.014). The amount of smoking increased from 16.90 cigarettes per day in 2007 to 17.76 cigarettes per day in 2015. The overall rate of smoking cessation was 11.02% in 2007 and 16.95% in 2015 (Cochran- Armitage test: Z=-4.18, P<0.01). We observed the passive smoking exposure rate was 48.10% in 2010 and 63.88% in 2015 (Cochran-Armitage test: Z=-10.60, P<0.01). We found no difference in trends by sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The smoking rate and amount of cigarettes smoked in adults in Shaanxi remained stable and at a high level. The rate of smoking cessation increased gradually, while the passive smoking exposure rate increased rapidly.


Asunto(s)
Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/tendencias , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/etnología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 924, 2019 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791307

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The potential economic benefit in terms of reduced healthcare costs when patients quit smoking after hospital discharge has not been directly measured. The aim of this study was to compare the costs for hospital admission and six-month follow-up for a cohort of patients who self-reported abstinence from cigarettes at 6 months after hospital discharge and a matched group of patients who reported continued smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a recent population-based clinical trial cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01575145), with cohort membership determined by self-reported 7 day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months after the index hospital discharge. Participants were admitted to Mayo Clinic Hospital, Rochester, MN, between May 5, 2012 and August 10, 2014 for any indication and lived in the areas covered by postal codes included in Olmsted County, MN. Propensity score matching was used to control for differences between groups other than smoking status, and any residual imbalance was adjusted through generalized linear model with gamma distribution for cost and log-link transformation. RESULTS: Of 600 patients enrolled in the clinical trial, 144 could be contacted and self-reported 7 day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months after hospital discharge. Of these patients, 99 were successfully matched for this analysis. The cost for the index hospitalization was significantly greater in patients who abstained compared to those that did not abstain (mean difference of $3042, higher for abstainers, 95% CI $170 to $5913, P = 0.038). However, there was no difference between mean 6-month follow-up costs, number of inpatient hospitalizations, or number of emergency room visits for abstainers versus non-abstainers. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that abstinence at 6 months after hospital discharge is associated with a decrease in health care costs or utilization over the first 6 months after hospital discharge.


Asunto(s)
Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Alta del Paciente , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Hospitalización/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minnesota , Proyectos de Investigación
10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(7_suppl): 22S-31S, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802718

RESUMEN

Smoking cessation significantly reduces risk of smoking-related diseases and mortality. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with attempts to quit and smoking cessation among adult current smokers in Malaysia. Data from the National E-Cigarette Survey 2016 were analyzed. Forty nine percent of current smokers had attempted to quit at least once in the past 12 months and 31.4% of the respondents were former smokers. Multivariable analysis revealed that current smokers with low nicotine addiction and aged below 45 years were more likely to attempt to quit smoking. Being married, older age group, and having tertiary education were significantly associated with smoking cessation. Only half of the current smokers ever attempted to quit smoking and only a third of smokers quit. Stronger tobacco control policies are needed in Malaysia to encourage more smokers to quit smoking. Improved access to cessation support for underprivileged smokers is also needed.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S63-S72, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867637

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Because 30% of cigarettes sold in the United States are characterized as menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand how menthol preference may affect the impact of a nicotine reduction policy. METHODS: In a recent trial, non-treatment-seeking smokers were randomly assigned to receive very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNC; 0.4 mg nicotine/g tobacco) or normal nicotine cigarettes (NNC; 15.5 mg/g) for 20 weeks. On the basis of preference, participants received menthol or non-menthol cigarettes. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to examine whether menthol preference moderated the effects of nicotine content on cigarettes per day (CPD), breath carbon monoxide (CO), urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA), and abstinence. RESULTS: At baseline, menthol smokers (n = 346) reported smoking fewer CPD (14.9 vs. 19.2) and had lower TNE (52.8 vs. 71.6 nmol/mg) and CO (17.7 vs. 20.5 ppm) levels than non-menthol smokers (n = 406; ps < .05). At week 20, significant interactions indicated that menthol smokers had smaller treatment effects than non-menthol smokers for CPD (-6.4 vs. -9.3), TNE (ratio of geometric means, 0.22 vs. 0.10) and CEMA (ratio, 0.56 vs. 0.37; ps < .05), and trended toward a smaller treatment effect for CO (-4.5 vs. -7.3 ppm; p = .06). Odds ratios for abstinence at week 20 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.8 to 4.4) for menthol and 9.11 (95% CI = 3.3 to 25.2) for non-menthol VLNC smokers (p = .02) relative to the NNC condition. CONCLUSIONS: Although menthol smokers experienced reductions in smoking, toxicant exposure, and increases in quitting when using VLNC cigarettes, the magnitude of change was smaller than that observed for non-menthol smokers. IMPLICATIONS: Results of this analysis suggest that smokers of menthol cigarettes may respond to a nicotine reduction policy with smaller reductions in smoking rates and toxicant exposure than would smokers of non-menthol cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Biomarcadores/orina , Humanos , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/terapia , Fumar/orina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 500, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of tobacco products including Swedish snus (moist snuff) in pregnancy may cause adverse health outcomes. While smoking prevalence has decreased among fertile women in Norway, snus use has increased during the last years. We investigated whether these trends were reflected also during pregnancy in a population of women in Southern Norway. METHODS: Data on smoking tobacco and snus use at three time points before and during pregnancy for 20,844 women were retrieved from the electronic birth record for the years 2012-2017. The results for the three-year period 2015-2017 were compared with a previously studied period 2012-2014. Prevalence and quit rates of tobacco use within groups of age, parity and education were reported. Within the same groups adjusted quit rates were analyzed using logistic regression. Mean birthweight and Apgar score of offspring were calculated for tobacco-users and non-users. RESULTS: There was an increase of snus use before pregnancy from the period 2012-2014 to the period 2015-2017 from 5.1% (CI; 4.6 to 5.5) to 8.4% (CI; 7.8 to 8.9). Despite this, the use of snus during pregnancy did not increase from the first to the second period, but stabilized at 2.8% (CI; 2.5 to 3.2) in first trimester and 2.0% (CI; 1.7 to 2.2) in third trimester. Cigarette smoking decreased significantly both before and during pregnancy. Snus use and smoking during pregnancy were associated with a reduction in average birthweight, but no significant effects on Apgar scores. Odds ratios for quitting both snus and smoking tobacco during pregnancy were higher for women aged 25-34 years, for the primiparas and for those with a high level of education. Pregnant women were more likely to have quit tobacco use in the last time period compared to the first. CONCLUSIONS: While smoking during pregnancy was decreasing, the use of snus remained constant, levelling off to around 3% in first trimester and 2% in third trimester. Approximately 25% of those that used snus, and 40% that smoked before pregnancy, continued use to the third trimester. This calls for a continuous watch on the use of snus and other nicotine products during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Peso al Nacer , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Noruega/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Embarazo , Trimestres del Embarazo , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos , Tabaco sin Humo/efectos adversos
13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S81-S87, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867643

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed reducing nicotine with very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes. In contrast, reducing nicotine by reducing number of cigarettes per day (CPD) is common. Our prior findings demonstrate that VLNC cigarettes decreased dependence more and were more acceptable than reducing CPD. This secondary analysis explored which reduction strategy increased quit attempts (QA), self-efficacy, or intention to quit more. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of 68 adult daily smokers not ready to quit randomized to smoke VLNC cigarettes versus reduce CPD over 5 weeks. All participants smoked study cigarettes with nicotine yield similar to most commercial cigarettes ad lib for 1 week (baseline). Participants were then randomized to gradually reduce to 70%, 35%, 15%, and 3% of baseline nicotine over 4 weeks by either (1) transitioning to lower nicotine VLNC cigarettes or (2) reducing the number of full nicotine CPD. All participants received nicotine patches to aid reduction. We assessed (1) QAs using nightly and weekly self-reports, (2) Velicer's Self-Efficacy to Quit measure weekly, and (3) the Intention-to-Quit Ladder nightly. RESULTS: More CPD (41%) than VLNC (17%) participants made any QA (odds ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 10.5). There was no difference in QAs ≥24 h. Self-efficacy increased for VLNC but not CPD participants (interaction: F = 3.7, p < .01). The condition by time interaction for intention-to-quit was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing number of CPD increased QAs more than reducing nicotine via switching to VLNC cigarettes. The lack of difference in longer QAs suggests replication tests are needed. IMPLICATIONS: Reducing the frequency of smoking behavior (ie, CPD) could be a more effective strategy to increase QAs than reducing the magnitude of nicotine in each cigarette (ie, VLNC) per se.


Asunto(s)
Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Humanos , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/terapia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S26-S28, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867647

RESUMEN

In this commentary, we review results from laboratory studies and randomized clinical trials that have examined the effects of very low-nicotine-content cigarette use in smokers with mental health conditions and socioeconomic disadvantages. On the basis of scientific evidence to date, we conclude that a reduced-nicotine standard for cigarettes would likely reduce cigarette smoking in these populations, without increasing psychiatric symptoms or compensatory smoking.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Nicotina , Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Productos de Tabaco
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S38-S45, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867650

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The US Food and Drug Administration is considering implementing a reduced-nicotine standard for cigarettes. Given the high rate of smoking among people with serious mental illness (SMI), it is important to examine the responses of these smokers to very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes. METHODS: This trial compared the effects of VLNC (0.4 mg nicotine/g tobacco) and normal nicotine content cigarettes (15.8 mg/g) over a 6-week period in non-treatment-seeking smokers with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder (n = 58). Linear regression was used to examine the effects of cigarette condition on cigarettes per day, subjective responses, nicotine and tobacco toxicant exposure, craving, withdrawal symptoms, and psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: At week 6, participants in the VLNC condition smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had lower breath carbon monoxide levels, lower craving scores, and rated their study cigarettes lower in satisfaction, reward, enjoyment, and craving reduction than those in the normal nicotine content condition (ps < .05). Week 6 psychiatric and extrapyramidal symptoms did not differ by condition, except for scores on a measure of parkinsonism, which were lower in the VLNC condition (p < .05). There were no differences across conditions on total nicotine exposure, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, withdrawal symptoms, or responses to abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a reduced-nicotine standard for cigarettes would reduce smoking among smokers with SMI. However, the lack of effect on total nicotine exposure indicates VLNC noncompliance, suggesting that smokers with SMI may respond to a reduced-nicotine standard by substituting alternative forms of nicotine. IMPLICATIONS: Results from this trial suggest that a reduced-nicotine standard for cigarettes would reduce smoking rates and smoke exposure in smokers with SMI, without increasing psychiatric symptoms. However, noncompliance with VLNC cigarettes was observed, suggesting that these smokers might respond to a reduced-nicotine standard by substituting alternative forms of nicotine.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S29-S37, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867653

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Given FDA's authority to implement a cigarette nicotine reduction policy, possible outcomes of this regulation must be examined, especially among those who may be most affected, such as those with comorbid psychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a multisite, randomized, clinical laboratory study, we used analyses of variance to examine the effects of nicotine dose (0.4, 2.4, 5.2, and 15.8 mg/g of tobacco), depressive and anxiety diagnoses (depression only, anxiety only, both, or neither), and depressive and anxiety symptom severity on cigarette choice, smoke exposure, craving, and withdrawal across three vulnerable populations: socioeconomically disadvantaged women of reproductive age, opioid-dependent individuals, and those with affective disorders (n = 169). RESULTS: Diagnosis and symptom severity largely had no effects on smoking choice, total puff volume, or CO boost. Significant main effects on craving and withdrawal were observed, with higher scores in those with both anxiety and depression diagnoses compared with depression alone or no diagnosis, and in those with more severe depressive symptoms (p's < .001). These factors did not interact with nicotine dose. Cigarettes with <15.8 mg/g nicotine were less reinforcing, decreased total puff volume, and produced significant but lower magnitude and shorter duration reductions in craving and withdrawal than higher doses (p's < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Reducing nicotine dose reduced measures of cigarette addiction potential, with little evidence of moderation by either psychiatric diagnosis or symptom severity, providing evidence that those with comorbid psychiatric disorders would respond to a nicotine reduction policy similarly to other smokers. IMPLICATIONS: Thus far, controlled studies in healthy populations of smokers have demonstrated that use of very low nicotine content cigarettes reduces cigarette use and dependence without resulting in compensatory smoking. These analyses extend those findings to a vulnerable population of interest, those with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Cigarettes with very low nicotine content were less reinforcing, decreased total puff volume, and produced significant but lower magnitude and shorter duration reductions in craving and withdrawal than higher doses. These nicotine dose effects did not interact with psychiatric diagnosis or mood symptom severity suggesting that smokers in this vulnerable population would respond to a nicotine reduction strategy similarly to other smokers.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Humanos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717846

RESUMEN

The identification of determinants of attempts to quit smoking and quitting smoking success is crucial for effective smoking prevention and/or cessation programs. Thus, here we have conducted a survey to determine the sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco use and the potential determinants of quitting smoking among a population of 140 subjects-101 smokers and 39 ex-smokers-referred to our clinic for respiratory diseases. Subject characteristics included demographic data, employment and education status, respiratory disease family history, smoking habits, life habits, diet, alcohol intake, and physical activity. In comparison with former smokers, active smokers were younger, lived with at least one smoking family member, and were more frequently exposed to passive smoke. They also displayed a higher coffee consumption, a higher frequency of in-between-meal snacks, and a lower chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence. In comparison with subjects who had never attempted to quit smoking, individuals who had attempted to quit smoking were younger, had a lower pack-year median, consumed a higher amount of coffee and alcohol, and conducted regular physical activity. Determinants of successful smoking cessation were older age, lower passive smoking exposure and daily coffee intake, and COPD diagnosis. Overall, our findings underscore the importance of health education in fostering successful smoking cessation in respiratory disease patients.


Asunto(s)
Pacientes Ambulatorios , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto , Anciano , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Hábitos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/prevención & control , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Tabaco
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 169, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690340

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This narrative review aimed to identify and categorize the barriers and facilitators to the provision of brief intervention and behavioral change programs that target several risk behaviors among the Indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted of six databases including PubMeD, Embase, CINAHL, HealthStar, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Thematic analysis was utilized to analyze qualitative data extracted from the included studies, and a narrative approach was employed to synthesize the common themes that emerged. The quality of studies was assessed in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute's guidelines and using the software SUMARI - The System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information. RESULTS: Nine studies were included. The studies were classified at three intervention levels: (1) individual-based brief interventions, (2) family-based interventions, and (3) community-based-interventions. Across the studies, selection of the intervention level was associated with Indigenous priorities and preferences, and approaches with Indigenous collaboration were supported. Barriers and facilitators were grouped under four major categories representing the common themes: (1) characteristics of design, development, and delivery, (2) patient/provider relationship, (3) environmental factors, and (4) organizational capacity and workplace-related factors. Several sub-themes also emerged under the above-mentioned categories including level of intervention, Indigenous leadership and participation, cultural appropriateness, social and economic barriers, and design elements. CONCLUSION: To improve the effectiveness of multiple health behavior change interventions among Indigenous populations, collaborative approaches that target different intervention levels are beneficial. Further research to bridge the knowledge gap in this topic will help to improve the quality of preventive health strategies to achieve better outcomes at all levels, and will improve intervention implementation from development and delivery fidelity, to acceptability and sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/terapia , Australia , Canadá , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Grupos de Población , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/prevención & control
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1013-1019, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725711

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). The prevalence of adult cigarette smoking has declined in recent years to 14.0% in 2017 (2). However, an array of new tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, has entered the U.S. market (3). To assess recent national estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2018, an estimated 49.1 million U.S. adults (19.7%) reported currently using any tobacco product, including cigarettes (13.7%), cigars (3.9%), e-cigarettes (3.2%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes* (1.0%). Most tobacco product users (83.8%) reported using combustible products (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes), and 18.8% reported using two or more tobacco products. The prevalence of any current tobacco product use was higher in males; adults aged ≤65 years; non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives; those with a General Educational Development certificate (GED); those with an annual household income <$35,000; lesbian, gay, or bisexual adults; uninsured adults; those with a disability or limitation; and those with serious psychological distress. The prevalence of e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use increased during 2017-2018. During 2009-2018, there were significant increases in all three cigarette cessation indicators (quit attempts, recent cessation, and quit ratio). Implementing comprehensive population-based interventions in coordination with regulation of the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of all tobacco products can reduce tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1,4).


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tabaquismo/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684033

RESUMEN

In 2016, the Netherlands was required to introduce new European Union (EU)'s (pictorial) tobacco health warnings. Our objective was to describe the pathways through which the new EU tobacco health warnings may influence quit attempts and smoking cessation among Dutch smokers. Longitudinal data from 2016 and 2017 from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey were used. Smokers who participated in both surveys were included (N = 1017). Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the hypothesized pathways. Health warning salience was positively associated with more health worries (ß = 0.301, p < 0.001) and a more positive attitude towards quitting (ß = 0.180, p < 0.001), which, in turn, were associated with a stronger quit intention (health worries: ß = 0.304, p < 0.001; attitude: ß = 0.340, p < 0.001). Quit intention was a strong predictor of quit attempts (ß = 0.336, p = 0.001). Health warning salience was also associated with stronger perceived social norms towards quitting (ß = 0.166, p < 0.001), which directly predicted quit attempts (ß = 0.141, p = 0.048). Quit attempts were positively associated with smoking cessation (ß = 0.453, p = 0.043). Based on these findings, we posit that the effect of the EU's tobacco health warnings on quit attempts and smoking cessation is mediated by increased health worries and a more positive attitude and perceived social norms towards quitting. Making tobacco health warnings more salient (e.g., by using plain packaging) may increase their potential to stimulate quitting among smokers.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Unión Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Etiquetado de Productos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adulto Joven
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