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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Asunto(s)
Allium , Cebollas , Chile , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Daño del ADN , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Índice Mitótico , Raíces de Plantas , Ríos
2.
Zootaxa ; 4915(1): zootaxa.4915.1.9, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756589

RESUMEN

A new species of Mauroniscus Bourgeois, 1911, Mauroniscus chilensis n. sp., from central Chile is described using external characters of the adult male and female including terminal segments of the abdomen and genitalia. The morphological differences of Mauroniscus chilensis n. sp. with M. maculatum Pic, 1927 are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Chile , Femenino , Genitales , Masculino
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18300-18307, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704637

RESUMEN

Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent toxicants in coastal environments. Notably, in comparison to individual metal toxicity, knowledge about the effects of HMs and PAHs mixtures on kelps remains scarce. Accordingly, we performed in vitro experiments to determine the individual and combined effects of Cu, Cd, and PAHs on spore release, settlement, and germination on Macrocystis pyrifera and Lessonia spicata, two key-habitat forming kelp species of the coast of the Valparaíso Region in Chile. This region concentrates highly polluting industries, mainly due to unrestrained mining and fossil-fuel energy production. Single Cu, Cd, and PAHs treatments included concentrations in the ranges 5-200, 0.125-2000, and 0.05-100 µg/L, respectively, and a toxic-free treatment. Cu, Cd, and PAHs concentrations causing 20-50% (IC20, IC50) arrested spore release, settlement, and germination were determined, and the results shown in both species that single Cu, Cd, and PAHs IC20 values were generally lower on spore release than on spore settlement and germination, probably due to the absence of a cell wall in spores compared to later stages. Binary equitoxic IC20s mixture treatments changed from an antagonistic response to another with a greater inhibitory effect on spore release, from hour 1 to 7, whereas in IC50 treatments, the response was always antagonistic. The tertiary IC20 mixture of Cu+Cd+PAHs produced generally an antagonistic effect. Remarkably, all IC20 equitoxic mixture treatments showed a synergistic response on spore settlement in both kelps, suggesting that these toxicants are extremely harmful to kelp population persistence near highly polluted sites.


Asunto(s)
Kelp , Metales Pesados , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Cadmio , Chile , Cobre , Ecosistema
4.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05002, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643635

RESUMEN

Background: Governments worldwide have implemented large-scale non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social distancing or school closures, to prevent and control the growth of the COVID-19 pandemic. These strategies, implemented with varying stringency, have imposed substantial social and economic costs to society. As some countries begin to reopen and ease mobility restrictions, lockdowns in smaller geographic areas are increasingly considered an attractive policy intervention to mitigate societal costs while controlling epidemic growth. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support these decisions. Methods: Drawing from a rich data set of localized lockdowns in Chile, we used econometric methods to measure the reduction in local economic activity from lockdowns when applied to smaller or larger geographical areas. We measured economic activity by tax collection at the municipality-level. Results: Our results show that lockdowns were associated with a 10%-15% drop in local economic activity, which is twice the reduction in local economic activity suffered by municipalities that were not under lockdown. A three-to-four-month lockdown had a similar effect on economic activity than a year of the 2009 great recession. We found costs are proportional to the population under lockdown, without differences when lockdowns were measured at the municipality or city-wide levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that localized lockdowns have a large effect on local economic activity, but these effects are proportional to the population under lockdown. Our results suggest that epidemiological criteria should guide decisions about the optimal size of lockdown areas since the proportional impact of lockdowns on the economy seems to be unchanged by scale.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Cuarentena/economía , /epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Humanos , Política Pública
5.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53405

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Presentar la metodología de evaluación integral de la implementación del Programa de Acción Mundial para Superar las Brechas en Salud Mental (mhGAP) en Chile y exponer sus resultados. Métodos. Estudio evaluativo de corte transversal basado en una encuesta a referentes clave del programa, desplegados en los 29 servicios públicos de salud del país, y entrevistas individuales y grupos focales con actores clave y expertos. El foco de la evaluación estuvo en la relevancia e impacto del mhGAP en la prestación de servicios de salud mental y en la implementación del programa. Resultados. Los participantes evaluaron positivamente la implementación progresiva del mhGAP en Chile, en particular: 1) manifestaron contar con mejores herramientas de detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de trastornos frecuentes, y estrategias eficientes de derivación; 2) calificaron todos los módulos como importantes; los más relevantes fueron autolesión/suicidio (x¯ = 4,77) y trastornos mentales y conductuales del niño y el adolescente (x¯ = 4,58); 3) evaluaron favorablemente las Jornadas Nacionales y sus réplicas y su contribución al éxito de la implementación del mhGAP; 4) coincidieron en la necesidad de incorporar nuevos actores, fortalecer algunos aspectos y ampliar la información sobre el programa. Conclusiones. La implementación del mhGAP en Chile constituye un caso emblemático de aprendizaje, apoyado por el desarrollo de la salud mental comunitaria y la salud familiar, entre otros factores. Lo logrado abre una oportunidad única para continuar avanzando en la implementación de este programa en el país y transmitir esta experiencia a otros contextos de América Latina y el Caribe.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Present the methodology for comprehensive evaluation of the implementation of the Mental Health Global Action Programme (mhGAP) in Chile and describe the program’s results. Methods. Cross-sectional evaluative study based on a survey of key program informants deployed in 29 public health services in the country, as well as individual interviews and focus groups with key actors and experts. The evaluation was focused on the relevance and impact of mhGAP on the provision of mental health services and on the implementation of the program. Results. The participants gave a positive evaluation of the progressive implementation of mhGAP in Chile. In particular: 1) They reported having better tools for detecting, diagnosing, and treating common disorders, and efficient referral strategies; (2) They rated all modules as important, the most relevant being self-harm/suicide (x¯ = 4.77) and mental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents (x¯ = 4.58); (3) They favorably assessed the National Mental Health Day training courses and the subsequent courses repeated at the local level, indicating that these courses contributed to successful implementation of mhGAP; (4) They agreed on the need to incorporate new actors, strengthen certain aspects, and expand information on the program. Conclusions. The implementation of mhGAP in Chile is an emblematic example of learning supported by the development of community mental health and family health, among other factors. These accomplishments offer a unique opportunity to continue advancing the implementation of this program in the country and to implement this experience in other contexts in Latin America and the Caribbean.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Apresentar a metodologia de avaliação completa da implementação do Programa de ação mundial para reduzir as lacunas em saúde mental (Mental Health GAP, mhGAP) no Chile e descrever seus resultados. Métodos. Estudo avaliativo transversal baseado em levantamento realizado com profissionais de referência do programa, distribuídos em 29 serviços de saúde da rede pública do país, e entrevistas individuais e grupos focais com as principais partes interessadas e especialistas. O enfoque da avaliação foi a relevância e o impacto do mhGAP na prestação de serviços de saúde mental e a implementação do programa. Resultados. Os participantes do estudo avaliaram positivamente a implementação progressiva do mhGAP no Chile. Em particular, 1) eles afirmaram possuir recursos melhores para detecção, diagnóstico e tratamento de transtornos frequentes e estratégias de encaminhamento eficientes; 2) classificaram todos os módulos como importantes, com destaque a autoagressão/suicídio (x¯ = 4,77) e transtornos mentais e de comportamento em crianças e adolescentes (x¯ = 4,58); 3) avaliaram de forma favorável a realização das Jornadas Nacionais de Saúde Mental e suas iterações em nível local contribuindo ao sucesso da implementação do mhGAP e 4) concordaram com a necessidade de atrair mais interessados, reforçar alguns aspectos e ampliar a divulgação do programa. Conclusões. A implementação do mhGAP no Chile é um caso emblemático de aprendizado apoiado no avanço da saúde mental comunitária e saúde da família, entre outros fatores. Esta conquista cria uma oportunidade única para continuar a expandir a implementação do programa no país e disseminar esta experiência a outros contextos na América Latina e Caribe.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud Mental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Chile , Atención a la Salud Mental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Atención a la Salud Mental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
6.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53353

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir cuantitativamente el riesgo relativo, la tendencia y la desigualdad geográfica del suicidio en adolescentes y jóvenes entre las regiones de Chile, en el periodo 2000 al 2017. Método. Estudio ecológico poblacional a partir de los registros de defunciones por suicidio. Se estimaron tasas de mortalidad y riesgos relativos (RR) de suicidio por sexo, edad y región. Se estudió la tendencia y desigualdad geográfica del suicidio entre las regiones de Chile; medidas absolutas y relativas de desigualdades geográficas fueron estimadas. Resultados. Entre 2000 y 2017 se registraron 6 292 suicidios en adolescentes y jóvenes en Chile. Las tasas promedio de mortalidad por suicidio en Chile fueron de 8,5; 5,4 y 14.7 por 100 000 en los grupos 10-24, 10-19 y 20-24 años, respectivamente, en el periodo 2000-2017. Las tasas más altas de mortalidad por suicidio se encontraron en las regiones de Aisén, Los Lagos, Magallanes y Los Ríos. El riesgo más alto de suicidio se estimó en los hombres (RR=3,5), los jóvenes (RR=2,7) y en la región de Aisén (RR=2,0). La tasa promedio nacional en el grupo 10-24 años se mantuvo en 8,5 por 100 000 en los periodos 2000-2008 y 2009-2017. La mayor desigualdad geográfica se encontró en hombres de 20-24 años en el periodo 2000-2008. Conclusiones. El suicidio en jóvenes y adolescentes de Chile se ha mantenido sin mayores cambios en el periodo de estudio. Los hombres tienen un mayor riesgo de suicidio que las mujeres. Existen desigualdades geográficas entre las regiones de Chile en el suicidio y son más elevadas en hombres de 20 a 24 años. Se recomienda evaluar y fortalecer los programas de prevención del suicidio en los adolescentes y jóvenes, en especial en las regiones y los grupos poblacionales específicos en situación de mayor vulnerabilidad.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Quantitatively describe relative risk, trends, and geographical inequalities in suicide in adolescents and young adults in regions of Chile, from 2000 to 2017. Methodology. Ecological population study based on records of death by suicide. Suicide death rates and relative risk (RR) were estimated, by sex, age, and region. Trends and geographical inequalities in suicide in regions of Chile were studied; absolute and relative measures of geographical inequalities were estimated. Results. Between 2000 and 2017, there were 6,292 suicides in adolescents and young adults in Chile. The average rates of death by suicide in Chile were 8.5, 5.4, and 14.7 per 100,000 in the 10-24, 10-19, and 20-24-year age groups, respectively, in the period 2000-2017. The highest suicide death rates were found in the Aisén, Los Lagos, Magellan and Los Ríos regions. The highest risk of suicide was estimated in men (RR = 3.5), young adults (RR = 2.7), and the Aisén region (RR = 2.0). The national average rate in the 10-24 age group remained at 8.5 per 100,000 in the periods 2000-2008 and 2009-2017. The greatest geographical inequality was found in men 20-24 years old in the period 2000-2008. Conclusions. Suicide in young adults and adolescents in Chile remained unchanged in the study period. Men have a higher risk of suicide than women. There are geographical inequalities in suicide between Chile's regions and they are highest in men between ages 20 and 24. It is recommended to evaluate and strengthen suicide prevention programs in adolescents and young adults, especially in the most vulnerable regions and population groups.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever quantitativamente o risco relativo, tendência e desigualdades geográficas do suicídio em adolescentes e jovens nas diferentes regiões do Chile no período entre 2000 e 2017. Método. Estudo ecológico populacional a partir de registros de mortes por suicídio. As taxas de mortalidade e riscos relativos (RR) de suicídio foram estimados por sexo, idade e região. A tendência e desigualdades geográficas do suicídio foram analisadas por região com o cálculo das medidas absolutas e relativas das desigualdades geográficas. Resultados. No período entre 2000 e 2017, foram registrados 6.292 suicídios em adolescentes e jovens no Chile. As taxas médias de mortalidade por suicídio no país foram de 8,5, 5,4 e 14,7 por 100.000 habitantes nas faixas etárias de 10–24, 10–19 e 20–24 anos, respectivamente. As taxas de mortalidade por suicídio foram maiores nas regiões de Aisén, Los Lagos, Magallanes e Los Ríos. O risco de suicídio foi maior no sexo masculino (RR = 3,5), em jovens (RR = 2,7) e na região de Aisén (RR = 2,0). A taxa média nacional na faixa etária entre 10 e 24 anos se manteve em 8,5 por 100.000 nos períodos de 2000 a 2008 e de 2009 a 2017. A maior desigualdade geográfica foi vista em homens entre 20 e 24 anos no período de 2000 a 2008. Conclusão. As taxas de suicídio em adolescentes e jovens do Chile se manteve relativamente estável no período estudado. Indivíduos do sexo masculino têm maior risco de suicídio. Existem desigualdades geográficas entre as regiões do país e as taxas de suicídio são mais elevadas em homens jovens entre 20 e 24 anos. Recomenda-se avaliar e reforçar os programas de prevenção de suicídio em adolescentes e jovens, sobretudo nas regiões e nos grupos populacionais em situação de maior vulnerabilidade.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio , Adolescente , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Chile , Suicidio , Adolescente , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Suicidio , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668717

RESUMEN

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3 April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range, and gender groups. One thousand and eighty-two participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines, and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders, and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. Moreover, developing community action and intersectoral strategies with a gender-based approach could help to reduce health inequalities and increase the success of people's adherence to health guidelines and self-care-promoting interventions. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Autocuidado , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España/epidemiología
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668984

RESUMEN

Olive tree growing is an important economic activity in many countries, mostly in the Mediterranean Basin, Argentina, Chile, Australia, and California. Although recent intensification techniques organize olive groves in hedgerows, most olive groves are rainfed and the trees are scattered (as in Spain and Italy, which account for 50% of the world's olive oil production). Accurate measurement of trees biovolume is a first step to monitor their performance in olive production and health. In this work, we use one of the most accurate deep learning instance segmentation methods (Mask R-CNN) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) images for olive tree crown and shadow segmentation (OTCS) to further estimate the biovolume of individual trees. We evaluated our approach on images with different spectral bands (red, green, blue, and near infrared) and vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index-NDVI-and green normalized difference vegetation index-GNDVI). The performance of red-green-blue (RGB) images were assessed at two spatial resolutions 3 cm/pixel and 13 cm/pixel, while NDVI and GNDV images were only at 13 cm/pixel. All trained Mask R-CNN-based models showed high performance in the tree crown segmentation, particularly when using the fusion of all dataset in GNDVI and NDVI (F1-measure from 95% to 98%). The comparison in a subset of trees of our estimated biovolume with ground truth measurements showed an average accuracy of 82%. Our results support the use of NDVI and GNDVI spectral indices for the accurate estimation of the biovolume of scattered trees, such as olive trees, in UAV images.


Asunto(s)
Olea , Agricultura , Australia , Chile , Italia , España
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e232805, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787712

RESUMEN

One of the biological indicators most used to determine the health of a fluvial ecosystem are the benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of recurrent species in a wide gradient of latitudes, dominates the biogeographic pattern of the benthic macroinvertebrates in Chilean fresh waters, nevertheless the knowledge on the communitarian ecology of these in the Chilean rivers continues to be scarce. Null models became a powerful statistical tool for describing the ecological mechanisms that drive the structure of an ecological community and the underlying patterns of diversity. The objective of this study was to determine the community structure of benthic invertebrates in the Allipén River by describing their composition, richness and abundance of species through richness models and null models based on presence/absence. The results reveal a high family richness and low diversity, three phyla, five classes, 11 orders and 28 families were identified in the study area during the four seasons of the year. The Arthropoda phylum was the most representative in abundance and richness. Regarding to richness, Trichoptera (7 families) and Diptera (6 families) followed by Ephemeroptera (3 families) were the orders that showed the greatest diversity of families, however, a low diversity with a H'≤ 1.5 nit was registered in the study area. We demonstrated through the null models, the randomization in the species associations corresponding to the three analyzed sites. The information provided here contributes to the understanding of the ecological patterns of the invertebrate communities in the Allipén River, establishing the basis for more complex ecological studies.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , Animales , Chile , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Humanos , Invertebrados
10.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236182, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787715

RESUMEN

The oyster culture has the incrusting organism as problem for production, in this context, it evaluated as biological control against incrusting organism and sediments the introduction of gastropod Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) in Chilean oysters (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) cultures in conditions of starvation presence and absence located in floating cages and bottom cultures. The predation and mechanic effect on T. atra grazing generated a decreasing in seven days of 19.8% and 13.7% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods without starvation respectively. Whereas it had a decrease of 12.6% and 11.4% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods with starvation respectively. The incrusting organism removed were mainly algae, colonial ascidia, polychaeta, bryozoan and small crustaceans.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Ostreidae , Animales , Chile , Crustáceos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Conducta Predatoria
11.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 50, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785004

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To establish the role of BCG instillations in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NMIBC patients in instillations with BCG (induction or maintenance) during 2019/2020 were included, establishing a COVID-19 group (with a diagnosis according to the national registry) and a control group (NO-COVID). The cumulative incidence (cases/total patients) and the case fatality rate (deaths/cases) were established, and compared with the national statistics for the same age group. T-test was used for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. RESULTS: 175 patients were included. Eleven patients presented CIS (11/175, 6.3%), 84/175 (48.0%) Ta and 68/175 (38.9%) T1. Average number of instillations = 13.25 ± 7.4. One hundred sixty-seven patients (95.4%) had complete induction. Forty-three patients (cumulative incidence 24.6%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. There is no difference between COVID-19 and NO-COVID group in age, gender or proportion of maintenance completed. COVID-19 group fatality rate = 1/43 (2.3%). Accumulated Chilean incidence 70-79 years = 6.3%. Chilean fatality rate 70-79 years = 14%. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, patients with NMIBC submitted to instillations with BCG have a lower case-fatality rate than the national registry of patients between 70 and 79 years (2.3% vs. 14%, respectively). Intravesical BCG could decrease the mortality due to COVID-19, so instillation schemes should not be suspended in a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Intravesical , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Chile , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología
13.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 6680337, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644235

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. In Chile, half a million people have been infected and more than 16,000 have died from COVID-19. As part of the clinical trial NCT04384588, we quantified IgG against S1-RBD of SARS-CoV-2 (anti-RBD) in recovered people in Santiago and evaluated their suitability as COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors. ELISA and a luminescent SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype were used for IgG and neutralizing antibody quantification. 72.9% of the convalescent population (468 of 639) showed seroconversion (5-55 µg/mL anti-RBD IgG) and were suitable candidates for plasma donation. Analysis by gender, age, and days after symptom offset did not show significant differences. Neutralizing activity correlated with an increased concentration of anti-RBD IgG (p < 0.0001) and showed a high variability between donors. We confirmed that the majority of the Chilean patients have developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The quantification of anti-RBD IgG in convalescent plasma donors is necessary to increase the detection of neutralizing antibodies.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , /fisiología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Chile , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/métodos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Seroconversión , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003415, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP), despite limited evidence on its efficacy, is being widely used as a compassionate therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early CP therapy in COVID-19 progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was an open-label, single-center randomized clinical trial performed in an academic medical center in Santiago, Chile, from May 10, 2020, to July 18, 2020, with final follow-up until August 17, 2020. The trial included patients hospitalized within the first 7 days of COVID-19 symptom onset, presenting risk factors for illness progression and not on mechanical ventilation. The intervention consisted of immediate CP (early plasma group) versus no CP unless developing prespecified criteria of deterioration (deferred plasma group). Additional standard treatment was allowed in both arms. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization for >14 days, or death. The key secondary outcomes included time to respiratory failure, days of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, mortality at 30 days, and SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR clearance rate. Of 58 randomized patients (mean age, 65.8 years; 50% male), 57 (98.3%) completed the trial. A total of 13 (43.3%) participants from the deferred group received plasma based on clinical aggravation. We failed to find benefit in the primary outcome (32.1% versus 33.3%, odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.32-2.84, p > 0.999) in the early versus deferred CP group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 17.9% versus 6.7% (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.54-17.17 p = 0.246), mechanical ventilation 17.9% versus 6.7% (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.54-17.17, p = 0.246), and prolonged hospitalization 21.4% versus 30.0% (OR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.19-2.10, p = 0.554) in the early versus deferred CP group, respectively. The viral clearance rate on day 3 (26% versus 8%, p = 0.204) and day 7 (38% versus 19%, p = 0.374) did not differ between groups. Two patients experienced serious adverse events within 6 hours after plasma transfusion. The main limitation of this study is the lack of statistical power to detect a smaller but clinically relevant therapeutic effect of CP, as well as not having confirmed neutralizing antibodies in donor before plasma infusion. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we failed to find evidence of benefit in mortality, length of hospitalization, or mechanical ventilation requirement by immediate addition of CP therapy in the early stages of COVID-19 compared to its use only in case of patient deterioration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04375098.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Intervención Médica Temprana/métodos , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /mortalidad , Chile , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Intervención Médica Temprana/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/métodos , Inmunización Pasiva/mortalidad , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Respiración Artificial/mortalidad , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Tratamiento/normas , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116683, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592439

RESUMEN

Aquaculture activities in southern Chile demand floating devices to produce electricity powered by diesel generators. It has been recently proposed to replace this fuel with propane. However, little is known about the behaviour and possible environmental impacts of an accidental release of propane underwater. In this study we evaluated the impact of water temperature and salinity on the saturation and further release of propane under controlled laboratory experiments. Results showed that under extreme environmentally relevant scenarios (high and low temperature and salinity), propane saturated the water more quickly. However, while it is important to consider that saturation times can be similar (∼2 h), the magnitudes of propane dissolved can be different. Experiments showed that cold waters (5 °C) propane is dissolved twice than warm waters (20 °C). Residence time was more affected by water temperature and almost independent of water salinity. Propane may take at least 2 days to be released from waters (around 90% of the initial amount dissolved under laboratory conditions). Additionally, we evaluated the impact on dissolved oxygen displacement and the embryotoxicity of the dissolved fraction by using Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Assay. Results showed that dissolved oxygen was quickly removed. However, the levels of dissolved oxygen were promptly recovered in the studied systems. We also observed that propane can generate genotoxic effects (3-10% mortality), but after 2 days the system can be almost free of propane and the effects may become much lower. Comparatively with the literature, propane showed to be less toxic than diesel and it is a viable and less environmentally hazardous replacement for diesel.


Asunto(s)
Propano , Pez Cebra , Animales , Chile , Ambiente , Propano/toxicidad , Salinidad
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 196-206, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524121

RESUMEN

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal cancer that can be cured through cholecystectomy if identified early. The presence of gallstones is the primary risk factor for GBC, but few people with gallstones develop GBC. A key question is what drives the development of GBC among persons with gallstones. We initiated the Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study (Chile BiLS) to address this question. From 2016 to 2019, Chile BiLS enrolled 4,726 women aged 50-74 years with ultrasound-detected gallstones from southern-central Chile, accounting for an estimated 36% of eligible women with gallstones in the study area. The median age was 59 years; 25% of the women were Amerindian (Mapuche), 60% were obese, 25% had diabetes, and 6% had cardiovascular disease. Participants will be followed for gallbladder dysplasia or cancer for 6 years. As of April 30, 2020, over 91% of those eligible completed the year 2 follow-up visit. Data being collected include epidemiologic and sociodemographic information, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and tooth counts. Biosamples being taken include baseline plasma, buffy coat, red blood cells, serum, blood clot from serum, and PAXgene whole blood (PreAnalytiX GmbH, Hombrechtikon, Switzerland). Complete gallbladder sampling is conducted for most participants undergoing cholecystectomy. The Chile BiLS cohort study will increase our understanding of GBC etiology and could identify potential risk stratification and early detection strategies in high-risk areas.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/epidemiología , Cálculos Biliares/epidemiología , Anciano , Presión Sanguínea , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Chile , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/etnología , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagen , Cálculos Biliares/etnología , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/sangre , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Pérdida de Diente/epidemiología
17.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579701

RESUMEN

Chile has one of the worst numbers worldwide in terms of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases and COVID-19-related deaths per million inhabitants; thus, characterization of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses in the general population is critical to understanding of immunity at the local level. Given our inability to perform massive classical neutralization assays due to the scarce availability of BSL-3 facilities in the country, we developed and fully characterized an HIV-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype, which was used in a 96-well plate format to investigate NAb responses in samples from individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 or treated with convalescent plasma. We also identified samples with decreased or enhanced neutralization activity against the D614G spike variant compared with the wild type, indicating the relevance of this variant in host immunity. The data presented here represent the first insights into NAb responses in individuals from Chile, serving as a guide for future studies in the country.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Mutación Missense , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , /genética , Chile , Chlorocebus aethiops , Femenino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , /metabolismo , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/sangre , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Células Vero
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e025020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605389

RESUMEN

Gurltia paralysans is the causal agent of gurltiosis in domestic cats in South America. Although the life cycle of G. paralysans is unknown, it is thought that gastropods could act as intermediate hosts (IHs), as is the case for several nematodes in the Angiostrongylidae family. The aim of this study was to search for G. paralysans larvae in terrestrial gastropods and determine their role in the life cycle of this nematode species. Terrestrial gastropod samples (n=835) were collected in Punucapa, Valdivia, southern Chile, where cases of gurltiosis had been reported before. The samples included species from the families Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae and Milacidae. All gastropods were subjected to enzymatic digestion to isolate G. paralysans larvae. Ten percent of the gastropod samples were analyzed using seminested PCR targeting the 28S rRNA gene, while 2.6% were analyzed by histopathological examination. The results indicated the absence of G. paralysans when using any of the three methods. In conclusion, further studies are needed to evaluate specific species of aquatic or native gastropods acting as possible IHs (in this geographic location).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Gastrópodos , Metastrongyloidea , Infecciones por Strongylida , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Chile , Gastrópodos/parasitología , Especificidad del Huésped , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Metastrongyloidea/fisiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Infecciones por Strongylida/transmisión , Infecciones por Strongylida/veterinaria
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 11, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early severity estimates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are critically needed to assess the potential impact of the ongoing pandemic in different demographic groups. Here we estimate the real-time delay-adjusted case fatality rate across nine age groups by gender in Chile, the country with the highest testing rate for COVID-19 in Latin America. METHODS: We used a publicly available real-time daily series of age-stratified COVID-19 cases and deaths reported by the Ministry of Health in Chile from the beginning of the epidemic in March through August 31, 2020. We used a robust likelihood function and a delay distribution to estimate real-time delay-adjusted case-fatality risk and estimate model parameters using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in a Bayesian framework. RESULTS: As of August 31, 2020, our estimates of the time-delay adjusted case fatality rate (CFR) for men and women are 4.16% [95% Credible Interval (CrI): 4.09-4.24%] and 3.26% (95% CrI: 3.19-3.34%), respectively, while the overall estimate is 3.72% (95% CrI: 3.67-3.78%). Seniors aged 80 years and over have an adjusted CFR of 56.82% (95% CrI: 55.25-58.34%) for men and 41.10% (95% CrI: 40.02-42.26%) for women. Results showed a peak in estimated CFR during the June peak of the epidemic. The peak possibly reflects insufficient laboratory capacity, as illustrated by high test positivity rates (33% positive 7-day average nationally in June), which may have resulted in lower reporting rates. CONCLUSIONS: Severity estimates from COVID-19 in Chile suggest that male seniors, especially among those aged ≥ 70 years, are being disproportionately affected by the pandemic, a finding consistent with other regions. The ongoing pandemic is imposing a high death toll in South America, and Chile has one of the highest reported mortality rates globally thus far. These real-time estimates may help inform public health officials' decisions in the region and underscore the need to implement more effective measures to ameliorate fatality.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
20.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112060, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549949

RESUMEN

The re-processing of mine tailings to obtain critical raw materials (CRMs) could reduce the mining of new deposits as well as ensure the profitable use of the waste materials. Though, it requires large scale industrial installations and the development of specialized technologies to obtain CRMs. New investment in mining activities is an operation, engaging for considerable financial resources involved. The scale of such an endeavor makes a new mining activity a high-risk operation due to several uncertainties present. Therefore, there is an acute need to use new tools to assess the risk associated with the planning and development of new mining activities. This study introduces a framework to evaluate the economic risk related to the re-processing of mine tailings to obtain CRMs. The framework, based on real options analysis (ROA), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, was applied to analyze the profitability of using mine tailings as a source of CRMs in the Chilean mining industry. The novelty of this approach consists in enabling the investment decision making including the uncertainties related to a novel investment mining project. RESULTS: show that tailing storage facilities in Chile have some stocks of CRMs, like scandium, whose extraction could be profitable. For the data used, the results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses show that capital expenditure has a more significant influence than the other variables. Therefore, for the case of mine tailings re-processing, it is essential to develop processes and technologies that enable lower capital expenses.


Asunto(s)
Minería , Chile , Estudios de Factibilidad
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