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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMEN

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Escarabajos , Ecosistema , Estaciones del Año , Chile , Biodiversidad , Insectos
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0011051, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634106

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a potentially severe infection caused by bacteria of the genus Orientia, endemic in Asia-Pacific and recently discovered in southern Chile. The presented study aimed to determine the prevalence and species richness of rodent-associated trombiculid mites and their infection with Orientia spp. in different areas of two regions in southern Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During summer 2020, trombiculid mites were collected from rodents captured in three areas in southern Chile known to be endemic for scrub typhus (Cochamó and Chiloé Island in the Los Lagos Region and Tortel in the Aysén Region). A total of 132 rodents belonging to five species were captured using Sherman-like traps; 89.4% were infested with trombiculids. Mite specimens were morphologically identified and subsequently tested by Orientia-specific qPCR. Six mite species were identified. Among chigger-infested rodents, 33.9% carried Orientia-positive mites; this rate was higher in Tortel (63.8%) than in Cochamó (45.0%) and Chiloé Island (2.0%). The analysis of individual mites (n = 901) revealed that 31.2% of Herpetacarus antarctica samples (n = 202) were positive for Orientia DNA; the prevalence was 7.0% in Paratrombicula neuquenensis (n = 213), 6.9% in Herpetacarus eloisae (n = 144), 3.6% in Argentinacarus expansus (n = 55), and 0% in Paratrombicula goffi (n = 110) and Quadraseta chiloensis (n = 177). The southernmost site (Tortel) showed the highest rates of trombiculid infestation, trombiculid load, and Orientia infection in the captured rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new insights into the trombiculid fauna and prevalence of Orientia in mites collected from wild rodents in southern Chile. Orientia DNA was detected in four of the six mite species. Rates of infestation, mite loads, and Orientia prevalences differed geographically and were highest in the Aysén Region. Our data improve our knowledge on possible vectors of scrub typhus and their distribution in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifus por Ácaros , Trombiculidae , Animales , Tifus por Ácaros/epidemiología , Tifus por Ácaros/microbiología , Roedores , Trombiculidae/microbiología , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Orientia , Chile/epidemiología
3.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280161, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662715

RESUMEN

Society challenges higher education institutions and their members to generate inclusive communities to enable the full development of all members. This study aims to analyze who is responsible for generating inclusion according to community members from a traditional Chilean University. We carried out qualitative research based on the Grounded Theory. We collected data through focus group and semi-structured Interviews, involving 14 undergraduate students, two post-graduate students, 17 faculty members, five non-teaching staff members, and nine executives officers. All of thembelonging to the three campuses of the University. We analyzed data using ATLAS.ti 7.5.7, using the constant comparison method and reaching an axial codification level. From the data analysis, 25 subcategories emerged, grouped into six categories. Later we organized them under the codification paradigm. Results highlighted the perception of the interaction and influence of the social, institutional, and personal fields in the inclusion phenomenon. Also, that inclusive practices must be a responsibility shared among different educational community members.


Asunto(s)
Docentes , Humanos , Universidades , Investigación Cualitativa , Grupos Focales , Chile
4.
Health Syst Reform ; 9(1): 2163470, 2023 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696684

RESUMEN

The Chilean presidential elections of 2021 included an unprecedented topic in the country's political debate: long-term care (LTC). Although some public policies and programs have been in place for at least 20 years, during this 2021 presidential election LTC was mentioned for the first time in a political campaign. Five out of seven candidates highlighted the importance of LTC in their proposals and designed policies to address it. Why did this topic gain momentum as a campaign topic in 2021? What can explain the sudden inclusion of a new topic on the Chilean political agenda? Using Kingdon's multiple streams framework this article aims to understand the factors explaining the inclusion of LTC in the Chilean political agenda during the past presidential elections. A two-step qualitative research design was performed using a case study approach. As a first step, a documentary analysis of the campaign programs was conducted searching for references to LTC proposals. In a second step, semi-structured interviews were carried out with representatives from three of the seven campaign teams, including the teams that reached the ballotage. Data were analyzed using Kingdon's multiple streams framework. Results showed that the availability of national data on LTC needs helped highlight the problem and acted as a facilitator for advocacy; international organizations and other countries' experiences in implementing LTC systems served as policy entrepreneurs; and four events-the feminist movement, the social outbreak with the constitutional process, and the COVID-19 pandemic-pushed LTC forward on the political agenda. The case of Chile illustrates how Kingdon's framework can be used to identify facilitators for LTC inclusion on the political agenda, serving as an example for other countries facing similar issues and fostering the global debate around the increase in LTC needs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Política de Salud , Humanos , Chile , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2)2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692864

RESUMEN

We report a case of Dirofilaria immitis nematode infection in a dog imported from Venezuela that had been living for 2 years in Santiago, Chile, where this parasite had not been reported before. Our findings warrant surveillance for all dogs imported to Chile, given that suitable conditions exist for establishing this parasite.


Asunto(s)
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariasis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Animales , Perros , Dirofilariasis/diagnóstico , Dirofilariasis/epidemiología , Dirofilariasis/parasitología , Chile/epidemiología , Venezuela/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología
6.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chile has achieved the highest coverage for vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To assess the progression of immunity (natural and acquired by vaccine) in a cohort from two Chilean cities. METHODS: Individuals (n = 386) who participated in three phases of population-based serial prevalence studies were included (2020-2021 and 2022). Presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was measured in serum. Data including time of vaccination and type of vaccine received were analysed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Seroprevalence was 3.6% in the first round and increased to 96.9% in the second and 98.7% in the third. In the third round, 75% of individuals who had received the basal full scheme were seropositive at 180 days or more since their last dose; 98% of individuals who received one booster dose were seropositive at 180 days or more, and 100% participants who received two boosters were seropositive, regardless of time since their last dose. Participants receiving mRNA vaccines had higher seroprevalence rates over time. CONCLUSIONS: The high vaccination coverage in Chile enabled the population to maintain high levels of antibodies. Vaccination boosters are essential to maintain immunity over time, which also depends on the type of vaccine administered.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Chile/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Inmunidad Adaptativa , Anticuerpos Antivirales
7.
BMC Palliat Care ; 22(1): 5, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631865

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Access to palliative care is an emerging global public health challenge. In Chile, a palliative care law was recently enacted to extend palliative care coverage to the non-oncologic population. Thus, a reliable and legitimate estimate of the demand for palliative care is needed for proper health policy planning. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the demand for Palliative Care in Chile. METHODOLOGY: Diseases likely to require palliative care were identified according to literature and expert judgement. Annual deaths of diseases identified were estimated for the periods 2018-2020. Demand estimation corresponds to the identification of the proportion of deceased patients requiring palliative care based on the burden of severe health-related suffering. Finally, patient-years were estimated based on the expected survival adjustment. RESULTS: The estimated demand for palliative care varies between 25,650 and 21,679 patients depending on the approximation used. In terms of annual demand, this varies between 1,442 and 10,964 patient-years. The estimated need has a minor variation between 2018 and 2019 of 0.85% on average, while 2020 shows a slightly higher decrease (7.26%). CONCLUSION: This is a replicable method for estimating the demand of palliative care in other jurisdictions. Future studies could approach the demand based on the decedent population and living one for a more precise estimation and better-informed health planning. It is hoped that our methodological approach will serve as an input for implementing the palliative care law in Chile, and as an example of estimating the demand for palliative care in other jurisdictions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Chile , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Predicción
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673951

RESUMEN

We aimed to investigate the association between frailty status and all-cause mortality in middle-aged and older people. We included 2661 individuals aged ≥ 35 from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. Mortality was determined through linkage with the Chilean Civil Registry and Identification. A 36-item frailty index (FI) was used to assess the frailty status. Associations between frailty status and all-cause mortality were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. A non-linear association was investigated using penalized cubic splines fitted in the Cox models. During an 8.9 median follow-up (interquartile range of 8.6-9.0), 308 individuals died (11.5%). Lower survival rates were observed in frail individuals compared to pre-frail and robust people (log-rank < 0.001). Compared with robust individuals, frail people had a higher mortality risk (HR: 2.35 [95% CI: 1.57 to 3.51]). Frail middle-aged individuals had a higher risk of dying independently of major risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Humanos , Adulto , Anciano Frágil , Chile/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Evaluación Geriátrica
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674210

RESUMEN

In tennis, it is common for young male tennis players to spend several weeks away from their local training camps during the competition season, which could affect their performance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of a six-week international tour on physical performance and body composition in young Chilean tennis players. Twenty-four men between the ages of 14 and 16 participated in this research. In body composition and anthropometric measurement, body weight, height, skinfolds, and perimeters were measured. Body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) were calculated. For physical performance, 5-m and 10-m sprints, modified agility test (MAT test), countermovement jump (CMJ), and medicine ball throw (MBT) were evaluated. Results show that, in body composition, BFP and SMM significantly decreased post-tour (p < 0.05; effect sizes ranging from 0.23 to 0.33, respectively). In physical performance, agility and 5-m and 10-m sprints significantly decreased (p < 0.05, effect sizes ranging from -0.63 to 1.10). We conclude that after a six-week international tour, BFP, SMM, agility, and speed (linear sprint) tend to decrease significantly, with a greater effect in the sprint tests.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Tenis , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Tenis/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Chile , Rendimiento Físico Funcional , Composición Corporal
10.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 6, 2023 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596790

RESUMEN

Fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries have implemented non-pharmaceutical interventions like wearing masks, physical distancing, lockdown, and travel restrictions. Because of their economic and logistical effects, tracking mobility changes during quarantines is crucial in assessing their efficacy and predicting the virus spread. Unlike many other heavily affected countries, Chile implemented quarantines at a more localized level, shutting down small administrative zones, rather than the whole country or large regions. Given the non-obvious effects of these localized quarantines, tracking mobility becomes even more critical in Chile. To assess the impact on human mobility of the localized quarantines, we analyze a mobile phone dataset made available by Telefónica Chile, which comprises 31 billion eXtended Detail Records and 5.4 million users covering the period February 26th to September 20th, 2020. From these records, we derive three epidemiologically relevant metrics describing the mobility within and between comunas. The datasets made available may be useful to understand the effect of localized quarantines in containing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cuarentena , Humanos , Chile , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 678, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635429

RESUMEN

The explanation of the origin of microbialites and specifically stromatolitic structures is a problem of high relevance for decoding past sedimentary environments and deciphering the biogenicity of the oldest plausible remnants of life. We have investigated the morphogenesis of gypsum stromatolite-like structures currently growing in shallow ponds (puquíos) in the Salar de Llamara (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile). The crystal size, aspect ratio, and orientation distributions of gypsum crystals within the structures have been quantified and show indications for episodic nucleation and competitive growth of millimetric to centimetric selenite crystals into a radial, branched, and loosely cemented aggregate. The morphogenetical process is explained by the existence of a stable vertical salinity gradient in the ponds. Due to the non-linear dependency of gypsum solubility as a function of sodium chloride concentration, the salinity gradient produces undersaturated solutions, which dissolve gypsum crystals. This dissolution happens at a certain depth, narrowing the lower part of the structures, and producing their stromatolite-like morphology. We have tested this novel mechanism experimentally, simulating the effective dissolution of gypsum crystals in stratified ponds, thus providing a purely abiotic mechanism for these stromatolite-like structures.


Asunto(s)
Sulfato de Calcio , Salinidad , Sulfato de Calcio/química , Chile , Clima Desértico
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 121, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629712

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Compare self-perceived discrimination between immigrants and locals in Chile and analyze the relationship between immigration and perceived discrimination and immigration, discrimination and health outcomes, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and social capital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, using population-based survey (CASEN2017). We selected 2,409 immigrants (representative of N = 291,270) and 67,857 locals (representative of N = 5,438,036) over 18 years of age surveyed. We estimated logistic regression models, considering the complex sample, with discrimination, self-rated health, medical treatment, healthcare system membership, complementary health insurance, medical consultation and problems when consulting as dependent variables, immigration and discrimination as main exposure variables, and social capital and sociodemographic variables as covariates of the models. RESULTS: Immigrants were more likely to perceive discrimination in general compared to locals (OR = 2.31; 95%CI: 1.9-2.9). However, this does not occur for all specific reasons for discrimination; skin color and physical appearance were the most frequent causes of discrimination in immigrants. The interaction between immigration and discrimination was significantly related to worse self-rated health outcomes and treatment for pathologies, disfavoring discrimination against immigrants. In both locals and immigrants, discrimination was not associated with health care access outcomes, except for problems during consultation in locals (OR = 1.61; 95%CI 1.4-1.8). CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, experiences of discrimination are intertwined with other forms of rejection and social exclusion, so it is urgent to raise awareness among the population to prevent these discriminatory practices, especially in health care and daily use places. It is essential to address discrimination in order to have an impact on intermediate variables and health outcomes. The extension of the results to the entire immigrant population could be very useful to deepen the problem and improve the estimates made.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Brasil , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Percepción , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279200, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607974

RESUMEN

The kelp forests of southern Patagonia have a large diversity of habitats, with remote islands, archipelagos, peninsulas, gulfs, channels, and fjords, which are comprised of a mixture of species with temperate and sub-Antarctic distributions, creating a unique ecosystem that is among the least impacted on Earth. We investigated the distribution, diversity, and abundance of marine macroinvertebrate assemblages from the kelp forests of southern Patagonia over a large spatial scale and examined the environmental drivers contributing to the observed patterns in assemblage composition. We analyzed data from 120 quantitative underwater transects (25 x 2 m) conducted within kelp forests in the southern Patagonian fjords in the Kawésqar National Reserve (KNR), the remote Cape Horn (CH) and Diego Ramírez (DR) archipelagos of southern Chile, and the Mitre Peninsula (MP) and Isla de los Estados (IE) in the southern tip of Argentina. We observed rich assemblages of macroinvertebrates among these kelp forests, with a total of 185 unique taxa from 10 phyla and 23 classes/infraorders across the five regions. The number of taxa per transect was highest at IE, followed by MP, CH, and KNR, with the lowest number recorded at DR. The trophic structure of the macroinvertebrate assemblages was explained mostly by wave exposure (28% of the variation), followed by salinity (12%) and the KNR region (11%). KNR was most distinct from the other regions with a greater abundance of deposit feeders, likely driven by low salinity along with high turbidity and nutrients from terrigenous sources and glacial melt. Our study provides the first broad-scale description of the benthic assemblages associated with kelp forests in this vast and little-studied region and helps to establish baselines for an area that is currently lightly influenced by local anthropogenic factors and less impacted by climate change compared with other kelp forests globally.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Kelp , Bosques , Chile , Argentina
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 32(1): e017022, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629665

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal parasites are well-documented in small mammals from north-central Chile, but little is known about endoparasites of rodents in southern Chile. A survey was conducted between January and February 2018 to evaluate gastrointestinal parasites and risk factors of wild rodents that live in rural areas in Northern Chiloé Island, Chile. A total of 174 fecal samples from rodents of six native and one introduced species were collected and examined using the Mini-FLOTAC method. Also, 41 individuals of four native wild rodent species were examined furtherly to determinate adult parasites from gastrointestinal tracts. The overall prevalence of endoparasites was 89.65% (156). Helminth egg types included: Rodentolepis spp., Capillariidae, Trichuris sp., Syphacia sp., oxyurid-type eggs, Strongyloides sp., Spirurid-type eggs, Strongilid-type eggs, Moniliformis sp., and an unidentified nematode egg and larvae. Protozoa comprised coccidia, amoeba, and unidentified cysts. From necropsies, adult parasites involved Syphacia sp. Trichuris sp., Protospirura sp. and Physaloptera sp. In Abrothrix olivacea, individuals with low-body-mass index exhibited reduced infection probability for Spirurid-type and Strongilid-type eggs. Some parasites in this study may affect human health. In rural settings where environmental conditions are changing, more research should be undertaken to understand parasitic infections in wildlife and implications for public health and conservation.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Parasitosis Intestinales , Parásitos , Enfermedades de los Roedores , Animales , Chile/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/parasitología , Roedores/parasitología
15.
PeerJ ; 11: e14027, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643651

RESUMEN

The genus Radiodiscus includes minute terrestrial snails occurring throughout the American continent. We assessed the conservation status of eight poorly known Chilean Radiodiscus species using the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and NatureServe categories and criteria. Under the IUCN guidelines the species were assessed using the Criterion B of geographic range, which considers the extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) as subcriteria. For NatureServe we used these two parameters plus the number of occurrences, ecological viability, and threats. Considering species rarity and possible sampling bias, we also used ecological niche modeling to determine climate and environmental tolerances and predict potential species distributions analyzing bioclimatic and geographical layers. Radiodiscus australis, R. coarctatus and R. quillajicola were listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN and NatureServe standards; R. coppingeri, R. flammulatus, R. magellanicus and R. villarricensis as Endangered by both methods; while R. riochicoensis as Endangered by IUCN standards and Vulnerable by NatureServe standards. Niche modeling results indicated that Radiodiscus species respond to different environmental conditions and that the predicted distribution areas contain suitable habitats beyond the current ranges, which may be helpful for future management plans. Nature-based sport tourism, forestry activities, urbanization, roads, pollution, mining, forest fires, livestock, volcanism, tsunamis, soil erosion and introduced species are among the major threats affecting these snails. Based on the low number of occurrences and the threats identified, the most at-risk species are R. coarctatus and R. quillajicola (one record), R. australis (two records) and R. villarricensis (three records); the latter two lacking occurrences within protected areas. Compiling our findings, we propose a list of actions to preserve Chilean Radiodiscus species.


Asunto(s)
Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Gastrópodos , Animales , Extinción Biológica , Chile , Ecosistema
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

RESUMEN

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Osmeriformes , Chile , Dieta/veterinaria , Lípidos
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246889, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285639

RESUMEN

Abstract The intertidal rocky shores in continental Chile have high species diversity mainly in northern Chile (18-27° S), and one of the most widespread species is the gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). The aim of the present study is do a first characterization of spatial distribution of E. peruviana in along rocky shore in Antofagasta town in northern Chile. Individuals were counted in nine different sites that also were determined their spectral properties using remote sensing techniques (LANDSAT ETM+). The results revealed that sites without marked human intervention have more abundant in comparison to sites located in the town, also in all studied sites was found an aggregated pattern, and in six of these sites were found a negative binomial distribution. The low density related to sites with human intervention is supported when spectral properties for sites were included. These results would agree with other similar results for rocky shore in northern and southern Chile.


Resumo As costas rochosas entremarés no Chile continental apresentam alta diversidade de espécies, principalmente no norte do país (18-27 ° S), e uma das espécies mais difundidas é o gastrópode Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). O objetivo do presente estudo é fazer uma primeira caracterização da distribuição espacial de E. peruviana no costão rochoso da cidade de Antofagasta no norte do Chile. Os indivíduos foram contados em nove locais diferentes onde também foram determinadas suas propriedades espectrais usando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto (LANDSAT ETM +). Os resultados revelaram que os locais sem intervenção humana marcada apresentam maior abundância em comparação aos locais localizados no município. Também em todos os locais estudados foi encontrado um padrão agregado, sendo que em seis desses locais foi encontrada uma distribuição binomial negativa. A baixa densidade relacionada a sites com intervenção humana é suportada quando as propriedades espectrais para sites foram incluídas. Esses resultados concordariam com outros resultados semelhantes para costões rochosos no norte e no sul do Chile.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Ecosistema , Gastrópodos , Chile
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(1): 47-51, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bacterial bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer and episodes of fever and neutropenia (FN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome in children with cancer with 2 or more microorganisms isolated from blood cultures during their episodes of FN. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2021, children presenting with high-risk FN, admitted to any of the 6 participating hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were included in this study if they have positive blood cultures. We compared the clinical outcome of children with 2 or more microorganisms versus those with single agent isolation. RESULTS: A total of 1074 episodes of high-risk FN were enrolled in the study period, of which 27% (298) had positive blood cultures and 3% (32) had 2 or more microorganisms isolated from blood cultures. The most frequent identified agents were Viridans group streptococci and Escherichia coli in 20%, followed by Coagulase negative staphylococci in 14%. Children with 2 or more microorganisms presented more days of fever (7 vs. 4 days, P = 0.02), needed longer courses of antimicrobial therapy (16 vs. 14 days, P = 0.04) and had higher mortality at day 30 (13% vs. 1%, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Children with cancer and FN with 2 or more microorganisms isolated from blood cultures had a worse clinical outcome than children with single agent isolation.


Asunto(s)
Cultivo de Sangre , Neoplasias , Niño , Humanos , Chile/epidemiología , Neoplasias/complicaciones
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160753, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513231

RESUMEN

Urban infrastructures can provide 'novel' habitats for marine and terrestrial animals and plants, enhancing their ability to adapt to urban environments. In particular, coastal infrastructures characterized by a complex three-dimensional morphology, such as breakwaters, could provide species refuges and food. We investigated the role of breakwaters in providing habitat for vertebrates and plants, and the influence of anthropogenic litter in regulating the value of these structures as habitat. We sampled vertebrate and plant species and quantified the amount of anthropogenic litter on breakwaters and adjacent rocky habitats at several sites in three different countries (Italy, Spain and Chile). We found breakwaters to accumulate more litter items (e.g. especially plastics) than adjacent rocky habitats by means of their large-scale (i.e., 1 m) structural complexity. Birds, which used the artificial infrastructure as transitory habitat, reached similar abundances in breakwaters compared with adjacent rocky platforms. In contrast, synanthropic mammal species, such as Rattus norvegicus and feral cats, were slightly more frequent on breakwaters and appeared to use them as permanent habitat. Plants were frequent in the upper zone of breakwaters and, even though many macrophyte species can trap litter, their cover correlated negatively with anthropogenic litter density. Therefore, breakwaters provide either transitory or permanent habitats for different species, despite functioning as a sink for anthropogenic litter. Thus, new infrastructure should be designed with lower structural complexity in their supralittoral zone limiting the proliferation of synanthropic species. In addition, restricting public access to sensitive areas and enforcing littering fines could enhance the ecological value of these novel habitats by reducing the benefits to pest species.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Vertebrados , Animales , Gatos , Ratas , Plásticos , Chile , Italia , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Mamíferos
20.
Public Health ; 214: 61-68, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521273

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the addition of 12 maternity leave (ML) weeks (2011), a pay for performance (P4P) exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion strategy (2015), and the COVID-19 pandemic in EBF inequalities in Chile. STUDY DESIGN: Interrupted time-series analyses (ITSAs). METHODS: Aggregated national EBF data by municipality and month were collected from 2009 to 2020. We assess the impact of the three events in EBF inequalities using two procedures: 1. ITSA stratified by municipal SES quintiles (Q1-Q5); 2. Calculating the EBF slope index of inequality (SII). RESULTS: The EBF prevalence was higher in lower SES municipalities before and after the three time-events. No impact in EBF inequalities was observed after the extended ML. The P4P strategy increased EBF at six months in all SES quintiles (effect size between 4% and 5%), but in a higher level in poorer municipalities (SII: -0.36% and -1.05%). During COVID-19, wealthier municipalities showed a slightly higher EBF at six months prevalence (SII: 1.44%). CONCLUSION: The null impact of the extended ML in EBF inequalities could be explained by a low access to ML among affiliated to the public health system (20%). The P4P strategy includes multiple interventions that seemed effective in increasing EBF across all SES quintiles, but further in lower quintiles. The restrictions in healthcare access in poorer municipalities could explain EBF inequalities during COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Lactante , Chile/epidemiología , Pandemias , Reembolso de Incentivo , COVID-19/epidemiología , Empleo , Política Pública , Madres
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