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1.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Variación Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidad , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Epidemiología Molecular , Salud Pública , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética
2.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(5): 579-588, 2019 May.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quality of life and psychological well-being are readily hampered by depression. The changes that students face during college life impact their psychological health and well-being, including the emergence of mental health problems like depression Aim: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic parameters and psychological well-being in undergraduate university students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred eighty university students of both sexes, from the Metropolitan and IX Regions of Chile answered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-IA) and the Ryff's psychological well-being scale. RESULTS: Twenty eight percent of respondents had clinically significant depressive symptoms, and these were more frequent in women. There was an inverse and statistically significant relationship between psychological well-being and depressive symptoms. This fact was especially marked in dimensions of autonomy, positive relationships with others and purpose in life. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high frequency of depressive symptoms among these students. We discuss whether psychological well-being and depressive symptomatology represent two extremes within a continuum or they are two independent dimensions that can account for differential causal mechanisms linked to mental health and illness.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(5): 650-657, 2019 May.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859898

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is always a risk of importing infectious diseases when travelling abroad. AIM: To estimate the effective risk of a Chilean of acquiring measles during a travel by countries where measles outbreaks have been reported, considering the present level of immunity in the country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Previously established mathematical models using differential equations were applied to calculate the risk of acquiring measles of people traveling to endemic areas. RESULTS: The probability of acquiring measles of a voyager is 8.11 x 10-8. CONCLUSIONS: These estimations help decision making about preventive measures for travelers to endemic measles areas.


Asunto(s)
Sarampión/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Chile/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Vacuna Antisarampión , Probabilidad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Vacunación
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 683-692, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reproductive number (R0)-maps estimate risk zones of vector-borne diseases and geographical distribution changes under climate change. AIM: To map R0 aiming to estimate the epidemiological risk of Chagas disease in Chile, its distribution and possible changes due to the global climate change. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a relationship between R0 and entomological parameters of vectors as function of environmental variables, to map the risk of Chagas disease in Chile, under current and projected future environmental conditions. RESULTS: We obtained a geographical R0 estimation of Chagas disease in Chile. The highest R0averages correspond to the Central-Northern regions of Chile. T. cruzi transmission area could increase in the future due to climate changes. Independent of the future condition, both for optimistic and pessimistic climate change scenarios, the area of potential risk for Chagas disease transmission would increase. The estimated R0 values suggest that, if a control of T. infestans is not maintained, Chagas disease endemic status will persist or increase, independently of the climate change scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Mapping R0 values is an effective method to assess the risk of Chagas disease. The eventual increase in the transmission area of the disease is worrisome.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Vectores de Enfermedades , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Animales , Dióxido de Carbono , Enfermedad de Chagas/transmisión , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Temperatura Ambiental , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 703-708, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Small renal masses (SRM) are defined as complex organ-confined solid or cystic lesions < 4 cm. Up to 20% of these can be benign. A conservative management with active surveillance can be done in some patients. However, it is difficult to identify patients with a higher risk of malignancy. AIM: To characterize the clinical, radiological and histopathological aspects of patients with SRM, analyzing predictive factors for tumor aggressiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients undergoing partial or total nephrectomy for renal tumors between 2006 and 2016. All tumors of 4 cm or less were included. Four histological groups were defined: benign, favorable, intermediate and unfavorable. Two categories of risk were also defined: low and high. Preoperative clinical and radiological variables of these patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Data of 152 patients were analyzed. Six percent had a benign histology, and the majority was of intermediate risk (74%). According to histological type, clear cell carcinoma was the most common type (74%). Three percent were benign angiomyolipomas. No malignancy predictive variable was identified. CONCLUSIONS: In these patients, the percentage of benign SRM was low. No variable that could predict the presence of a benign or malignant lesion in the definitive biopsy was identified.


Asunto(s)
Angiomiolipoma/patología , Carcinoma de Células Renales/patología , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Angiomiolipoma/epidemiología , Angiomiolipoma/cirugía , Biopsia , Carcinoma de Células Renales/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Renales/cirugía , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/epidemiología , Neoplasias Renales/cirugía , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Nefrectomía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
6.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 727-732, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the aim to inform end of life public policies, the place of death in Chile, its trends and associated factors were analysed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional using publically available death database from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. The proportion of hospital deaths was selected as the main outcome. A logistic regression was used to assess the association between place of death, age, and main diagnosis at death. Also, a Prais-Winsten regression and a Chi2 test were used to assess a time series and regional analysis, respectively. RESULTS: 2,063,615 deaths were analysed. Overall, deaths 898,871 (43.6%) occurred at hospital. Those who died over 85 years (OR 2,52 IC95% 2.49-2.55) and those who died from cancer (OR 2.43 IC95% 2.42-2.45) had higher risk for dying outside de hospital. For the general population and those who die form cancer, there is no evidence for an increase or decrease trend in the proportion of hospital deaths over time (p = 0,75 and p = 0.68, respectively). However, there is an increase of the proportion of hospital deaths in those who died over 85 years (p < 0.001,27% in 1990 to 32% in 2014). Also, there are geographic differences between country regions (p < 0.001) (Eg. Magallanes 52.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of hospital deaths has been stable over time in the general population and has increased in those over 85 years.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Certificado de Defunción , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Probabilidad , Política Pública , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Cuidado Terminal , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 733-740, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In people with asthma, adiposity is associated with more symptoms and less control of the disease whereas on those without asthma adiposity is associated with a higher risk of developing the disease. AIM: To investigate the association between asthma and adiposity markers in Chilean adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 5,499 adults older than 15-years-old from the Chilean National Health Survey 20162017 were analyzed. Quintiles of body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used as a proxy of adiposity. The association between asthma and quintiles of BMI and WC was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A higher BMI and WC was associated with a higher odds for asthma. This trend remained significant even after adjusting the models for socio-demographic factors, physical activity and smoking (Odds Ratio [OR] BMI: 1.13 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04; 1.22], p < 0.01 and OR WC: 1.15 [95% IC: 1.06; 1.25], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI and WC were positively associated with asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adiposidad/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/fisiopatología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Circunferencia de la Cintura
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 751-754, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are several types of primary malignant hepatic tumors (PMHT) other than hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC): they are infrequent and poorly known. Imaging studies could help characterize the lesions and may guide the diagnosis. However, the definitive diagnosis of PMHT is made by pathology. AIM: To review a registry of liver biopsies performed to diagnose hepatic tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of a pathology registry of liver biopsies performed for the diagnosis of liver tumors. Among these, 25 patients aged 57 ± 17 years, 60% males, in whom a liver tumor other than a HCC or CC was diagnosed, were selected for review. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to register their clinical characteristics, imaging and the pathological diagnosis performed during surgery and/ or with the percutaneous liver biopsy. RESULTS: Ten patients (40%) had neuroendocrine tumors, six (24%) had a lymphoma and four (16%) had hepatic hemangioendothelioma. Angiosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma were diagnosed in one patient each. In 22 patients (88%), neither clinical features nor imaging studies gave the correct diagnosis. Four patients (16%) had chronic liver disease. The most frequent symptoms were weight loss in 28% and abdominal pain in 24%. CONCLUSIONS: The most common PMHT other than HCC and CC were neuroendocrine tumors and lymphomas. Imaging or clinical features were not helpful to reach the correct diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma/epidemiología , Hemangioendotelioma/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Linfoma/epidemiología , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/epidemiología , Sarcoma/epidemiología , Adulto , Biopsia , Carcinoma/patología , Chile/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Hemangioendotelioma/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patología , Linfoma/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/patología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patología
9.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 776-786, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859831

RESUMEN

Invasive meningococcal disease is challenging for public health, mainly when it manifests with sudden changes in incidence, serogroups and hypervirulent clones that spread in the population, causing great alarm due to its sequelae and often fatal course, a situation that occurred in Chile, starting at week 26 of the year 2012. To face this scenario, an organization of multidisciplinary teams was required, called W-135 Action Plan in Chile, which included sanitary alerts, education, reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance of suspicious cases, immediate diagnosis through state-of-the-art techniques, blocking of contacts, communication plans, and, from the 42nd week, ON the vaccination campaign was started for children aged from 9-months-old to less than 5 years of age. The vaccination strategy had a great impact on the decrease in incidence (1.3 to 0.1/100,000) and case fatality rate in the vaccinated population (23% to 0%), with a high safety profile, leading to its subsequent inclusion in the national immunization program. The ability to develop molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies allowed us to better understand the situation, supporting public health policy decisions for its control. The W-135 Action Plan implemented by the Ministry of Health in Chile, to manage the outbreak of meningococcal disease by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, demonstrated that the coordination of these efforts, through an organized Action Plan, allows the implementation of campaigns at the national level achieving high coverage of risk populations in short periods of time, generating a positive impact on the health of the population.


Asunto(s)
Implementación de Plan de Salud/métodos , Vacunación Masiva/métodos , Infecciones Meningocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Meningocócicas/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Chile/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neisseria meningitidis Serogrupo W-135 , Estaciones del Año , Cobertura de Vacunación , Adulto Joven
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 478, 2019 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610815

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mepraia gajardoi and Mepraia spinolai are endemic triatomine vector species of Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite that causes Chagas disease. These vectors inhabit arid, semiarid and Mediterranean areas of Chile. Mepraia gajardoi occurs from 18° to 25°S, and M. spinolai from 26° to 34°S. Even though both species are involved in T. cruzi transmission in the Pacific side of the Southern Cone of South America, no study has modelled their distributions at a regional scale. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the potential geographical distribution of M. spinolai and M. gajardoi under current and future climate scenarios. METHODS: We used the Maxent algorithm to model the ecological niche of M. spinolai and M. gajardoi, estimating their potential distributions from current climate information and projecting their distributions to future climatic conditions under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 scenarios. Future predictions of suitability were constructed considering both higher and lower public health risk situations. RESULTS: The current potential distributions of both species were broader than their known ranges. For both species, climate change projections for 2070 in RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 scenarios showed different results depending on the methodology used. The higher risk situation showed new suitable areas, but the lower risk situation modelled a net reduction in the future potential distribution areas of M. spinolai and M. gajardoi. CONCLUSIONS: The suitable areas for both species may be greater than currently known, generating new challenges in terms of vector control and prevention. Under future climate conditions, these species could modify their potential geographical range. Preventive measures to avoid accidental human vectorial transmission by wild vectors of T. cruzi become critical considering the uncertainty of future suitable areas projected in this study.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/transmisión , Cambio Climático , Insectos Vectores/fisiología , Triatominae/fisiología , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiología , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Humanos , Humedad , Insectos Vectores/parasitología , Modelos Biológicos , Filogeografía , Curva ROC , Lluvia , Medición de Riesgo , Temperatura Ambiental , Triatominae/parasitología
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1067-1073, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184628

RESUMEN

Introducción: la hipovitaminosis D tiene una prevalencia del 50,4% en personas mayores, población en aumento a nivel mundial, en la cual la deficiencia de vitamina D (< 30 mg/dl) podría ser un factor de riesgo para disminuir la sobrevida de esta población. Objetivo: determinar si niveles séricos de vitamina D menores a 30 ng/ml tienen impacto en la sobrevida, medida a través de la mortalidad general y por causas específicas, considerando un periodo de seguimiento de nueve años en personas mayores autovalentes con capacidades cognitivas adecuadas. Método: corresponde a un estudio retrospectivo longitudinal, con un seguimiento de nueve años. Se realizó el seguimiento a 418 personas mayores de la comuna de Santiago, los cuales fueron incorporados el año 2004 para participar en un estudio referente a la suplementación de vitamina D y fuerza muscular. Resultados: niveles de vitamina D bajo 30 ng/dl aumentan en casi tres veces la probabilidad de fallecer (OR = 2,77; IC = 1,81-3,85), mientras que igual nivel de vitamina D se asocia a un doble riesgo de morir por causas cardiovasculares (OR = 1,78; IC = 1,21-2,09) en el modelo no ajustado. Para la mortalidad por cáncer y por caídas no se obtuvo ningún resultado significativo. La vitamina D no actuaría como factor protector ante la mortalidad. Conclusión: el poseer niveles de vitamina D bajo 30 ng/dl podría ser un factor de riesgo de mortalidad general


Background: hypovitaminosis D has a prevalence of 50,4% in older persons. This population has grown globally in an impressive way during the last 20 years. In addition, the deficiency of vitamin D (< 30 ng/ml) could raise the risk of mortality in this population. Objectives: to know whether vitamin D levels less than 30 ng/ml have an impact on mortality for overall causes, cardiovascular causes, cancer or injuries (falls) in a follow-up period of nine years in elderly subjects. Methods: a retrospective longitudinal study with nine years period of observation; 418 elderly subjects were followed, and they were recruited in 2004 to participate in a study about vitamin D supplementation and muscle strength. Results: vitamin D levels below 30 ng/dl increase by almost three times the probability of dying (OR = 2.77, IC = 1.81-3.85), while the same level of vitamin D is associated with a double risk of dying from cardiovascular causes (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.21-2.09) in the unadjusted model. For cancer mortality and falls, no significant results were obtained. Vitamin D would not act as a protective factor against mortality. Conclusions: vitamin D levels less than 30 ng/ml could be a risk factor for general mortality


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Sobrevida , Factores de Riesgo , Estado Nutricional , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Densitometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Longitudinales , Causas de Muerte , Avitaminosis/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología
12.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105167, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513762

RESUMEN

It is not currently known which individuals with chronic Chagas disease (ChD) will develop cardiopathy in a determined period and which will be maintained asymptomatic with normal routine laboratory tests all their lives. The parasite burden is a factor that could explain this different evolution. The objective of this study was to quantify Trypanosoma cruzi burden by real-time PCR in blood (qPCR-B) and dejections of triatomines fed by xenodiagnosis (qPCR-XD) in 90 individuals with chronic ChD untreated, classified according to XD results and the presence or absence of cardiopathy. All individuals came from hyperendemic areas of Chile and participated in the study under Informed Consent. The standard qPCR curves for qPCR-B and qPCR-XD were elaborated with a mixture of known concentrations of T. cruzi strains, performing DNA serial dilutions (1/10) with a dynamic range between 105 and 10-1 parasite equivalents/mL. The TaqManⓇ detection system was applied in a Stratagene Mx3000P thermocycler (Agilent Technologies, USA) with cruzi 1 and cruzi 2 satellite primers. 22.2% and 15.6% of cases with cardiopathy or without cardiopathy were XD positive. There was no significant difference between the groups. The positivity of qPCR-B and qPCR-XD in the positive XD group was 82.35% and 100%, respectively, while in the negative XD group was 55.26% and 42.10%, respectively. A superior qPCR value in chronic ChD patients with and without cardiopathy was determined for qPCR in cases with positive XD and positive qPCR-XD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses show better accuracy for detecting parasite burden (area under the curve, AUC) for qPCR-XD in comparison to qPCR-B. That is to say, major performance in DNA samples obtained of positive XD (gold standard for viable T. cruzi) detected and quantified by qPCR-XD. A high percentage of cases with XD and qPCR-XD positive (80-100%) have result concordant with qPCR-B. In absence of XD, future challenges are especially related to the low parasitic load of chronic ChD patients treated with trypanocidal drugs and post-therapy parasitological evaluations by qPCR-B. Finally, no statistically significant differences were found between presence or absence of cardiopathy and XD, qPCR-B or qPCR-XD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Chagas/parasitología , Cardiopatías/etiología , Carga de Parásitos , Triatoma/parasitología , Trypanosoma cruzi/aislamiento & purificación , Xenodiagnóstico/métodos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Animales , Enfermedad de Chagas/sangre , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Tripanocidas , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 613-624, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483034

RESUMEN

Black-necked swans are distributed across South America and face conservation problems in Chile according to data of the State institution SAG. The aim of this study was to identify helminths and to assess associated tissue damage via histopathology. A total of 19,291 parasites were isolated from 21 examined birds; 17 species were identified, including nematodes, flukes, and tapeworms. Of these, 12 were new host records, 13 were reported for the first time in Chile, and 5 were new records for the Neotropical region. Further, the flukes Schistosomatidae gen. sp. and Echinostoma echinatum are of zoonotic concern. Regarding histopathology, an inflammatory response was found along the birds' entire digestive tract. Nevertheless, it is difficult to declare that there is a clear association between such lesions and isolated parasites, as other noxa could be responsible as well. Although in some cases there was an evident association, such inflammatory responses and necrosis were minimal, as occurred with Capillaria, Retinometra, Catatropis, Echinostoma, and Schistosomatidae gen. sp. Nevertheless, Epomidiostomum vogelsangi caused granulomatous injuries, an important inflammatory response, and necrosis, but it always circumscribed to superficial layers of the gizzard. Conversely, Paramonostomum was not associated with an inflammatory response despite a high parasitic load.


Asunto(s)
Anseriformes/parasitología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Helmintiasis Animal/patología , Helmintos/clasificación , Masculino
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 207, 2019 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484557

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The oral flagellated protozoan Trichomonas tenax has been associated with patients with periodontal disease. However, no recent studies have been conducted on the prevalence of T. tenax in Chile. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. tenax in patients with periodontal disease, admitted to the Dental Clinic of the University of Antofagasta, Chile, through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, 20 of them with gingivitis and 30 with periodontitis. T. tenax was identified by PCR amplification of the beta-tubulin gene. Associations between the protozoan and periodontal disease or the presence of risk factors to establish T. tenax infection were determined using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: T. tenax was present in 28 out of 50 (56%) of patients with periodontal disease, and was more prevalent when associated with periodontitis (21 out of 30; 70%) than dental plaque-induced gingivitis (7 out of 20; 35%). Non-statistically-significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and age, gender, smoking habit or diabetes. Statistically significant associations were observed between the presence of T. tenax and periodontal disease, and between T. tenax and the Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) index. CONCLUSION: T. tenax showed a high presence in patients with progressive states of periodontal diseases. Consequently, T. tenax detection is strongly recommended in patients with periodontal disease diagnosis and with a PSR index greater than 3.


Asunto(s)
Gingivitis/microbiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/microbiología , Tricomoniasis/diagnóstico , Trichomonas/aislamiento & purificación , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Clínicas Odontológicas , Femenino , Amplificación de Genes , Gingivitis/diagnóstico , Gingivitis/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Periodontales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Universidades
15.
Medwave ; 19(6): e7670, 2019 Jul 30.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442218

RESUMEN

Background: The consumption of psychotropic drugs without a medical prescription is a growing public health problem worldwide. Misuse or indiscriminate use involves several risks. Objective: To determine sociodemographic factors and behaviors associated with the consumption of psychotropic drugs without prescription in Chile. Methods: This is a descriptive study based on the data of the XI National Study of Drugs in the General Population in Chile, carried out in the population between 12 and 64 years old (n = 19 512) during 2014. Prevalence was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted. Also, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed. Results: The prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 2.3%. In the studied population, associated risk factors are female sex (odds ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 1.77); ages between 20-29 (odds ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.98 to 2.26) and 40-49 (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 2.75); consumption of marijuana (odds ratio: 3.0; 95% confidence interval: 3.32 to 3.97), cocaine or crack (odds ratio: 3.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.45 to 5.70); tobacco (odds ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 1.78); alcohol (odds ratio: 1.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 1.73); and poor health perception (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.51 to 2.28). Military personnel used more pain and cough medication; young women between 19 to 25 years old used stimulants; the population between 45 to 64 years had a bad perception of health associated with the use of tranquilizers; and men between 12 and 18 years used illicit drugs. Conclusions: The prevalence found in the different groups is consistent with data reported in Latin America, showing the relationship between the use of non-prescription psychotropic drugs with sociodemographic factors, risk behaviors, and the identification of consumption profiles.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Psicotrópicos/administración & dosificación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
J Sports Sci ; 37(22): 2549-2559, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366283

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA), both occupational (OPA) and during leisure time (LTPA), with obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean adults. 5,157 participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010 were included in this study. OPA and LTPA levels were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association between both PA with obesity and cardiovascular risk factors was determined using logistic regression. Our findings showed a significant trend between higher LTPA and lower odds for obesity (OR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.53; 0.76], central obesity 0.52 [0.44; 0.61]) and other cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes (OR: 0.72 [0.55; 0.94]), hypertension (OR: 0.59 [0.50; 0.71]) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.62 [0.50; 0.78]). In contrast, OPA was only associated with lower odds of diabetes (OR: 0.79 [0.65; 0.98]) and hypertension (0.85 [0.74; 0.98]). In conclusion, LTPA was associated with a lower risk of all major cardiovascular risk factors, whereas OPA was only associated with a lower risk of diabetes and hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Ejercicio , Actividades Recreativas , Obesidad/epidemiología , Ocupaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Chile/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
17.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(2): 221-233, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344158

RESUMEN

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are one of the main causes of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death in the world1. This report presents the preliminary epidemiological situation of STIs up to the year 2017 in Chile. Syphilis is the STI with the highest reporting rate, followed by HIV infection. In general terms, all STIs present a relative stabilization of their rates in the 2014 and 2015 periods, except for gonorrhea that shows an increase in these years, which focuses on the group of 15 to 24 years. In 2017, syphilis and HIV infection showed an increase in their rates in relation to 2016. In all these STIs the rate of men exceeds that of women and the most affected age group is 15 to 39 years. According to geographical distribution, the regions of Arica-Parinacota to Antofagasta, Metropolitana, Valparaíso, Los Lagos and Aysén, present the greatest risks.


Asunto(s)
Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Sífilis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 275-280, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344163

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon indolent B-cell lymphoma, due to the proliferation of lymphoplasmacytic cells, and secretion of a monoclonal IgM protein. AIM: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, management and results of treatment of patients with WM at a public hospital in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 31 patients aged 43 to 85 years (16 males) with WM diagnosed between 2002 and 2017. Clinical features and survival were recorded. RESULTS: All patients had bone marrow compromise, and 31%, extranodal involvement. According to the International Prognostic Score System for WM (IPSSWM) 16, 58 and 26% were at low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. Twenty-five patients (81%) were treated, 32% with plasmapheresis and 36% with rituximab. Four cases (16%) achieved complete remission. Median follow up was 35 months (range 6-159). Estimated overall survival (OS) at 5 and 10 years was 74% and 53%, respectively. According to IPSSWM, the estimated five-year OS was 80, 92 and 39%, for low, intermediate and high-risk patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: OS was similar to that reported abroad, except for low risk patients, probably due to the low number of cases and short follow up. An improved survival should be expected with the routine use of immunochemotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Macroglobulinemia de Waldenström/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Biopsia , Médula Ósea/patología , Chile/epidemiología , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prednisona/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapéutico , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vincristina/uso terapéutico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenström/tratamiento farmacológico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenström/mortalidad
19.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 322-329, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344169

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The place of death is a fundamental indicator for the debate on equity and access to health care. AIM: To describe the place of death of the deceased population over 1 year of age in Chile between the years 1997 and 2014. To analyze tendencies in this variable and its association with socio-demographic characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Time series study covering deaths occurred between 1997 and 2014 in Chile. National death records were used, provided by the Department of Health Statistics and Information (DEIS) of the Chilean Ministry of Health. The following variables were chosen: place of death (home, hospital, other), sex, marital status, age, level of education, activity and area of residence. Temporal trends were evaluated using Prais Winsten regressions. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the place of death with socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2014 there were 1,576,392 deaths, at a mean age of 69 years (p25-p75:60-83 years). No temporal variations in the place of death were observed with the Prais Winsten regression, hospital (P-W coefficient (coef) = 0.06 (confidence intervals (CI): -0.30; 0.19), p = 0.64), home (P-W coef = -0.03 (CI: -0.15; 0.09), p = 0.57), and other places (P-W coef = 0.07; (CI: -0.08 - 0.22), p = 0.32). The multivariate analysis showed that being women under 70 years of age, being married or widowed, having a higher educational level, being inactive and living in a rural area were factors associated with a greater chance of dying at home. CONCLUSIONS: No significant temporal variation in the place of death was observed.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte , Chile/epidemiología , Certificado de Defunción , Femenino , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 90(3): 253-259, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344184

RESUMEN

Measles is still a major cause of child morbidity and mortality. In recent years, it has become a global public health problem, attributed to low vaccination coverage observed in different countries. In order to control it, a highly effective live virus vaccine is available, which was used for the first time in Chile in 1964, covering practically the whole country in a short period of time. This was the first world experience, which was later imitated by other countries leading to a significant drop in mor bidity and mortality rates. Its effectiveness has been amply demonstrated, but it requires coverage maintenance higher than 95%. In Chile, minor endemic situation persisted until 1993. In recent years, there have been some reduced outbreaks and sporadic cases linked to contacts with imported cases, however, according to recent data, measles is now circulating in more than 160 countries at an unprecedented spread level, where infected travelers are the main vehicle of transmission. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has decided to strengthen and update the vaccination of susceptible groups, especially travelers. This update reviews historical aspects and current information on this re-emer ging disease, showing its high epidemiological impact on the pediatric and adult population globally.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Sarampión/epidemiología , Adulto , Niño , Chile/epidemiología , Humanos , Sarampión/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Vacunación/métodos
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