Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 234.136
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

RESUMEN

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Partenogénesis , Reproducción , Isópteros/crecimiento & desarrollo , China , Hibridación Genética
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMEN

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Pakistán/epidemiología , China , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMEN

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Heces , Genotipo
4.
Food Chem ; 399: 133824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041335

RESUMEN

Innovative pH-colorimetric sensor film was fabricated from agar and methylcellulose matrix (AM) with various concentrations of sunflower wax (SFW) (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) combined with purple Chinese cabbage (CPC) anthocyanins for tracking chicken breast freshness. A bio-composition film AM/CPC with (hydrophobic) SFW exhibited significant color variations in acidic pH level of (2-6) and a slight shift in alkaline pH levels ranging from (7-12), as well as marked color change due to ammonia vapor. Microstructure analyses revealed that SFW was fixed effectively into the AM-CPC matrices. The incorporation of varying SFW concentrations enhanced the mechanical, thermal, antioxidant activity, reduced anthocyanin release and physical properties (mainly water vapor permeability), with the best performance at AM/CPC/9% SFW. Interestingly, SFW films demonstrated perfect defense opposing UV-vis and visible light. Finally, it was proved that the efficiency of the pH-colorimetric film as an indicator for evaluating the freshness of chicken breast.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae , Brassica , Helianthus , Animales , Antocianinas/química , Biomarcadores , Pollos , China , Embalaje de Alimentos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 134017, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055068

RESUMEN

Rice ratooning system is becoming increasingly important for food security in China, however, information on grain cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) levels is lacking. We collected grain samples of main crop (MC) and ratoon crop (RC) from five sites, where the same eleven varieties were planted, and determined the Cd and As concentration in brown rice. Results showed that differences in grain Cd level between MC and RC were inconsistent across experimental sites, although the average value was comparable. In contrast, the grain As level was significantly higher in MC than in RC by 99.8% on average, which was consistent across all sites. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation in grain Cd concentration between RC and MC. Overall, RC-produced rice is safer than MC with dramatically lower As concentration, and planting rice varieties with low Cd accumulation capacity is important for production of safe rice in rice ratooning system.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Arsénico/análisis , Cadmio/análisis , China , Grano Comestible/química , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
6.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

RESUMEN

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Asunto(s)
Ayuno , Adulto , China , Estudios Cruzados , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tadalafilo/efectos adversos , Equivalencia Terapéutica , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 424, 2022 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361211

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The "4 + 7" volume-based procurement is a "large group purchase" led by the Chinese government, with the aim of reducing the price of medicines by trading volume for price. Although the "4 + 7" drugs had passed the national consistency evaluation, the adverse drug reactions need to be further evaluated to ensure the safety of the "4 + 7" drugs with low prices. We aimed to analyze the occurrence characteristics and related influencing factors of adverse reactions of psychiatric drugs under the chinese drug volume-based procurement policy(4 + 7 policy), and provide references for clinical medication. METHODS: 137 cases of adverse drug reactions of four psychotropic drugs reported under the "4 + 7" policy in Wuxi Mental Health Center in 2020 were collected. The gender and age of patients, related "4 + 7" drugs, involving organs / systems, clinical manifestations, distribution of new / serious adverse reactions, clinic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 137 cases of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was the highest in patients aged 61-70 (25.38%). Mainly involved 4 "4 + 7" psychiatric drugs, of which olanzapine tablets caused the most adverse reactions (54, 39.24%). The adverse reactions mainly involved the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic system, among which the digestive system was the most common (61, 44.53%). A total of 8 cases (6.16%) of new and 26 cases of serious adverse reactions were reported, all of which led to the prolongation of disease course. Except for the transient side effects, most of that were improved or cured with no death, disability or teratogenicity after stopping or reducing the dose with symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: Since more and more drugs will be included in "4 + 7" for clinic, clinical pharmacists should strengthen the publicity and training of the knowledge of "4 + 7" drugs, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, and provide timely feedback to the clinic, in order to achieve early prevention, early identification, timely diagnosis and reasonable intervention of the adverse drug reactions under the context of "4 + 7" policy.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Política Pública
8.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 817-819, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376763

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction Independent athletes and sports enthusiasts are subject to injuries due to several factors, such as neglect of physical preparation, lack of knowledge of the evolutionary progression of load intensity, and deficient stretching. Running is a popular sport in China, and the knowledge of the injuries caused by this group of fans may guide awareness behaviors to prevent accidents in sports practice. Objective Evaluate the injuries and rehabilitation of runners. Methods A total of 265 ordinary chinese runners (166 men) were selected as research subjects. Information on running sports injury characteristics, subjective perception of the causes of runners' injuries, prevention and rehabilitation methods in runners' injuries were evaluated. Results The knee joint has the highest proportion of injuries (26.73%), followed by foot injuries (13.11%) and ankle injuries (10.65%). Pain after exercise was reported by 38.12% of the runners, while 21.89% felt pain during the race. Conclusion Warm-up exercises are recommended before sports practice. Protective equipment can reduce the probability of injuries. Such equipment is considered a method of treatment and prevention with greater satisfaction and better adherence among runners. Evidence Level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the result.


RESUMO Introdução Atletas independentes e entusiastas esportivos estão sujeitos a lesões por vários fatores como negligência do preparo físico, desconhecimento na progressão evolutiva de intensidade de carga e alongamentos deficitários. A corrida é um esporte popular na China e o conhecimento das lesões ocasionadas nesse grupo de adeptos poderá guiar condutas de conscientização para a prevenção de acidentes na prática esportiva. Objetivo Avaliar as lesões e a reabilitação nos praticantes de corrida. Métodos Um total de 265 corredores comuns chineses (166 homens) foram selecionados como objetos de pesquisa. Foram avaliadas as informações sobre as características das lesões esportivas de corrida, a percepção subjetiva das causas das lesões dos corredores, métodos de prevenção e reabilitação nas lesões dos corredores. Resultados A articulação do joelho apresenta a maior proporção nas lesões (26,73%), seguida por lesões nos pés (13,11%) e tornozelos (10,65%). Dores após o exercício foram relatadas por 38,12% dos corredores enquanto 21,89% dos corredores sentem dor durante a corrida. Conclusão Recomenda-se a realização de exercícios de aquecimento antes da prática esportiva. Os equipamentos de proteção podem reduzir a probabilidade das lesões. A utilização desses equipamentos é considerada um método de tratamento e prevenção com maior satisfação e melhor adesão entre os corredores. Nível de evidência II; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação de Resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción Los atletas independientes y los entusiastas del deporte están sujetos a lesiones por varios factores como la negligencia en la preparación física, la falta de conocimiento en la progresión de la intensidad de la carga y los estiramientos deficientes. La corrida es un deporte muy popular en China y el conocimiento de las lesiones causadas en este grupo de aficionados puede orientar las conductas de concienciación para la prevención de accidentes en la práctica deportiva. Objetivo Evaluar las lesiones y la rehabilitación en los practicantes de corrida. Métodos Un total de 265 corredores chinos ordinarios (166 hombres) fueron seleccionados como sujetos de la investigación. Se evaluó la información sobre las características de las lesiones deportivas de los corredores, la percepción subjetiva de las causas de las lesiones de los corredores y los métodos de prevención y rehabilitación en las lesiones de los corredores. Resultados La articulación de la rodilla es la que presenta la mayor proporción de lesiones (26,73%), seguida por las del pie (13,11%) y las del tobillo (10,65%). El 38,12% de los corredores declararon dolor después del ejercicio, mientras que el 21,89% de los corredores sintieron dolor durante la carrera. Conclusión Se recomienda realizar ejercicios de calentamiento antes de la práctica deportiva. El equipo de protección puede reducir la probabilidad de lesiones. El uso de estos equipos se considera un método de tratamiento y prevención con mayor satisfacción y mejor adherencia entre los corredores. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Traumatismos en Atletas/rehabilitación , Carrera/lesiones , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Carrera/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30365, 2022 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123939

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To explore the risk factors of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in China through meta-analysis. METHODS: The study commenced with a search and selection of case-control studies on the risk factors for bile duct injury in LC in China using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceNet.cn, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP. Data were extracted from the collected documents independently by 2 researchers, following which a meta-analysis of these data was performed using Revman 5.3. RESULTS: The compilation of all data from a total of 19 case-control studies revealed that among 41,044 patients, 458 patients experienced bile duct injury in LC, accounting for the incidence rate of 1.12% for bile duct injury. The revealed risk factors for bile duct injury were age (≥40 years) (odds ratio [OR] = 6.23, 95% CI [95% confidence interval]: 3.42-11.33, P < .001), abnormal preoperative liver function (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.50-2.70, P < .001), acute and subacute inflammation of gallbladder (OR = 8.35, 95% CI: 5.32-13.10, P < .001; OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 2.73-6.65, P < .001), thickening of gallbladder wall (≥4 mm) (OR = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.34-4.34, P < .001), cholecystolithiasis complicated with effusion (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.39-6.71, P = .006), and the anatomic variations of the gallbladder triangle (OR = 11.82, 95% CI: 6.32-22.09, P < .001). However, the factors of gender and overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) were not significantly correlated with bile duct injury in LC. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, age (≥40 years), abnormal preoperative liver function, gallbladder wall thickening, acute and subacute inflammation of the gallbladder, cholecystolithiasis complicated with effusion, and anatomic variations of the gallbladder triangle were found to be closely associated with bile duct injury in LC.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Abdominales , Enfermedades de los Conductos Biliares , Colecistectomía Laparoscópica , Colecistolitiasis , Traumatismos Abdominales/cirugía , Adulto , Enfermedades de los Conductos Biliares/cirugía , Conductos Biliares/lesiones , Conductos Biliares/cirugía , China/epidemiología , Colecistectomía Laparoscópica/efectos adversos , Colecistolitiasis/epidemiología , Colecistolitiasis/cirugía , Humanos , Inflamación/etiología , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/epidemiología , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/etiología , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/cirugía , Factores de Riesgo
10.
J Insect Sci ; 22(5)2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124863

RESUMEN

The Panchaetothripinae comprises 42 genera and 146 species of leaf-feeding thrips, some of which are horticultural pests. We examined representatives of the 18 genera that include most of these pests. For species delimitation, we used DNA barcoding to produce171 sequences for 40 morphospecies. Most species were found to be monophyletic, although cryptic diversity was evident in 8 presumptive species. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic assessment was based on one mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear loci (EF-1α, ITS2, and 28S) from 132 specimens (18 genera and 33 species), representing all genera and ~82% of species in China. Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) confirmed monophyly of each genus with strong support. Monophyly of tribes Panchaetothripini and Monilothripini were refuted, but the well supported tribe Tryphactothripini was confirmed. Rhipiphorothrips was recovered as a sister to the remainder of the genera of Panchaetothripinae combined. Both analyses revealed two major clades. Clade A comprised the majority of the genera, including tribe Tryphactothripini. Clade B included only four genera of which two, Helionothrips and Caliothrips, are particularly species rich. The relationships of some genera remain unresolved.


Asunto(s)
Thysanoptera , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , China , Factor 1 de Elongación Peptídica , Filogenia , Thysanoptera/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274828, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125982

RESUMEN

All issuers in China's local government bond market, which is nascent but growing rapidly, have the same AAA ratings. However, we provide evidence that the credit rating agency's reputation can certify differences in ratings' reliability and further impact bond pricing. On the basis of a sample of 7941 local government bonds issued from 2015 to 2021, results show that risk premium is significantly low for bonds rated by prestigious credit rating agencies, which means that issuers can save borrowing costs. Moreover, local governments regarded as less transparent in fiscal information disclosure enjoy more cost savings for their bonds by hiring more reputable agencies. Regression results are affirmed with the Heckman two-stage model, difference-in-differences regression, and machine learning method to solve the potential endogeneity issue. This paper's findings contribute to the debate on the credit rating agency's reputation hypothesis and present three implications. First, investors can rely on the credit rating agency's reputation to complement credit risk analysis. Second, local government policymakers should implement appropriate policies to reduce debt costs and improve public finance sustainability. Lastly, regulators should considerably focus on the supervision of credit rating agencies, given their substantial impact on bond pricing and the market's information asymmetry.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno Local , China , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274421, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126038

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zhejiang, ranked in the top three in HFMD (hand, foot, and mouth disease) incidence, is located in the Yangtze River Delta region of southeast China. Since 2016, the EV71 vaccine has been promoted in Zhejiang Province. This study aimed to investigate the trend and seasonal variation characteristics of HFMD from 2010 to 2021 and estimate the reduction in enterovirus 71 infection after vaccine use. METHODS: The data on HFMD cases in Zhejiang Province from January 2010 to December 2021 were obtained from this network system. Individual information on cases and deaths was imported, and surveillance information, including demographic characteristics and temporal distributions, was computed by the system. The Joinpoint regression model was used to describe continuous changes in the incidence trend. The BSTS (Bayesian structural time-series models) model was used to estimate the monthly number of cases from 2017 to 2021 based on the observed monthly incidence during 2010-2016 by accounting for seasonality and long-term trends. The seasonal variation characteristics of HFMD pathogens were detected by wavelet analysis. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2021, the annual incidence rate fluctuated between 98.81 cases per 100,000 in 2020 and 435.63 cases per 100,000 in 2018, and 1711 severe HFMD cases and 106 fatal cases were reported in Zhejiang Province, China. The annual percent change (APC) in EV71 cases was -30.72% (95% CI: -45.10 to -12.50) from 2016 to 2021. The wavelet transform of total incidence and number of cases of the three pathogens all showed significant periodicity on the 1-year scale. The average 2-year scale periodicity was significant for the total incidence, EV71 cases and Cox A16 cases, but the other enterovirus cases showed significant periodicity on the 30-month scale. The 6-month scale periodicity was significant for the total incidence, EV71 case and Cox A16 case but not for the other enteroviruses case. The relative error percentage of the performance of the BSTS model was 0.3%. The estimated number of cases from 2017 to 2021 after the EV-A71 vaccines were used was 9422, and the reduction in the number of cases infected with the EV71 virus was 73.43% compared to 70.80% when the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020 was excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2010, the incidence of EV71 infections has shown an obvious downward trend. All types of viruses showed significant periodicity on the 1-year scale. The periodicity of the biennial peak is mainly related to EV71 and Cox A16 before 2017 and other enteroviruses since 2018. The half-year peak cycle of HFMD was mainly caused by EV71 and Cox A6 infection. The expected incidence will be 2.76 times(include the cases of 2020) and 2.43 times(exclude the cases of 2020) higher than the actual value assuming that the measures of vaccination are not taken. EV71 vaccines are very effective and should be administered in the age window between 5 months and 5 years.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecciones por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie , Vacunas , Antígenos Virales , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e056452, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127088

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Rural-to-urban migrant workers are susceptible to hepatitis B because of lack of self-protection awareness and social support. The aim of this study was to explore the factors influencing risk behaviours for hepatitis B among migrant workers based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Chongqing, China PARTICIPANT: Migrant workers PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were the TPB variables. The secondary outcomes were factors explored by logistic regressions which were associated with hepatitis B related risk behaviours and behavioural intentions (BI). RESULTS: Of 1299 recruited migrant workers, 384 (29.56%) participants undertook risk behaviours related to hepatitis B virus infection in the 6 months prior to the survey, and 1111 (85.53%) migrant workers had the BI of doing so. Of 842 migrant workers who undertook sexual activities, 58.19% did not use condoms. Binary logistic regressions showed that migrant workers who were men (p<0.05), less educated (p<0.01), lacked hepatitis B knowledge (p<0.05) and of a young age (p<0.01), were more intent on conducting hepatitis B-related behaviours. Alcohol drinking (p<0.01) was also positively associated with hepatitis B risk. The scores of TPB variables, including attitude towards behaviour and subjective norms, were positively associated with BI when adjusted for sociodemographics (p<0.001). Meanwhile, experience of behaviour and regret feeling were positively associated with BI and actual behaviours (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of migrant workers undertake hepatitis B-related risk behaviours, and condoms are seldom used. Health education campaigns targeting the identified TPB variables may play a significant role in improving awareness of hepatitis B prevention among migrant workers, especially for those who are men, younger, alcohol drinkers, less educated and lacking hepatitis B knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Migrantes , China/epidemiología , Condones , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061987, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127104

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Low-dose CT (LDCT) can help determine the early stage of lung cancer and reduce mortality. However, knowledge of lung cancer and lung cancer screening among community residents and medical workers, and potential factors that may affect medical institutions to set up LDCT are limited. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sichuan province, China, in 2021. Community residents, medical workers and medical institutions were randomly selected, and participants responded to related questionnaires. Knowledge of lung cancer and LDCT lung cancer screening was evaluated. Data analyses were performed using SAS V.9.4. RESULTS: A total of 35 692 residents, 6350 medical workers and 81 medical institutions were recruited; 4.05% of the residents were very familiar with lung cancer and 37.89% were (completely) unfamiliar. Characteristics, such as age and level of education, were significantly related to residents who were very familiar with lung cancer. Furthermore, 22.87% of the residents knew that LDCT can effectively screen for early-stage lung cancer, which was correlated with smoking (OR 1.1300; 95% CI 1.0540 to 1.2110; p=0.006) and family history of cancer (OR 1.2210; 95% CI 1.1400 to 1.3080; p<0.0001); 66.06% of medical workers believed that LDCT can detect early-stage lung cancer. Technicians and nurses were less knowledgeable than doctors about whether LDCT can effectively screen for early-stage lung cancer (OR 0.6976; 95% CI 0.5399 to 0.9015; p=0.0059 and OR 0.6970; 95% CI 0.5718 to 0.8496; p=0.0004, respectively). Setting up LDCT in medical institutions was related to grade, administrative rank, number of hospital beds that opened and total number of medical workers. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge of lung cancer in residents is relatively low, and the knowledge of LDCT in screening (early-stage) lung cancer needs to be improved both in residents and medical workers. Possible factors that affect medical institutions to set up LDCT may need to be incorporated.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neoplasias Pulmonares , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevención & control , Tamizaje Masivo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e062240, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127116

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is essential in slowing progression to dementia. Primary care plays a vital role in detecting and managing MCI. The chronic care model (CCM) provides effective methods to manage chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore how MCI services are delivered in primary care in China. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted face to face among MCI stakeholders from six community health centres (CHCs) involved in the 'friendly community programme' in Shanghai, China. A total of 124 MCI stakeholders were interviewed, consisting of 6 groups (n=42) of general practitioners (GPs), 3 groups (n=18) of CHC managers, 4 groups (n=32) of people with MCI and 4 groups (n=32) of informal caregivers. Content and thematic analyses were performed using a combination of induction and deduction approaches. RESULTS: Three major themes emerged from the data corresponding to the CCM framework: hesitant patients, unprepared providers and misaligned environments. While the public are hesitant to seek medical attention for MCI problems, due to misunderstanding, social stigma and a lack of perceived benefits, GPs and CHCs are not well prepared either, due to lack of knowledge and a shortage of GPs, and a lack of policy, funding and information support. None of these issues can be addressed separately without tackling the others. CONCLUSION: This study combined the diverse perceptions of all the main stakeholders to detect and manage MCI in primary care settings in China. A vicious circle was found among the three interconnected CCM domains, creating a gridlock that should be addressed through a system's approach targeting all of the above-mentioned aspects.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Cuidadores/psicología , China , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/terapia , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15694, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127382

RESUMEN

Rocky desertification is a serious ecological and environmental problem in Southwest China. Quickly and scientifically reveal the distribution and changes of ecological environment quality in rocky desertification areas, which is of great significance to rocky desertification restoration, ecological environment governance and sustainable development. Based on the remote sensing ecological index (RSEI), in addition to greenness, humidity, dryness, and heat, combined with the degree of rocky desertification, this study used the principal component analysis (PCA) method to construct a modified remote sensing ecological index (MRSEI). Then, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics and imaging factors of the ecological environment quality in the typical rocky desertification region of southeastern Chongqing from 2001 to 2021 were explored. The results revealed that the greenness and humidity indicators had a positive effect on the ecological quality, while the indicators of dryness, heat and rocky desertification had the opposite impact. From 2001 to 2021, the ecological environment quality in southeastern Chongqing showed a trend of gradual improvement, and the improvement area accounted for about 70% of the total area. The elevation, slope, monthly average precipitation, and land use pattern were the main factors influencing the quality of the ecological environment in the region.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , China , Ambiente , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15712, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127386

RESUMEN

Happiness studies generally investigate average levels of happiness rather than happiness inequality between regions, and studies of social inequality usually measure it based on the distribution of life opportunities (e.g., income) rather than life results (e.g., happiness). Inspired by the Kuznets curve, which illustrates the inverted U-shaped correlation between income inequality and economic growth, this study investigates whether there is a subjective wellbeing Kuznets curve. It uses data from ten waves of the Chinese General Social Survey to construct a panel data set and runs panel data models to investigate the hypothesized curvilinear relationship between happiness inequality and economic growth. The results show that happiness inequality, measured as the standard deviations of respondents' self-reported happiness, first increases and then decreases as per-capita GDP increases in Chinese provinces. These findings strongly support the subjective wellbeing Kuznets curve hypothesis and suggest that strategies for reducing happiness inequality must consider stages of economic development.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Felicidad , China , Humanos , Renta , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15680, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127390

RESUMEN

Rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) harbor great potential to distinguish male relatives and achieve male identification. However, forensic applications were greatly limited by the small number of the initially identified 14 RM Y-STRs. Recently, with the emergence of 12 novel RM Y-STRs, an integrated panel named RMplex was introduced, which contains all 26 RM Y-STRs and four fast mutating Y-STRs (FM Y-STRs). To obtain the first data on the mutation rates and father-son differentiation rates of the 30 newly proposed Y-STRs in Chinese populations, we performed an empirical mutation study on 307 DNA-confirmed Chinese paternal pairs. Previously reported mutation rates for 14 RM Y-STRs in Chinese and European populations were pooled and merged with our data. The highest meiosis number for the two groups reached 4771 and 2687, respectively. Five loci showed significant differences between the populations (DYS570, DYS399S1, DYS547, DYS612, and DYF403S1b). For the new panel covering 30 Y-STR loci, our results show extensive differences in the mutation rates between the two populations, as well. 10 RM Y-STR loci showed relatively low mutation rates (10-3-10-2 per meiosis) and 2 FM Y-STR loci had rapid mutation rates (> 10-2 per meiosis) in the Chinese population. Several-fold differences in mutation rates were found in nine Y-STR loci between the Chinese and reference populations, with two loci having significantly higher mutation rates and one locus with a significantly lower mutation rate in the Chinese population (P < 0.05). Eighteen RM Y-STRs (> 10-2 per meiosis), 8 FM Y-STR loci (5×10-3-10-2 per meiosis), 3 moderately mutating Y-STRs (MM Y-STRs, 10-3-5×10-3 per meiosis), and one locus with no observed mutation events were identified in the Chinese population. 40.06% of the Chinese paternity pairs were discriminated with RMplex while only 20.84% with the initial 14 RM Y-STRs, indicating that RMplex is beneficial for distinguishing paternally related males. Future studies on populations of different genetic backgrounds are necessary to obtain comprehensive estimates of mutation rates at these new loci.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Y , Tasa de Mutación , China , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , Padre , Humanos , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Mutación
19.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 357, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rupture of intracranial aneurysms (RIA) leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with severe consequences. Although risks for RIA are established, the results vary between ethnic groups and were never studied in Kazakhstan. This study aimed to establish the risk factors of RIA in the Kazakh population.  METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 762 patients with single IAs, who attended the neurosurgical center from 2008 until 2018, was conducted. Demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, smoking status, and hypertension were considered. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors correlated with RIA. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 48.49 ± 0.44 years old. The majority (68.37%) of IAs have ruptured. Of the ruptured aneurysms, 43.76% were < 6 mm, and 38.39% were located on the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries (ACA). Logistic regression model indicates younger age group (16-40 years), smoking, having stage 3 hypertension, smaller IA size and its location on ACA increase the odds of rupture. CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed that younger, smoking patients with stage 3 arterial hypertension are at higher risk for RIA. Small aneurysms (< 6 mm) and location on ACA had increased odds of rupture, while larger aneurysms on internal carotid arteries had lower odds.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Roto , Hipertensión , Aneurisma Intracraneal , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneurisma Roto/epidemiología , Aneurisma Roto/cirugía , China , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Aneurisma Intracraneal/epidemiología , Aneurisma Intracraneal/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1782, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is related to the onset and progression of ocular disease. However, the effect of air pollutants on the acute glaucoma remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollutants on the incidence of acute glaucoma (acute angle closure glaucoma and glaucomatocyclitic crisis) among adults. METHODS: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study based on the data of glaucoma outpatients from January, 2015 to Dec, 2021 in Shanghai, China. A conditional logistic regression model combined with a polynomial distributed lag model was applied for the statistical analysis. Each case serves as its own referent by comparing exposures on the day of the outpatient visit to the exposures on the other 3-4 control days on the same week, month and year. To fully capture the delayed effect of air pollution, we used a maximum lag of 7 days in main model. RESULTS: A total of 14,385 acute glaucoma outpatients were included in this study. We found exposure to PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) significantly increased the odds of outpatient visit for acute glaucoma. Wherein the odds of acute glaucoma related to PM2.5 and NO2 were higher and more sustained, with OR of 1.07 (95%CI: 1.03-1.11) and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08-1.17) for an IQR increase over lag 0-3 days, than PM10 and CO over lag 0-1 days (OR:1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05; OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: This case-crossover study provided first-hand evidence that air pollutants, especially PM2.5 and NO2, significantly increased risk of acute glaucoma.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Glaucoma de Ángulo Cerrado , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monóxido de Carbono/efectos adversos , China/epidemiología , Estudios Cruzados , Glaucoma de Ángulo Cerrado/inducido químicamente , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...