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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53280

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se describen los principales modelos de integración, las experiencias de éxito y los retos del trabajo conjunto de los investigadores y los tomadores de decisiones participantes en la iniciativa Incorporación de la Investigación para Avanzar en el Cumplimiento de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ER-SDG), y la experiencia del Centro de Apoyo Técnico (CAT). En junio de 2018 se otorgó financiamiento, previa selección, a 13 proyectos de investigación de 11 países de ingresos medios y bajos de América Latina y el Caribe (Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haití, Paraguay, Perú y República Dominicana). Los proyectos debían estar centrados en los cambios que se requieren a nivel de sistema, políticas o programas para mejorar la salud y basarse en el trabajo conjunto de investigadores y tomadores de decisiones, a fin de acercar la generación de evidencias a la toma de decisiones en los sistemas y servicios de salud. El CAT apoyó y orientó la producción de resultados de calidad y de utilidad para la toma de decisiones. La experiencia confirmó el valor de iniciativas como ER-SDG en la consolidación de puentes entre el mundo de la investigación sobre implementación de políticas, programas y sistemas de salud, y el mundo de los funcionarios encargados de operar esos programas, servicios e intervenciones relacionadas con la salud. Se resalta la necesidad de respetar y aprovechar cada contexto, y los arreglos y patrones específicos de relación entre investigadores y tomadores de decisiones, mediante incentivos para la integración.


[ABSTRACT]. This article describes the main models for embedding research and the successful experiences and challenges faced in joint work by researchers and decisionmakers who participated in the Embedding Research for the Sustainable Development Goals (ER-SDG) initiative, and the experience of the Technical Support Center. In June 2018, funding was granted to 13 pre-selected research projects from 11 middle- and low-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Paraguay, and Peru). The projects focused on the system-, policy-, or program-level changes required to improve health and build on the joint work of researchers and decisionmakers, with a view to bringing together evidence production and decision-making in health systems and services. The Technical Support Center supported and guided the production of quality results useful for decision-making. This experience confirmed the value of initiatives such as ER-SDG in consolidating bridges between research on the implementation of health policies, programs, and systems, and the officials responsible for operating health-related programs, services, and interventions. It highlighted the importance of both respecting and taking advantage of each context—and the specific arrangements and patterns in the relationships between researchers and decisionmakers—through incentives for embedded research.


[RESUMO]. Neste artigo são descritos os principais modelos de integração, as experiências de êxito e os desafios do trabalho conjunto de pesquisadores e responsáveis por tomar decisões que participam da iniciativa Incorporação da Pesquisa para Avançar no Cumprimento dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (Embedding Research for the Sustainable Development Goals, ER-SDG) e da experiência do Centro de Apoio Técnico (CAT). Em junho de 2018, realizou-se a concessão de financiamento e pré-seleção de 13 projetos de pesquisa provenientes de 11 países de baixa e média renda da América Latina e Caribe (Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Equador, Guatemala, Guiana, Haiti, Paraguai, Peru e República Dominicana). Os projetos deveriam enfocar as mudanças necessárias no sistema, políticas ou programas para melhorar a saúde e fundar-se no trabalho conjunto de pesquisadores e responsáveis por tomar decisões visando aproximar a produção de evidências à tomada de decisão nos sistemas e serviços de saúde. O CAT forneceu suporte e orientação à produção de resultados úteis e de qualidade para a tomada de decisão. A experiência confirmou o valor de iniciativas como a ER-SDG para consolidar pontes entre o mundo da pesquisa voltada à implementação de políticas, programas e sistemas de saúde e o mundo dos encarregados de gerir estes programas, serviços e intervenções de saúde. Deve-se enfatizar a necessidade de respeitar e aproveitar cada contexto e os arranjos e padrões próprios da relação entre pesquisadores e responsáveis por tomar decisões criando incentivos à integração.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia de la Implementación , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , América Latina , Ciencia de la Implementación , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , América Latina , Ciencia de la Implementación , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud
2.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53279

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify barriers to the implementation of National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil from the women’s perspective. Methods. A descriptive exploratory study was performed using a qualitative approach and an interpretive perspective. The hermeneutic unit of analysis was established based on the contribution of users to a public online consultation about the National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil, performed in 2016 by the National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation into the Unified Health System (CONITEC). Content analysis techniques were used to examine the answers provided to the following specific question: “Considering your local reality, what would hinder the implementation of this protocol or guideline?” Results. Of 396 contributions recorded by CONITEC, 55 were included in the content analysis. The mean age of women was 31 years, with most self-declared as white (69%) and living in the Southeast of Brazil (56.3%). Coding revealed seven barrier categories, which were grouped into three families — barriers related to 1) professional training and culture (which highlighted the centrality of physicians, not women, in childbirth), 2) social culture (general population not well informed), and 3) political and management issues (little interest on the part of managers, lower physician compensation for vaginal childbirth vs. cesarian section, and poor hospital infrastructure). Conclusions. Aspects of professional training and culture, social culture, and political as well as management issues are critical points to be considered in future interventions aiming at overcoming or weakening the barriers to implementing childbirth recommendations in Brazil.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar los obstáculos existentes para la aplicación de las directrices de asistencia al parto normal en Brasil desde la perspectiva de las mujeres. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio, con un enfoque cualitativo y una perspectiva de investigación interpretativa. La unidad hermenéutica se construyó a partir de los aportes hechos por usuarias a una consulta pública en línea sobre las directrices nacionales de asistencia al parto normal realizada en el 2016 por la Comisión Nacional de Incorporación de Tecnologías (CONITEC) en el Sistema Único de Salud. Se utilizó la metodología de análisis del contenido para examinar específicamente las respuestas a la siguiente pregunta: considerando su realidad local, ¿qué dificultaría la implantación de este protocolo o de esta directriz? Resultados. En el análisis del contenido se incluyeron 55 de los 396 aportes recibidos por la CONITEC. Las mujeres tenían una media de edad de 31 años y, en su mayoría, eran blancas (69%) y residentes en la región Sudeste de Brasil (56,3%). La codificación reveló siete categorías de obstáculos, agrupados en tres clases, a saber, obstáculos relacionados con 1) la formación y la cultura profesional (con hincapié en la centralidad de los médicos y no de las mujeres en el parto), 2) la cultura social (la falta de información por parte de la población) y 3) las cuestiones de política y gestión (la falta de interés de los gestores, la menor remuneración de los médicos que atienden el parto normal en comparación con quienes practican cesáreas y la falta de infraestructura hospitalaria). Conclusiones. Los resultados mostraron que los aspectos relacionados con la formación y la cultura profesional, la cultura social y las cuestiones de política y gestión son puntos críticos que deben considerarse en la realización de intervenciones futuras con objeto de superar o reducir los obstáculos existentes para la aplicación de las recomendaciones de asistencia al parto normal en Brasil.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar barreiras à implementação das diretrizes de assistência ao parto normal no Brasil sob a perspectiva das mulheres. Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa e perspectiva interpretativista. A unidade hermenêutica foi construída a partir das contribuições de usuárias a uma consulta pública on-line sobre as Diretrizes Nacionais de Assistência ao Parto Normal realizada em 2016 pela Comissão Nacional de Incorporação de Tecnologias no Sistema Único de Saúde (CONITEC). Foi utilizada a metodologia de análise de conteúdo para examinar especificamente as respostas à questão “Considerando sua realidade local, o que dificultaria a implantação deste protocolo ou diretriz?”. Resultados. Das 396 contribuições recebidas pela CONITEC, 55 foram incluídas na análise de conteúdo. A média de idade das mulheres foi de 31 anos, sendo a maioria branca (69%) e residente na região Sudeste do Brasil (56,3%). A codificação revelou sete categorias de barreiras, agrupadas em três famílias — barreiras relacionadas a 1) formação e cultura profissional (com destaque para a centralidade dos médicos, e não das mulheres, no parto), 2) cultura social (falta de informação por parte da população) e 3) questões políticas e de gestão (falta de interesse dos gestores, menor remuneração para médicos que atendem parto normal vs. cesariana e falta de infraestrutura hospitalar). Conclusões. Os resultados mostraram que aspectos da formação e cultura profissional, cultura social e questões políticas e de gestão são pontos críticos que devem ser considerados na realização de intervenções futuras com o objetivo de transpor ou enfraquecer as barreiras à implementação de recomendações ao parto normal no Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Parto , Protocolos Clínicos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Brasil , Parto , Protocolos Clínicos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Brasil , Ciencia de la Implementación
3.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53273

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify potential barriers to the implementation of the National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil based on the best available global evidence. Method. A rapid review of evidence was performed in six databases in March/April 2019. Secondary studies published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with a focus on barriers of any nature relating to the implementation of the Guidelines were retrieved. Results. Twenty-three documents (21 reviews and two practice guides) were included in the review. The barriers identified were grouped into 52 meaning categories and then reorganized into nine thematic clusters: delivery and childbirth care model, human resource management, knowledge and beliefs, gender relations, health care service management, attitudes and behaviors, communication, socioeconomic conditions, and political interests. Conclusions. The results show that combined approaches may be required to address different barriers to the implementation of the Guidelines. For successful implementation, it is essential to engage health care leaders, professionals, and users in the effort to change the delivery and childbirth care model. Also necessary is the development of intersectoral initiatives to improve the socioeconomic conditions of women and families and to curtail gender inequalities.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar los posibles obstáculos a la aplicación de las recomendaciones formuladas en las Directrices Nacionales para la Atención del Parto Normal en Brasil a partir de la mejor evidencia disponible a nivel mundial. Métodos. Entre marzo y abril de 2019 se llevó a cabo una revisión rápida de seis bases de datos. Se seleccionaron estudios secundarios publicados en español, inglés o portugués sobre los obstáculos de cualquier tipo que pudieran estar relacionados con la aplicación de las recomendaciones contenidas en las Directrices. Resultados. Se incluyeron 23 documentos (21 revisiones sistemáticas y 2 guías de práctica clínica). Los obstáculos identificados se agruparon en 52 categorías con base en su semejanza de significado y luego se reorganizaron en nueve grupos temáticos: modelo de atención del parto, gestión de recursos humanos, creencias y conocimientos, relaciones de género, gestión de servicios de salud, actitudes y comportamientos, comunicación, condiciones socioeconómicas e intereses políticos. Conclusiones. La aplicación de las Directrices puede requerir enfoques combinados para hacer frente a diferentes obstáculos. La participación de los administradores y los trabajadores de la salud en el proceso de cambio del modelo de atención del parto, así como la participación de los usuarios, son fundamentales para que la aplicación de las Directrices sea satisfactoria. Además, se necesitan medidas intersectoriales para mejorar las condiciones socioeconómicas de las mujeres y las familias y para combatir las desigualdades entre los géneros.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar potenciais barreiras à implementação das recomendações das Diretrizes Nacionais de Assistência ao Parto Normal a partir das melhores evidências globais disponíveis. Métodos. Realizou-se uma revisão rápida com consulta a seis bases de dados em março/abril de 2019. Foram selecionados estudos secundários publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português sobre barreiras de qualquer natureza que pudessem ser relacionadas à implementação das recomendações das Diretrizes. Resultados. Foram incluídos 23 documentos (21 revisões sistemáticas e dois guias de prática clínica). As barreiras identificadas foram agrupadas em 52 categorias por semelhança de significado e, em seguida, reorganizadas em nove núcleos temáticos: modelo de atenção ao parto e nascimento, gestão de recursos humanos, crenças e saberes, relações de gênero, gestão de serviços de saúde, atitudes e comportamentos, comunicação, condições socioeconômicas e interesses políticos. Conclusões. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação das Diretrizes pode requerer abordagens combinadas para o enfrentamento de diferentes barreiras. O engajamento de gestores e profissionais de saúde no processo de mudança do modelo de atenção ao parto e nascimento e o envolvimento de usuários são indispensáveis para o sucesso da implementação. São necessárias, ainda, ações intersetoriais para melhorar as condições socioeconômicas de mulheres e famílias e para combater as iniquidades de gênero.


Asunto(s)
Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Parto , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Parto , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(2): 300-307, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522870

RESUMEN

Rationale: Prone positioning reduces mortality in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a feature of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite this, most patients with ARDS do not receive this lifesaving therapy.Objectives: To identify determinants of prone-positioning use, to develop specific implementation strategies, and to incorporate strategies into an overarching response to the COVID-19 crisis.Methods: We used an implementation-mapping approach guided by implementation-science frameworks. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians who staffed 12 ICUs within the Penn Medicine Health System and the University of Michigan Medical Center. We performed thematic analysis using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We then conducted three focus groups with a task force of ICU leaders to develop an implementation menu, using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change framework. The implementation strategies were adapted as part of the Penn Medicine COVID-19 pandemic response.Results: We identified five broad themes of determinants of prone positioning, including knowledge, resources, alternative therapies, team culture, and patient factors, which collectively spanned all five Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains. The task force developed five specific implementation strategies, including educational outreach, learning collaborative, clinical protocol, prone-positioning team, and automated alerting, elements of which were rapidly implemented at Penn Medicine.Conclusions: We identified five broad themes of determinants of evidence-based use of prone positioning for severe ARDS and several specific strategies to address these themes. These strategies may be feasible for rapid implementation to increase use of prone positioning for severe ARDS with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Posicionamiento del Paciente/normas , Brechas de la Práctica Profesional , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , /terapia , Adulto , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posicionamiento del Paciente/métodos , Posición Prona , Investigación Cualitativa
5.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 6, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461584

RESUMEN

Globally, insufficient physical activity (PA) is one of the main risk factors for premature mortality. Although insufficient PA is prevalent in nearly every demographic, people with socio-economic disadvantage participate in lower levels of PA than those who are more affluent, and this contributes to widening health inequities. PA promotion interventions in primary healthcare are effective and cost effective, however they are not widely implemented in practice. Further, current approaches that adopt a 'universal' approach to PA promotion do not consider or address the additional barriers experienced by people who experience socioeconomic disadvantages. To address the research to policy and practice gap, and taking Australia as a case study, this commentary proposes a novel model which blends an implementation science framework with the principles of proportionate universalism. Proportionate universalism is a principle suggesting that health interventions and policies need to be universal, not targeted, but with intensity and scale proportionate to the level of social need and/or disadvantage. Within this model, we propose interrelated and multi-level evidence-based policies and strategies to support PA promotion in primary healthcare while addressing health inequities. The principles outlined in the new model which blends proportionate (Pro) universalism principles and Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM), 'ProPRISM' can be applied to the implementation of PA promotion interventions in health care settings in other high-income countries. Future studies should test the model and provide evidence of its effectiveness in improving implementation and patient health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. There is potential to expand the proposed model to other health sectors (e.g., secondary and tertiary care) and to address other chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to transform the delivery of health care to a prevention-focused health service model, which could reduce the prevalence and burden of chronic disease and health care costs in high-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Ciencia de la Implementación , Atención Primaria de Salud , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa , Victoria
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 118, 2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Use of a point-of-care test would overcome many challenges. This study evaluated the validity of a novel point-of-care p24 antigen detection test (LYNX) in rural and urban settings in southern Zambia. METHODS: Two studies were conducted: a cross-sectional study from 2014 to 2015 at Macha Hospital (LYNX Hospital study) and a longitudinal study from 2016 to 2018 at 12 health facilities in Southern Province, Zambia (NSEBA study). In both studies, children attending the facilities for early infant diagnosis were enrolled and a blood sample was collected for routine testing at the central lab and immediate on-site testing with the LYNX test. The performance of the LYNX test was measured in comparison to nucleic acid-based testing at the central lab. RESULTS: In the LYNX Hospital study, 210 tests were performed at a median age of 23.5 weeks (IQR: 8.9, 29.0). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 70.0 and 100.0%, respectively. In the NSEBA study, 2608 tests were performed, including 1305 at birth and 1222 on children ≥4 weeks of age. For samples tested at birth, sensitivity was 13.6% (95% CI: 2.9, 34.9) and specificity was 99.6% (95% CI: 99.1, 99.9). While specificity was high for all ages, sensitivity increased with age and was higher for participants tested at ≥4 weeks of age (80.6%; 95% CI: 67.4, 93.7). Children with positive nucleic acid tests were more likely to be negative by the LYNX test if their mother received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy (60.7% vs. 24.2%; p = 004). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high specificity and moderate sensitivity that increased with age, the LYNX test could be of value for early infant diagnosis for infants ≥4 weeks of age, particularly in rural areas where centralized testing leads to long delays. Point-of-care tests with moderate sensitivity and high specificity that are affordable, easy-to-use, and easily implemented and maintained should be developed to expand access to testing and deliver same-day results to infants in areas where it is not feasible to implement nucleic acid-based point-of-care assays.


Asunto(s)
Proteína p24 del Núcleo del VIH/análisis , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Diagnóstico Precoz , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Proteína p24 del Núcleo del VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/congénito , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Pruebas Inmunológicas , Ciencia de la Implementación , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Tamizaje Neonatal/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Población Rural , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Zambia/epidemiología
9.
Pflege ; 34(1): 13-21, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349061

RESUMEN

Difficulty of implementing kinaesthetics in long-term care institutions - A multiple case-study Abstract. Background: Resources have been invested from long-term care institutions for the development of nursing staffs' kinaesthetics competence for years. Recent studies have shown that implementing or sustainably promoting the kinaesthetics competence is problematic, but in-depth knowledge of the causes thereof is lacking. Aim: Which barriers impede a sustainable implementation of kinaesthetics in long-term care institutions? Method: A "multiple case-study" was carried out in three institutions located in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The data from guide-based interviews and (case-related) literature on the external context was inductively condensed in the within-case analysis. The results were then compared in the cross-case synthesis and summarized in an abstract way. Results: The synthesis showed that the implementation of kinaesthetics can be influenced negatively at three different institutional levels - management, nursing team and individual nursing staff - as well as by external factors. Conclusions: In nursing practice and nursing science, as well as in the health care sector, a basic understanding of kinaesthetics in the context of professional nursing care is required. Especially those responsible for management and implementation must be aware of possible barriers in order to develop appropriate strategies.


Asunto(s)
Cinestesia , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Personal de Enfermería , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Entrevistas como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa , Suiza
10.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(1): 81-95, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212082

RESUMEN

Implementation science is the study of the translation of evidence-based practices to real-world clinical environments. Implementation is measured with specific outcomes including acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, sustainability, and implementation cost. There are defined frameworks and models that outline implementation strategies and assist researchers in identifying barriers and facilitators to achieve implementation and conduct implementation research using methods such as qualitative analysis, parallel group, pre-/postintervention, interrupted time series, and cluster or stepped-wedge randomized trials. Deimplementation is the study of how to remove ineffective or unnecessary practices from the clinical setting and is an equally important component of implementation science.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia de la Implementación , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243724, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351810

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Government of India and the World Health Organization have guidelines for outpatient management of young infants 0-59 days with signs of Possible Serious Bacterial Infection (PSBI), when referral is not feasible. Implementation research was conducted to identify facilitators and barriers to operationalizing these guidelines. METHODS: Himachal Pradesh government implemented the guidelines in program settings supported by Centre for Health Research and Development, Society for Applied Studies. The strategy included community sensitization, skill enhancement of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA), Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) and Medical Officers (MOs) to identify PSBI and treat when referral was not feasible. The research team collected information on facilitators and barriers. A technical support unit provided training and oversight. FINDINGS: Among 1997 live births from June 2017 to January 2019, we identified 160 cases of PSBI in young infants resulting in a coverage of 80%, assuming an incidence of 10%. Of these,29(18.1%) had signs of critical illness (CI), 92 (57.5%) had clinical severe infection (CSI), 5 (3.1%)had severe pneumonia (only fast breathing in young infants 0-6 days), while 34 (21%) had pneumonia (only fast breathing in young infants 7-59 days). Hospital referral was accepted by 48/160 (30%), whereas 112/160 (70%) were treated with the simplified treatment regimens at primary level facilities. Of the 29 infants with CI, 18 (62%) accepted referral; 26 (90%) recovered while 3 (10%) who had accepted referral, died. Of the 92 infants who had CSI, 86 (93%) recovered, 65 (71%) received simplified treatment and one infant who had accepted referral, died. All the five infants who had severe pneumonia, recovered; 3 (60%) had received simplified treatment. Of the 34 pneumonia cases, 33 received simplified treatment of which 5 (15%) failed treatment; two out of these 5 died. Overall, 6/160 infants died (case-fatality-rate 3.4%); 2 in the simplified treatment (case-fatality-rate 1.8%) and 4 in the hospital group (case-fatality-rate 8.3%). Delayed identification and care-seeking by families and health system weaknesses like manpower gaps and interrupted supplies were challenges in implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the guidelines in program settings is possible and acceptable. Scaling up would require creating community awareness, early identification and appropriate care-seeking, strengthening ASHA home-visitation program, building skills and confidence of MOs and ANMs, uninterrupted supplies and a dependable referral system.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Infecciones Bacterianas/terapia , Programas de Gobierno/organización & administración , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Derivación y Consulta/organización & administración , Atención Ambulatoria/normas , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Bacterianas/mortalidad , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno/normas , Visita Domiciliaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Recién Nacido , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/normas , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
12.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53158

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. The present report describes the process and results obtained with a knowledge translation project developed in three stages to identify barriers to the Implementation of the National Guidelines for Normal Childbirth in Brazil, as well strategies for effective implementation. The Improving Programme Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) model and the Supporting Policy Relevant Reviews and Trials (SUPPORT) tools provided the methodological framework for the project. In the first stage, the quality of the Guidelines was evaluated and the barriers preventing implementation of the recommendations were identified through review of the global evidence and analysis of contributions obtained in a public consultation process. In the second stage, an evidence synthesis was used as the basis for a deliberative dialogue aimed at prioritizing the barriers identified. Finally, a second evidence synthesis was presented in a new deliberative dialogue to discuss six options to address the prioritized barriers: 1) promote the use of multifaceted interventions; 2) promote educational interventions for the adoption of guidelines; 3) perform audits and provide feedback to adjust professional practice; 4) use reminders to mediate the interaction between workers and service users; 5) enable patient-mediated interventions; and 6) engage opinion leaders to promote use of the Guidelines. The processes and results associated with each stage were documented and formulated to inform a review and update of the Guidelines and the development of an implementation plan for the recommendations. Effective implementation of the Guidelines is important for improving the care provided during labor and childbirth in Brazil.


[RESUMEN]. En este informe se presentan los procesos y resultados de un proyecto de traducción de conocimiento desarrollado en tres etapas para identificar los obstáculos y las estrategias para la aplicación efectiva de las Directrices Nacionales para el Parto Normal en el Brasil. El marco metodológico adoptado comprendió la iniciativa iPIER (Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research) y las herramientas SUPPORT para políticas basadas en evidencia. En la primera etapa se evaluó la calidad de las Directrices y se identificaron los obstáculos a la aplicación de las recomendaciones, teniendo en cuenta la evidencia mundial y el análisis de las contribuciones obtenidas mediante una consulta pública. En la segunda etapa, una síntesis de la evidencia sirvió de base para un diálogo deliberativo para la priorización de los obstáculos. Por último, una nueva síntesis de la evidencia sirvió de base para un segundo diálogo deliberativo y presentó seis opciones para hacer frente a los obstáculos priorizados: 1) fomentar el uso de estrategias de intervención polifacéticas; 2) promover intervenciones educativas para mejorar el uso de directrices sanitarias; 3) realizar auditorías y proporcionar retroalimentación para la adecuación de la práctica profesional; 4) utilizar recordatorios para mediar en la interacción entre profesionales y usuarios; 5) permitir intervenciones mediadas por el paciente; y 6) incluir a líderes de opinión para fomentar el uso de directrices sanitarias. Se documentaron y presentaron los procesos y resultados de cada etapa del proyecto para fundamentar la actualización de las Directrices y la elaboración de un plan de aplicación de las recomendaciones. La aplicación efectiva de las Directrices es importante para mejorar la atención del parto y el nacimiento en el Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Guía de Práctica Clínica , Parto Normal , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Guía de Práctica Clínica , Parto Normal , Brasil
13.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53119

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar barreiras à implementação das diretrizes de assistência ao parto normal no Brasil sob a perspectiva das mulheres. Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa e perspectiva interpretativista. A unidade hermenêutica foi construída a partir das contribuições de usuárias a uma consulta pública on-line sobre as Diretrizes Nacionais de Assistência ao Parto Normal realizada em 2016 pela Comissão Nacional de Incorporação de Tecnologias no Sistema Único de Saúde (CONITEC). Foi utilizada a metodologia de análise de conteúdo para examinar especificamente as respostas à questão “Considerando sua realidade local, o que dificultaria a implantação deste protocolo ou diretriz?”. Resultados. Das 396 contribuições recebidas pela CONITEC, 55 foram incluídas na análise de conteúdo. A média de idade das mulheres foi de 31 anos, sendo a maioria branca (69%) e residente na região Sudeste do Brasil (56,3%). A codificação revelou sete categorias de barreiras, agrupadas em três famílias — barreiras relacionadas a 1) formação e cultura profissional (com destaque para a centralidade dos médicos, e não das mulheres, no parto), 2) cultura social (falta de informação por parte da população) e 3) questões políticas e de gestão (falta de interesse dos gestores, menor remuneração para médicos que atendem parto normal vs. cesariana e falta de infraestrutura hospitalar). Conclusões. Os resultados mostraram que aspectos da formação e cultura profissional, cultura social e questões políticas e de gestão são pontos críticos que devem ser considerados na realização de intervenções futuras com o objetivo de transpor ou enfraquecer as barreiras à implementação de recomendações ao parto normal no Brasil.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify barriers to the implementation of National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil from the women’s perspective. Method. A descriptive exploratory study was performed using a qualitative approach and an interpretive perspective. The hermeneutic unit of analysis was established based on the contribution of users to a public online consultation about the National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil, performed in 2016 by the National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation into the Unified Health System (CONITEC). Content analysis techniques were used to examine the answers provided to the following specific question: “Considering your local reality, what would hinder the implementation of this protocol or guideline?” Results. Of 396 contributions recorded by CONITEC, 55 were included in the content analysis. The mean age of women was 31 years, with most self-declared as white (69%) and living in the Southeast of Brazil (56.3%). Coding revealed seven barrier categories, which were grouped into three families — barriers related to 1) professional training and culture (which highlighted the centrality of physicians, not women, in childbirth), 2) social culture (general population not well informed), and 3) political and management issues (little interest on the part of managers, lower physician compensation for vaginal childbirth vs. Caesarian section, and poor hospital infrastructure). Conclusions. Aspects of professional training and culture, social culture, and political as well as management issues are critical points to be considered in future interventions aiming at overcoming or weakening the barriers to implementing childbirth recommendations in Brazil.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar los obstáculos existentes para la aplicación de las directrices de asistencia al parto normal en Brasil desde la perspectiva de las mujeres. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio, con un enfoque cualitativo y una perspectiva de investigación interpretativa. La unidad hermenéutica se construyó a partir de los aportes hechos por usuarias a una consulta pública en línea sobre las directrices nacionales de asistencia al parto normal realizada en el 2016 por la Comisión Nacional de Incorporación de Tecnologías (CONITEC) en el Sistema Único de Salud. Se utilizó la metodología de análisis del contenido para examinar específicamente las respuestas a la siguiente pregunta: considerando su realidad local, ¿qué dificultaría la implantación de este protocolo o de esta directriz? Resultados. En el análisis del contenido se incluyeron 55 de los 396 aportes recibidos por la CONITEC. Las mujeres tenían una media de edad de 31 años y, en su mayoría, eran blancas (69%) y residentes en la región Sudeste de Brasil (56,3%). La codificación reveló siete categorías de obstáculos, agrupados en tres clases, a saber, obstáculos relacionados con 1) la formación y la cultura profesional (con hincapié en la centralidad de los médicos y no de las mujeres en el parto), 2) la cultura social (la falta de información por parte de la población) y 3) las cuestiones de política y gestión (la falta de interés de los gestores, la menor remuneración de los médicos que atienden el parto normal en comparación con quienes practican cesáreas y la falta de infraestructura hospitalaria). Conclusiones. Los resultados mostraron que los aspectos relacionados con la formación y la cultura profesional, la cultura social y las cuestiones de política y gestión son puntos críticos que deben considerarse en la realización de intervenciones futuras con objeto de superar o reducir los obstáculos existentes para la aplicación de las recomendaciones de asistencia al parto normal en Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Parto , Protocolos Clínicos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Brasil , Parto , Protocolos Clínicos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Brasil , Ciencia de la Implementación
14.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52996

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar potenciais barreiras à implementação das recomendações das Diretrizes Nacionais de Assistência ao Parto Normal a partir das melhores evidências globais disponíveis. Métodos. Realizou-se uma revisão rápida com consulta a seis bases de dados em março/abril de 2019. Foram selecionados estudos secundários publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português sobre barreiras de qualquer natureza que pudessem ser relacionadas à implementação das recomendações das Diretrizes. Resultados. Foram incluídos 23 documentos (21 revisões sistemáticas e dois guias de prática clínica). As barreiras identificadas foram agrupadas em 52 categorias por semelhança de significado e, em seguida, reorganizadas em nove núcleos temáticos: modelo de atenção ao parto e nascimento, gestão de recursos humanos, crenças e saberes, relações de gênero, gestão de serviços de saúde, atitudes e comportamentos, comunicação, condições socioeconômicas e interesses políticos. Conclusões. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação das Diretrizes pode requerer abordagens combinadas para o enfrentamento de diferentes barreiras. O engajamento de gestores e profissionais de saúde no processo de mudança do modelo de atenção ao parto e nascimento e o envolvimento de usuários são indispensáveis para o sucesso da implementação. São necessárias, ainda, ações intersetoriais para melhorar as condições socioeconômicas de mulheres e famílias e para combater as iniquidades de gênero.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify potential barriers to the implementation of the National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil based on the best available global evidence. Method. A rapid review of evidence was performed in six databases in March/April 2019. Secondary studies published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with a focus on barriers of any nature relating to the implementation of the Guidelines were retrieved. Results. Twenty-three documents (21 reviews and two practice guides) were included in the review. The barriers identified were grouped into 52 meaning categories and then reorganized into nine thematic clusters: delivery and childbirth care model, human resource management, knowledge and beliefs, gender relations, health care service management, attitudes and behaviors, communication, socioeconomic conditions, and political interests. Conclusions. The results show that combined approaches may be required to address different barriers to the implementation of the Guidelines. For successful implementation, it is essential to engage health care leaders, professionals, and users in the effort to change the delivery and childbirth care model. Also necessary is the development of intersectoral initiatives to improve the socioeconomic conditions of women and families and to curtail gender inequalities.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar los posibles obstáculos a la aplicación de las recomendaciones formuladas en las Directrices Nacionales para la Atención del Parto Normal en Brasil a partir de la mejor evidencia disponible a nivel mundial. Métodos. En marzo/abril de 2019 se llevó a cabo una revisión rápida de seis bases de datos. Se seleccionaron estudios secundarios publicados en español, inglés o portugués sobre los obstáculos de cualquier tipo que pudieran estar relacionados con la aplicación de las recomendaciones contenidas en las Directrices. Resultados. Se incluyeron 23 documentos (21 revisiones sistemáticas y 2 guías de práctica clínica). Los obstáculos identificados se agruparon en 52 categorías con base en su semejanza de significado y luego se reorganizaron en nueve grupos temáticos: modelo de atención del parto, gestión de recursos humanos, creencias y conocimientos, relaciones de género, gestión de servicios de salud, actitudes y comportamientos, comunicación, condiciones socioeconómicas e intereses políticos. Conclusiones. La aplicación de las Directrices puede requerir enfoques combinados para hacer frente a diferentes obstáculos. La participación de los administradores y los trabajadores de la salud en el proceso de cambio del modelo de atención del parto, así como la participación de los usuarios, son fundamentales para que la aplicación de las Directrices sea satisfactoria. Además, se necesitan medidas intersectoriales para mejorar las condiciones socioeconómicas de las mujeres y las familias y para combatir las desigualdades entre los géneros.


Asunto(s)
Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Parto , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Parto , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
15.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52973

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. Este relato apresenta os processos e resultados de um projeto de tradução do conhecimento desenvolvido em três etapas para identificar barreiras e estratégias para a efetiva implementação das Diretrizes Nacionais do Parto Normal no Brasil. O referencial metodológico adotado foi o da iniciativa iPIER e das ferramentas SUPPORT para Políticas Informadas por Evidências. Na primeira etapa, a qualidade das Diretrizes foi avaliada e as barreiras à implementação das recomendações foram identificadas, considerando evidências globais e análise de contribuições de uma consulta pública. Na segunda etapa, uma síntese de evidências informou um diálogo deliberativo para priorização de barreiras. Por fim, uma nova síntese de evidências informou um segundo diálogo deliberativo e apresentou seis opções para abordar as barreiras priorizadas: 1) incentivar o uso de estratégias de intervenção multifacetadas; 2) promover intervenções educativas para o uso de diretrizes em saúde; 3) realizar auditoria e feedback para adequação da prática profissional; 4) utilizar lembretes para mediar a interação entre profissionais e usuários; 5) viabilizar intervenções mediadas por pacientes e 6) incluir líderes de opinião para incentivar o uso de diretrizes em saúde. Os processos e resultados de cada etapa do projeto foram documentados e apresentados para informar a atualização das Diretrizes e o desenvolvimento de plano de implementação das recomendações. A efetiva implementação das Diretrizes é relevante para a melhoria da atenção ao parto e nascimento no Brasil.


[ABSTRACT]. The present report describes the process and results obtained with a knowledge translation project developed in three stages to identify barriers to the National Childbirth Guidelines in Brazil as well strategies for effective implementation. The Improving Programme Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) model and the Supporting Policy Relevant Reviews and Trials (SUPPORT) tools provided the methodological framework for the project. In the first stage, the quality of the Guidelines was evaluated and the barriers preventing implementation of the recommendations were identified through review of the global evidence and analysis of contributions obtained in a public consultation process. In the second stage, an evidence synthesis was used as basis for a deliberative dialogue aimed at prioritizing the barriers identified. Finally, a second evidence synthesis was presented in a new deliberative dialogue to discuss six options to address the prioritized barriers: 1) promote the use of multifaceted interventions; 2) promote educational interventions for the adoption of guidelines; 3) perform audits and provide feedback to adjust professional practice; 4) use reminders to mediate the interaction between workers and service users; 5) enable patient-mediated interventions; and 6) engage opinion leaders to promote the use of guidelines. The processes and results associated with each stage were documented and formulated to inform a review and update of the Guidelines and the development of an implementation plan for the recommendations. An effective implementation of the Guidelines is relevant to improve the care provided during labor and childbirth in Brazil.


[RESUMEN]. En este informe se presentan los procesos y resultados de un proyecto de traducción de conocimiento desarrollado en tres etapas para identificar los obstáculos y las estrategias para la aplicación efectiva de las Directrices Nacionales para el Parto Normal en el Brasil. El marco metodológico adoptado comprendió la iniciativa iPIER (Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research) y las herramientas SUPPORT para políticas basadas en evidencia. En la primera etapa se evaluó la calidad de las Directrices y se identificaron los obstáculos a la aplicación de las recomendaciones, teniendo en cuenta la evidencia mundial y el análisis de las contribuciones obtenidas mediante una consulta pública. En la segunda etapa, una síntesis de la evidencia sirvió de base para un diálogo deliberativo para la priorización de los obstáculos. Por último, una nueva síntesis de la evidencia sirvió de base para un segundo diálogo deliberativo y presentó seis opciones para hacer frente a los obstáculos priorizados: 1) fomentar el uso de estrategias de intervención polifacéticas; 2) promover intervenciones educativas para mejorar el uso de directrices sanitarias; 3) realizar auditorías y proporcionar retroalimentación para la adecuación de la práctica profesional; 4) utilizar recordatorios para mediar en la interacción entre profesionales y usuarios; 5) permitir intervenciones mediadas por el paciente; y 6) incluir a líderes de opinión para fomentar el uso de directrices sanitarias. Se documentaron y presentaron los procesos y resultados de cada etapa del proyecto para fundamentar la actualización de las Directrices y la elaboración de un plan de aplicación de las recomendaciones. La aplicación efectiva de las Directrices es importante para mejorar la atención del parto y el nacimiento en el Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Guía de Práctica Clínica , Parto Normal , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Guía de Práctica Clínica , Parto Normal , Brasil , Política Informada por la Evidencia , Ciencia de la Implementación , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Guía de Práctica Clínica
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003150, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027246

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the effectiveness of continuous quality improvement (CQI) in resource-poor settings is very limited. We aimed to establish the effects of CQI on quality of antenatal HIV care in primary care clinics in rural South Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CQI to usual standard of antenatal care (ANC) in 7 nurse-led, public-sector primary care clinics-combined into 6 clusters-over 8 steps and 19 months. Clusters randomly switched from comparator to intervention on pre-specified dates until all had rolled over to the CQI intervention. Investigators and clusters were blinded to randomisation until 2 weeks prior to each step. The intervention was delivered by trained CQI mentors and included standard CQI tools (process maps, fishbone diagrams, run charts, Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] cycles, and action learning sessions). CQI mentors worked with health workers, including nurses and HIV lay counsellors. The mentors used the standard CQI tools flexibly, tailored to local clinic needs. Health workers were the direct recipients of the intervention, whereas the ultimate beneficiaries were pregnant women attending ANC. Our 2 registered primary endpoints were viral load (VL) monitoring (which is critical for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV [eMTCT] and the health of pregnant women living with HIV) and repeat HIV testing (which is necessary to identify and treat women who seroconvert during pregnancy). All pregnant women who attended their first antenatal visit at one of the 7 study clinics and were ≥18 years old at delivery were eligible for endpoint assessment. We performed intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses using modified Poisson generalised linear mixed effects models. We estimated effect sizes with time-step fixed effects and clinic random effects (Model 1). In separate models, we added a nested random clinic-time step interaction term (Model 2) or individual random effects (Model 3). Between 15 July 2015 and 30 January 2017, 2,160 participants with 13,212 ANC visits (intervention n = 6,877, control n = 6,335) were eligible for ITT analysis. No adverse events were reported. Median age at first booking was 25 years (interquartile range [IQR] 21 to 30), and median parity was 1 (IQR 0 to 2). HIV prevalence was 47% (95% CI 42% to 53%). In Model 1, CQI significantly increased VL monitoring (relative risk [RR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57, p < 0.001) but did not improve repeat HIV testing (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.13, p = 0.958). These results remained essentially the same in both Model 2 and Model 3. Limitations of our study include that we did not establish impact beyond the duration of the relatively short study period of 19 months, and that transition steps may have been too short to achieve the full potential impact of the CQI intervention. CONCLUSIONS: We found that CQI can be effective at increasing quality of primary care in rural Africa. Policy makers should consider CQI as a routine intervention to boost quality of primary care in rural African communities. Implementation research should accompany future CQI use to elucidate mechanisms of action and to identify factors supporting long-term success. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02626351.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal/normas , Carga Viral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Seropositividad para VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Pautas de la Práctica en Enfermería , Embarazo , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Procesos, Atención de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , ARN Viral/sangre , Población Rural , Sudáfrica , Gestión de la Calidad Total , Adulto Joven
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(7): e95-e112, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000953

RESUMEN

Background: There are well-documented disparities in lung cancer outcomes across populations. Lung cancer screening (LCS) has the potential to reduce lung cancer mortality, but for this benefit to be realized by all high-risk groups, there must be careful attention to ensuring equitable access to this lifesaving preventive health measure.Objectives: To outline current knowledge on disparities in eligibility criteria for, access to, and implementation of LCS, and to develop an official American Thoracic Society statement to propose strategies to optimize current screening guidelines and resource allocation for equitable LCS implementation and dissemination.Methods: A multidisciplinary panel with expertise in LCS, implementation science, primary care, pulmonology, health behavior, smoking cessation, epidemiology, and disparities research was convened. Participants reviewed available literature on historical disparities in cancer screening and emerging evidence of disparities in LCS.Results: Existing LCS guidelines do not consider racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex-based differences in smoking behaviors or lung cancer risk. Multiple barriers, including access to screening and cost, further contribute to the inequities in implementation and dissemination of LCS.Conclusions: This statement identifies the impact of LCS eligibility criteria on vulnerable populations who are at increased risk of lung cancer but do not meet eligibility criteria for screening, as well as multiple barriers that contribute to disparities in LCS implementation. Strategies to improve the selection and dissemination of LCS in vulnerable groups are described.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones Conjunta , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Fumar/etnología , Determinación de la Elegibilidad , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Cobertura del Seguro , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud/métodos , Medicaid , Pacientes no Asegurados/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/terapia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Estados Unidos
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 170, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004064

RESUMEN

With the threat of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) enduring in the United States, effectively and equitably implementing testing, tracing, and self-isolation as key prevention and detection strategies remain critical to safely re-opening communities. As testing and tracing capacities increase, frameworks are needed to inform design and delivery to ensure their effective implementation and equitable distribution, and to strengthen community engagement in slowing and eventually stopping Covid-19 transmission. In this commentary, we highlight opportunities for integrating implementation research into planned and employed strategies in the United States to accelerate reach and effectiveness of interventions to more safely relax social distancing policies and open economies, schools, and other institutions. Implementation strategies, such as adapting evidence-based interventions based on contextual factors, promoting community engagement, and providing data audit and feedback on implementation outcomes, can support the translation of policies on testing, tracing, social distancing, and public mask use into reality. These data can demonstrate how interventions are put into practice and where adaptation in policy or practice is needed to respond to the needs of specific communities and socially vulnerable populations. Incorporating implementation research into Covid-19 policy design and translation into practice is urgently needed to mitigate the worsening health inequities in the pandemic toll and response. Applying rigorous implementation research frameworks and evaluation systems to the implementation of evidence-based interventions which are adapted to contextual factors can promote effective and equitable pandemic response and accelerate learning both among local stakeholders as well as between states to further inform their varied experiences and responses to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Ciencia de la Implementación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Humanos , Política Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(5): 774-778, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989072

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are critical laboratories for generating evidence from real-world settings, including studying natural experiments. Primary care's response to the novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is arguably the most impactful natural experiment in our lifetime. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF COVID-19: We briefly describe the OCHIN PBRN of community health centers (CHCs), its partnership with implementation scientists, and how we are leveraging this infrastructure and expertise to create a rapid research response evaluating how CHCs across the country responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 RESEARCH ROADMAP: Our research agenda focuses on asking: How has care delivery in CHCs changed due to COVID-19? What impact has COVID-19 had on the delivery of preventive services in CHCs? Which PBRN services (e.g., data surveillance, training, evidence synthesis) are most impactful to real-world practices? What decision-making strategies were used in the PBRN and its practices to make real-time changes in response to the pandemic? What critical factors in successfully and sustainably transforming primary care are illuminated by pandemic-driven changes? DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: PBRNs enable real-world evaluation of practice change and natural experiments, and thus are ideal laboratories for implementation science research. We present a real-time example of how a PBRN Implementation Laboratory activated a response to study a historic natural experiment, to help other PBRNs charting a course through this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/tendencias , Redes Comunitarias/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/métodos , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Difusión de la Información , Innovación Organizacional , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Participación de los Interesados , Estados Unidos
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