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1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110055, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785512

RESUMEN

Body fluid analysis has played a crucial role in ascertaining various characteristics and has greatly aided in reconstructing events during crime scene investigation. It is often presumed that crimes that involve violence and mental disturbances such as murder or sexual assault provide good sources of body fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and tears. Tears are secreted in response to any emotional or stressful situations and may be found deposited on surfaces such as bedding, tissue paper or cloth. In the absence of the commonly noted body fluids such as blood or saliva, tears can play an important role that can lead to personal identification by examining the biochemistry and molecular aspects to obtain a full DNA profile. Additionally, identification of an individual may be done by carefully observing certain unique eye characteristics such as heterochromia which is highly individualistic. Characteristics of eyewear such as spectacles and contact lenses have unique properties and prescription criteria for correcting an individual's eyesight that can provide vital clues in understanding the visual ability of an individual. In crime scene investigation, the presence or absence of eyewear provides immense evidentiary value that has greatly aided in solving cases such as Janet Abaroa's Murder. This paper provides a systematic review of the possibility of using tears and eyewear for the purpose of forensic investigation and to statistically support the inferences with prescription databases which may be initiated across different populations. Forensic Optometry is yet to get streamlined along with the routinely followed investigative techniques and scientifically explored although no standard protocols exist to analyse eyewear. The use of behavioural optometry is gaining attention in the context of driving laws of different countries and is a simple but powerful indicator of abnormal behaviour. It is speculated that the last seen image referred to as an 'Optogram' of an individual may be captured in the retina since our eyes functions like a camera. Although this claim is considerably unexplored, it is quite possible that the last seen image of a criminal, objects or a place may be noted that can positively help in linking individuals at the scene of crime or identify the primary crime location. In this review, the potential for new insights into the analysis of tears, eye and eyewear characteristics have been explored.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto , Dermatoglifia del ADN , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Anteojos , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Lágrimas/química , Bases de Datos Factuales , Epitelio Anterior/química , Ojo/patología , Movimientos Oculares , Humanos , Cambios Post Mortem , Prescripciones , Manejo de Especímenes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Cuerpo Vítreo/química
2.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 255-258, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411743

RESUMEN

The horizontal displacement of the human body resulting from fatal fall from a height is an important variable commonly used to inversely determine the cause or identify other forensic aspects of the fall. When examining the horizontal displacement, the wind effect is generally ignored. This technical note reports analytical modeling of the falling process, utilizing previous measurements of wind force acting on the human body, for determining the functional relationship between the wind speed and the horizontal displacement in the falling process. The result reveals that it does not take extremely rare wind conditions to cause a considerable shift of the human body, highlighting the importance to consider wind as a factor in investigations of fatal falls.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estadísticos , Viento , Fenómenos Biofísicos , Estatura , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 266-273, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424577

RESUMEN

Colombian forensic investigators required assistance locating clandestine burials of missing persons related to human right atrocities from 14 years ago. Geoscientific search methods were trialled, including a predictive spatial statistical model, using various input and database information, to select the most likely grave locations in difficult mountainous terrain. Groundwork using forensic geomorphology, near-surface geophysics (ERT) and subsequent probing identified suspect burial positions. One site was in mountainous terrain and the other in former school grounds, both difficult to access and in poor weather conditions. In the mountainous area, a negative resistivity anomaly area was identified and intrusively investigated, found to be a buried rock. In school grounds, after MESP and intelligence were used to identify a burial site, surface depressions were identified, and ERT datasets collected over the highest priority depression; intrusive investigations discovered a hand-dug pit containing animal bones. This approach is suggested for Latin American searches.


Asunto(s)
Entierro , Colombia , Impedancia Eléctrica , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Modelos Estadísticos , Programas Informáticos
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110061, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841931

RESUMEN

The use of pollen as a forensic tool for geolocation is a well-established practice worldwide in cases ranging from the provenance of drugs and other illicit materials to tracking the travel of individuals in criminal investigations. Here we propose a novel approach to generation of pollen databases that uses pollen vacuumed from mammal pelts collected historically from international areas that are now deemed too high risk to visit. We present the results of a study we conducted using mammal pelts collected from Mexico. This new investigative technique is important because, although it would seem that the ubiquitous and geo-specific nature of pollen would make pollen analysis among the most promising forensic tools for law enforcement and intelligence agencies, it is not the case. The process is notoriously slow because pollen identification is a tedious task requiring trained specialists (palynologists) who are few in number worldwide, and the reference materials necessary for geolocation usually are rare or absent, especially from regions of the world that are no longer safe to visit because of war or threat of terrorism. Current forensic palynological work is carried out by a few highly trained palynologists who require accurate databases of pollen distribution, especially from sensitive areas, to do their jobs accurately and efficiently. Our project shows the suitability of using the untapped museum pelt resources to support homeland security programs. This first palynological study using museum pelts yielded 133 different pollen and spore types, including 8 moss or fern families, 12 gymnosperm genera and 112 angiosperm species. We show that the palynological print from each region is statistically different with some important clustering, demonstrating the potential to use this technique for geolocation.


Asunto(s)
Botánica/métodos , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Museos , Polen , Esporas , Bases de Datos Factuales , Ecosistema , Humanos
5.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 304-311, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687979

RESUMEN

Semen is crucial evidence for some sex crimes, with its sole confirmation being sperm detection. The success of sperm detection is dependent on all levels of preanalytic and analytic procedures. Specimen collection must be performed by well-trained and competent forensic physicians as well as forensic nurses, with preservation done properly before laboratory transfer. Laboratory procedures should consider archival sperm identification, by visualization, with adequate amounts separated from other cells to obtain male DNA profiles. Differential extraction is robust and accepted as the forensic standard but is time consuming and may result in male DNA loss. Thus, alternative methods and microdevices have been developed. Challenges in sperm isolation from vaginal or buccal epithelium mixes and discrimination in multiperpetrator cases have been overcome by single-cell profiling; however, problems inherent in identical twin discrimination and azoospermia have yet to be solved. Epigenetics and future molecular biomarkers may hold the key; therefore, all laboratory processes must consider DNA and RNA protection. Long-term specimen preservation should be done when possible in light of future confirmatory tests.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes , Espermatozoides/citología , Separación Celular , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Metilación de ADN , Femenino , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Mensajero/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas de Secreción de la Vesícula Seminal/aislamiento & purificación , Delitos Sexuales , Coloración y Etiquetado , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 110005, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698202

RESUMEN

Traces of condom lubricants in fingerprints can be valuable information in cases of sexual assault. Ideally, not only confirmation of the presence of the condom but also determination of the type of condom brand used can be retrieved. Previous studies have shown to be able to retrieve information about the condom brand and type from fingerprints containing lubricants using various analytical techniques. However, in practice fingerprints often appear latent and need to be detected first, which is often achieved by cyanoacrylate fuming. In this study, we developed a desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) method which, combined with principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), allows for high accuracy classification of condom brands and types from fingerprints containing condom lubricant traces. The developed method is compatible with cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming. We collected and analyzed a representative dataset for the Netherlands comprising 32 different condoms. Distinctive lubricant components such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), octoxynol-9 and nonoxynol-9 were readily detected using the DESI-MS method. Based on the analysis of lubricant spots, a 99.0% classification accuracy was achieved. When analyzing lubricant containing fingerprints, an overall accuracy of 90.9% was obtained. Full chemical images could be generated from fingerprints, showing the distribution of lubricant components such as PEG and PDMS throughout the fingerprint, while still allowing for classification. The developed method shows potential for the development of DESI-MS based analyses of CA treated exogenous compounds from fingerprints for use in forensic science.


Asunto(s)
Condones , Cianoacrilatos , Dermatoglifia , Lubricantes , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Componente Principal
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 110006, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706054

RESUMEN

Virtual reality is recently finding its way in forensic work. The required 3D data is nowadays a standard dataset available in many cases, from homicide to traffic collisions, including not only data from the scene but also of weaponry and involved persons. Current investigations use these 3D data to replicated the incident and as discussion base for forensic personal. However, modifying the scene on a 2D viewport is often cumbersome due to the loss of the third dimension. Also to perform the modifications on the scene a 3D operator is often required. Virtual reality might improve this step by its easy use and by visualising the third dimension. This publication presents a variety of tools which can be used in forensic investigations. Additionally to the tools, examples of forensic use of these tools will be presented, showing that already a small number of tools support a variety of forensic applications.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Realidad Virtual , Computadores , Crimen , Humanos , Imagen Tridimensional , Programas Informáticos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 304: 109949, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568950

RESUMEN

Foreign objects as acquired characteristics in footwear examination have a great value in declaring a proposed identification. However, they do not have the same significance in excluding any footwear because they may disappear for many reasons as time passes by. The aim of this study was to establish the value of foreign object held (FOH) in the recessed area of the outsole, based on its reproducibility and specificity. To investigate the reproducibility of FOH, we asked 37 volunteers to wear Chinese police uniform shoes and to walk and run on both PVC soft glass and blacktop. Before each progression, there was an exposure of shoe outsoles on a soccer field full of rubber and quartz particles to allow access of FOHs to the shoe outsole. The numbers of FOHs in each shoe outsole were recorded both at the beginning and end of each progression. The variation rate of FOH number in each outsole was then calculated. To evaluate the specificity of FOH, we first invited 160 volunteers to wear their uniform shoes and to walk and jump on the soccer field. FOHs in two recessed lines of their outsoles were observed. Next, 25 of the subjects were invited to record their plantar pressure distribution using Novel's EMED system. We also collected 113 shoes with FOHs in their outsoles, from all over China. The FOHs in different sub-areas of each outsole were observed and counted, followed by the calculation of their density in each sub-area. FOH reproducibility analysis showed that there were more losses of FOH after running than walking on both substrates; walking on blacktop tended to lead more losses of FOH than on soft glass. Thus, both the substrate condition and progression pattern affect the reproducibility of FOH. FOH specificity analysis showed that the FOH tended to be concentrated in the middle of the recessed line at heel part and in the middle and lateral half of the recessed line at arch part. The pressures where FOHs presented tended to be concentrated in 61.2%-88.2% (interquartile range) of corresponding maximum pressures. At the same time, FOHs tended to be found in areas with moderate wear and rarely in areas that seldom contacted the ground. All these results indicated that FOHs were not acquired randomly. Rather, they were related to the distribution of pressure.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Zapatos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Presión , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estadística como Asunto , Caminata
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 304: 109945, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563009

RESUMEN

Clothing articles are important pieces of evidence in criminal, search and rescue, and search and recovery investigations. Hyperspectral remote sensing of clothing will be an important tool for supporting such investigations in the near future. This study investigated over 300 items of clothing that varied in fabric type, texture, color, and pattern. Clothing items were analyzed using an ASD FieldSpec 4 High Resolution spectroradiometer with a contact probe attachment. Of the clothing items analyzed, there were 141 having endmember fabrics (100% single fabric type composition): 89 were cotton, 39 were polyester, 5 were wool, 1 was cashmere, 3 were acrylic, 1 was leather, and 3 were rayon. The remaining 164 clothing items were various fabric blends. Spectral features relating to different fabric types exhibit sufficient differences that allow them to be discriminated from the surrounding environment, as well as from one another in many, but not all, cases. Cotton and polyester, in particular, two of the most widely-used fabrics, exhibit numerous features in the near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) that would allow them to easily be distinguished from geologic materials in the environment such as rocks and soil. Plant based fibers, especially cotton, possess similar reflectance features to vegetation owing to their cellulose content. Outdoor aging experiments were conducted for 19 weeks on selected fabrics. Although significant changes were observed in aged garments, the variability observed in the reflectance of the aged garments does not support the derivation of a metric for aging, at least over the relatively short time scale of this effort. Results from this study should support numerous forensic efforts globally for non-destructive investigation of clothing items in the field and in lab settings with a spectroradiometer, enhance the potential for remote sensing searches, and in the future, potentially documenting crime scenes with hyperspectral imaging.


Asunto(s)
Vestuario , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Análisis Espectral/métodos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Trabajo de Rescate , Crímenes de Guerra , Tiempo (Meteorología)
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 303: 109943, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546165

RESUMEN

Crime scene reconstruction plays a significant role in crime solving by helping to determine the course of events. Non-invasive, high-resolution measurement and increased insight are always the goal of forensic crime scene documentation. However, entire crime scenes cannot be effectively reconstructed with traditional methods. In this study, we present a portable system that consists of a laser scanner, two hand-held structured light scanners and a low-cost virtual reality (VR) headset with a mobile power supply to conduct multi-angle and omnidirectional three-dimensional spatial data collection of crime scenes. To demonstrate practical use, a real case has been analysed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the system. The system accurately obtains information on decedent injuries, possible injury-inflicting tools and on-site traces. Various types of evidence from the crime scene can be jointly studied by three-dimensional visualization to develop a cohesive story. The data are presented via immersive VR rather than displayed on computer screens. The relationship between evidence chains enables us to achieve a complete crime scene reconstruction, using the specialized knowledge of experts and computer-aided forensic tools to analyse the causes of damage and identify suspects. The use of three- dimensional imaging techniques allows a more insightful survey and several useful analyses, such as accurate measurement, relative blood source location determination and injury-inflicting tool comparison.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Homicidio , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Manchas de Sangre , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Pie/anatomía & histología , Traumatismos Penetrantes de la Cabeza/patología , Humanos , Heridas Punzantes/patología
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109903, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400618

RESUMEN

First used over 50 years ago, forensic palynology is an important tool for law enforcement agencies. In most countries that use forensic palynology, microscopic pollen grains and spores are traditionally used in criminal investigations to link suspects to crime scenes or items. While still underutilized in many parts of the world, forensic palynology is increasingly being used to determine the region of origin, or geolocation, for persons and items of interest. Drawing upon the experience of the authors using trace pollen and spores to geolocate forensic samples, the types, methods, and variables of this type of analysis are discussed and demonstrated using the Baby Doe case from Massachusetts, USA as a case study. This is not an exhaustive list and every forensic sample is unique so the methods and experience presented here are intended to be a guide for future forensic and anti-terrorism investigations as forensic palynology becomes more commonplace in law enforcement agencies around the world.


Asunto(s)
Botánica , Víctimas de Crimen , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Homicidio , Polen , Esporas , Preescolar , Vestuario , Ecosistema , Cabello , Humanos , Massachusetts , Manejo de Especímenes
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109874, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421438

RESUMEN

Bloodstain evidence is an element of crime scene investigation often found at scenes involving violence. Setting fire to the scene is a method sometimes used by offenders of crime in an attempt to conceal evidence. Fire often produces thick soot as a by-product of the combustion and has the potential to cover bloodstain patterns rendering them latent. There is limited published material offering a method of detecting bloodstains hidden beneath dense soot deposits caused by fire. This project employed a modified digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera to investigate the application of reflected infrared photography to detect latent bloodstain evidence beneath varying deposited overlaying soot densities. The potential of this technique was examined by photographing blood samples beneath soot from a scaled fire simulation. A qualitative evaluation was completed by comparing images taken of a series of samples using both reflected infrared and standard visible light photography and corroborated with quantitative image analysis to support the findings. Results indicate that infrared photography can reveal latent bloodstains beneath a dense layer of soot in excess of ρ2.3 (550nm) density with substantial clarity. The success of this technique is dependent on specific optical and specimen parameters. These parameters include (i) the reflective properties of the background surface, (ii) the spectral absorption properties of blood and (iii) the ability of infrared wavelengths to transmit through the soot layer. Reflected infrared photography may provide crime scene examiners with a specialised field recording method that is easily executed and non-destructive to assist in visualising and locating latent bloodstain patterns beneath dense layers of soot.


Asunto(s)
Manchas de Sangre , Rayos Infrarrojos , Fotograbar/métodos , Fuego , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistida por Computador , Modelos Estructurales , Programas Informáticos , Hollín
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109923, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437758

RESUMEN

For a crime case, the related physical evidence and information can be termed entities, and there exist different types of relationships between entities. Entity-relationship models connect numerous entities through different relationships, which is useful in crime reconstructions. However, two types of problems may occur that can mislead crime reconstructions in the real world. Specifically, important entities may not be collected and vital relationships may go undiscovered. In this paper, we used an approach based on an entity-relationship model to address these problems. We organized the related entities used to reconstruct crimes according to their physical properties and sorted the relationships between entities through temporal, spatial and logical dimensions. The proposed approach is called 'Scenario-Entity Analysis' (SEA), and it uses several steps for discovering entities and relationships. The SEA also provides a framework for associating events/scenarios with evidence, which is important for crime reconstructions. Using a combination of SEA and Bayesian networks, a three-layered Bayesian network was constructed for uncertainty reasoning. A knife-attack case is then presented to demonstrate the analytical process of SEA.


Asunto(s)
Crimen , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Incertidumbre
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109883, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450068

RESUMEN

The authors analyzed the injury pattern of 385 victims of fall from a height which underwent a complete autopsy, with the objective to investigate whether it was possible to construct a mathematical model to be used for height of the fall diagnosis. The cases were selected and enrolled according to a balanced stratification of the heights of the fall, allowing a subdivision into seven classes consisting of 55 subjects each: 6m or less, 9m, 12m, 15m, 18m, 21m, 24m or more (maximum 36m). For each case anthropologic and necroscopic data was collected and analyzed to obtain a standardized description of the injury pattern was obtained, dividing the body into 4 major anatomical areas (Head, Thorax, Abdomen, Skeleton), each of them further divided in 5 major organs. Every organ was finally divided into 5 objective degrees of injury. Statistical analysis was performed on all the available data using IBM SPSS Statistics 20, to test the performance of the "injury pattern assessment table" in the diagnosis of the height of the fall and to develop a related mathematical model. Our findings confirm that the height of the fall is significantly associated with age, weight of the body and the injury pattern. An Injury Pattern Assessment Table and two mathematical models which correlates the height of the fall with analyzed variables are presented.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Modelos Teóricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Femenino , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(6): 1913-1915, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283022

RESUMEN

We present a case of a faux blood fingermark, wherein a natural latent fingerprint on the pistol at the crime scene was enhanced by the whole blood of the victim. A male was shot to death. The crime scene investigator did not find any blood fingermark during the collection of evidence, but a blood fingerprint was noticed in the firearms examination. We identified that the fingerprint was of the victim; a series of experiments on the nonporous substrate were then conducted; the death in this case was classified as a suicide. The phenomenon is interesting, and thus, calls for attention of the forensic community.


Asunto(s)
Sangre , Dermatoglifia , Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Talanta ; 204: 607-612, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357342

RESUMEN

For the first time the MAE/UHPLC-TOFMS method was developed and used in order to determine the antidepressant drugs within the human bone marrow aspirate in real forensic cases. The following drugs, belonging to the group of selective serotonin (or serotonin-norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors, were tested in this study: venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine. The sample preparation proposed in the present article included several steps: homogenization in ultrasound bath, liquid-liquid extraction, fat removal and evaporation under nitrogen. The extraction involved microwave-assisted extraction, performed for 15 min at 55 °C, with hexane-isoamyl alcohol (99:1, v/v) mixture, as an extraction solvent. Time and temperature of extraction were optimized using the simplex method. The fat removal step was introduced because of the fatty nature of the bone marrow that resulted in insufficiently purified samples, impossible to analyze using HPLC. It was achieved by adding a mixture of ethanol, water and formic acid to samples consisting of hexane and isoamyl alcohol, so that the analytes could diffuse to polar phase and fat could stay in non-polar phase. The method was validated and parameters such as: LOD, LOQ, linearity, matrix effect, recovery were determined. The validation parameters obtained allowed to recognize the method as quantitative. Due to lack of the data on therapeutic and toxic levels of considered drugs in bone marrow, data regarding serum has been used for reference. Under this assumption, the developed method allows for quantification of all mentioned drugs at therapeutic levels. Moreover this method has been used in real cases. Finally four analytes: venlafaxine (104 ng/mL), fluoxetine (84 ng/mL), paroxetine (about 3.6 µg/mL) and citalopram (68 ng/mL) were found in three case samples.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos/análisis , Médula Ósea/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/análisis , Inhibidores de Captación de Serotonina y Norepinefrina/análisis , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Límite de Detección
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 91-100, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153110

RESUMEN

Writer characterization from images of handwriting has remained an important research problem in the handwriting recognition community that finds applications in forensics, paleography and neuropsychology. This paper presents a study to evaluate the effectiveness of an implicit shape codebook technique to recognize writer from digitized images of handwriting. The technique relies on identifying the key points in handwriting and clustering the patches around these key points to generate an implicit shape codebook. A writer is then characterized by the probability distribution of producing the codebook patterns. Experiments are carried out in text-dependent as well text-independent mode using the standard BFL and CVL databases of handwriting images. Promising identification and verification performance is reported in a number of interesting experimental scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Identificación Biométrica/métodos , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Escritura Manual , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: e55-e58, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153677

RESUMEN

Efficient and safe detection of Bacillus anthracis spores (BAS) is a challenging task especially in bio-terror scenarios where the agent is concealed. We provide a proof-of-concept for the identification of concealed BAS inside mail envelopes using short-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging (SWIR-HSI). The spores and two other benign materials are identified according to their typical absorption spectrum. The identification process is based on the removal of the envelope signal using a new automatic new algorithm. This method may serve as a fast screening tool prior to using classical bioanalytical techniques.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus anthracis/aislamiento & purificación , Rayos Infrarrojos , Análisis Espectral/métodos , Esporas Bacterianas/aislamiento & purificación , Algoritmos , Bioterrorismo , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Humanos , Servicios Postales
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 149-159, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153992

RESUMEN

This case report summarises the investigation of a death scene in the trunk of a car. Air sampling, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples of carpet and tyre well scrapings from the vehicle's trunk were utilised to confirm the presence of a human decompositional event even though no human remains were discovered in the vehicle. Air sampling has been used in numerous industries for many decades, but only recently has been applied to forensic investigations although it has been at the centre of controversy over the use of this technique in such cases. This report also describes the value of such investigative tools and points to the discovery of evidence, which, without the use of these techniques, would not have been identified.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Odorantes , Cambios Post Mortem , Automóviles , Disulfuro de Carbono/análisis , Tetracloruro de Carbono/análisis , Cloroformo/análisis , Disulfuros/análisis , Elementos , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Femenino , Pisos y Cubiertas de Piso , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Rayos Láser , Análisis Espectral , Sulfuros/análisis
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 435-444, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229847

RESUMEN

Sudden unexpected death of infants (SUDI) is the rapid and unexpected death of an infant aged less than 1year old. These deaths are referred for a medico-legal investigation to establish cause of death. National and regional protocols for the investigation of SUDI cases have been established in some countries and these typically include a death scene investigation component. However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the nature and extent of death scene investigation protocols. A systematic review was conducted to review the scope of death scene investigation of SUDI cases worldwide. Relevant articles (n=74) were identified by searching four literature databases, three discipline-specific journals, as well as each article's reference list, until saturation was reached. Of the 16 countries represented by the included articles, seven made specific reference to the standardised protocol used, which included photography, interviews and/or scene re-enactments. The remaining 54 studies appeared to include a subset of these analyses during death scene investigation, which varied between countries, and between SUDI admissions. This may be attributed to the differing socio-economic standings of countries, and the resources available. Only four studies were from developing countries, three of which originated from South Africa. Overall, where a standardised death scene investigation was performed, it added value to the post-mortem investigation; as such, death scene investigation should be encouraged in SUDI investigation. To this end, protocols should be established nationally, and contain core analyses, which could be expanded depending on the needs and resources of the country.


Asunto(s)
Documentación , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Muerte Súbita del Lactante , Ropa de Cama y Ropa Blanca , Peso Corporal , Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Fiebre , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Conducta Materna , Posición Prona , Higiene del Sueño , Fumar , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Temperatura Ambiental
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