Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.835
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0263552, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417402

RESUMEN

Social science research is key for understanding and for predicting compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, and this research relies on survey data. While much focus is on the survey question stems, less is on the response alternatives presented that both constrain responses and convey information about the assumed expectations of the survey designers. The focus here is on the choice of response alternatives for the types of behavioral frequency questions used in many COVID-19 and other health surveys. We examine issues with two types of response alternatives. The first are vague quantifiers, like "rarely" and "frequently." Using data from 30 countries from the Imperial COVID data hub, we show that the interpretation of these vague quantifiers (and their translations) depends on the norms in that country. If the mean amount of hand washing in a country is high, it is likely "frequently" corresponds to a higher numeric value for hand washing than if the mean in the country is low. The second type are sets of numeric alternatives and they can also be problematic. Using a US survey, respondents were randomly allocated to receive either response alternatives where most of the scale corresponds to low frequencies or where most of the scale corresponds to high frequencies. Those given the low frequency set provided lower estimates of the health behaviors. The choice of response alternatives for behavioral frequency questions can affect the estimates of health behaviors. How the response alternatives mold the responses should be taken into account for epidemiological modeling. We conclude with some recommendations for response alternatives for behavioral frequency questions in surveys.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ciencias Sociales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2201266119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413499

RESUMEN

Health authorities have highlighted "pandemic fatigue" as a psychological consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic and warned that "fatigue" could demotivate compliance with health-related policies and mandates. Yet, fatigue from following the policies of authorities may have consequences far beyond the health domain. Theories from the social sciences have raised that real and perceived costs of policies can also drive sentiments of discontent with the entire political establishment. Integrating theories from the health and social sciences, we ask how pandemic fatigue (i.e., perceived inability to "keep up" with restrictions) developed over the pandemic and whether it fueled political discontent. Utilizing longitudinal and panel surveys collected from September 2020 to July 2021 in eight Western countries (N = 49,116), we analyze: 1) fatigue over time at the country level, 2) associations between pandemic fatigue and discontent, and 3) the effect of pandemic fatigue on political discontent using panel data. Pandemic fatigue significantly increased with time and the severity of interventions but also decreased with COVID-19 deaths. When triggered, fatigue elicited a broad range of discontent, including protest support and conspiratorial thinking. The results demonstrate the significant societal impact of the pandemic beyond the domain of health and raise concerns about the stability of democratic societies, which were already strained by strife prior to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Ciencias Sociales , Costos y Análisis de Costo
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115470, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327636

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This article compares research on biological embedding and the embodiment of social experiences, two concepts proposed in the 1990s to introduce a new perspective on the social production of health inequalities. We draw on Ludwig Fleck's concept of 'thought style' (1935/2008) to question the possible emergence of a common research program around the processes by which the social becomes biological. METHODS: We compiled a corpus of 322 articles referring to either biological embedding or to the embodiment of social experiences, identified in the Web of Science core collection and published from 1990 to 2021. We analyzed the articles' use of these concepts using scientometric indicators and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Initial differences between the research agendas associated with biological embedding and embodiment are strengthened as both concepts circulate around scientific communities studying the social production of health inequalities. Thought styles formed around embedding and embodiment differ significantly in terms of shared references, sets of methods and research questions, and policy recommendations. Research on biological embedding forms a thought style shared by researchers in the biomedical and public health sciences. Conversely, the concept of embodiment of social experiences connects perspectives from biomedical, public health, human and social sciences, and gathers three thought styles, one identical to that of biological embedding and two formed in social epidemiology and in medical anthropology. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the differences between the concepts and divergences in their evolution provides an opportunity for identification of topics where thought styles are either complementary or in tension.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Ciencias Sociales , Humanos , Antropología Médica , Salud Pública , Investigadores
4.
Science ; 378(6620): 611, 2022 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356128

RESUMEN

The borderland between wakefulness and sleep promotes creativity.


Asunto(s)
Creatividad , Pruebas Psicológicas , Sueño , Vigilia , Humanos , Ciencias Sociales
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e309, 2022 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396422

RESUMEN

We received several commentaries both challenging and supporting our hypothesis. We thank the commentators for their thoughtful contributions, bringing together alternative hypotheses, complementary explanations, and appropriate corrections to our model. Here, we explain further our hypothesis, using more explicitly the framework of evolutionary social sciences. We first explain what we believe is the ultimate function of fiction in general (i.e., entertainment) and how this hypothesis differs from other evolutionary hypotheses put forward by several commentators. We then turn to the proximate features that make imaginary worlds entertaining and, therefore, culturally successful. We finally explore how these insights may explain the distribution of imaginary worlds across time, space, age, and social classes.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Ciencias Sociales , Humanos
6.
Adv Mar Biol ; 93: 117-145, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435591

RESUMEN

As a common concern of humankind, the governance of coastal and marine ecosystems is increasingly coming to the fore of the international community as part of the joint response to climate change. Since the signing of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea several decades ago, the international community has been exploring how international law can be improved in this respect. At present, the governance and international law of coastal and marine ecosystems in response to climate change are studied from theoretical and methodological perspectives. Extensive empirical studies help pinpoint specific issues related to each topic and provide valuable empirical references for both developed and developing countries. Based on social science publications, the authors use technical means to visualize research related to this topic, and conduct comprehensive reviews of these papers. They reveal that research based on these topics started late and is characterized by fragmentation. The research potential related to mentioned topic has yet to be explored extensively.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Humanos , Derecho Internacional , Ciencias Sociales , Cooperación Internacional
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31353, 2022 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The dispositions of students towards critical thinking (CT) no doubt improve their clinical practice and performance. Hence, efforts to explore ways to help students become aware and conscious of the need for CT are imperative for their self-actualization, development, and improved professional practice. It is worrisome that in spite of the limited intervention addressing CT disposition challenges, scholars are yet to study the problem, especially in developing countries. METHODS: In view of that, we assessed how CT disposition can be improved among students enrolled in cognitive-behavioral reflective training programme (CBRT-P) using a group-randomized control study with three months follow-up. To achieve this, 163 students were allocated to different groups. The recruited participants were exposed to CBRT-P. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis performed shows that at the posttest, the mean CT disposition scores of the participants enrolled in CBRT-programme (treatment group) were significantly greater compared to the counterpart group that is the comparison group. At the third assessment, the mean score of the dependent measure consistently remained higher in favor of the experimental group. CONCLUSION: Given the results, it is concluded that the treatment programme improves the CT disposition of students over time.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Enfermería , Pensamiento , Humanos , Ciencias Sociales , Religión , Cognición
8.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102807, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334925

RESUMEN

Computational power and big data have created new opportunities to explore and understand the social world. A special synergy is possible when social scientists combine human attention to certain aspects of the problem with the power of algorithms to automate other aspects of the problem. We review selected exemplary applications where machine learning amplifies researcher coding, summarizes complex data, relaxes statistical assumptions, and targets researcher attention to further social science research. We aim to reduce perceived barriers to machine learning by summarizing several fundamental building blocks and their grounding in classical statistics. We present a few guiding principles and promising approaches where we see particular potential for machine learning to transform social science inquiry. We conclude that machine learning tools are increasingly accessible, worthy of attention, and ready to yield new discoveries for social research.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Automático , Ciencias Sociales , Humanos
9.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102799, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334924

RESUMEN

In the midst of the current causal revolution, experimental methods are increasingly embraced across the social sciences. We first document the growth in the use of the experimental method and then overview the current state of the field along with suggestions for future research. Our review covers the core features of experiments that facilitate causal inference, and we offer numerous examples of different experimental designs and the types of research questions they are well-suited to test. We then harmonize popular but differing perspectives on validity in regard to experiments focused on theoretical considerations. Next, we detail a new framework of purposive sampling for social science experiments, suggesting researchers could benefit from moving beyond only two stock choices of representativeness or convenience. We then discuss issues of analysis unique to experimental data before ending with a critical discussion of null findings, open-science practices, social desirability, and other open debates in the experimental methods literature.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Ciencias Sociales , Humanos , Causalidad
10.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102780, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334928

RESUMEN

This paper reports a first look at the founding of Social Science Research, providing a few key signposts but keenly aware that a full history must await recovery of many additional documentary materials. The journal was founded by James S. Coleman and Peter H. Rossi, who had trained at Columbia, taught at Chicago, and founded the interdisciplinary Department of Social Relations at Johns Hopkins. The Coleman-Rossi vision statement embeds three key ideas: (1) quantitative theoretical work and quantitative empirical work are close and constant partners; (2) quantitative theoretical work and quantitative empirical work each require special methods; and (3) crossing disciplinary lines spurs the growth of knowledge. The first issue of Social Science Research appeared in 1972. Then as now, SSR welcomed papers that may be too innovative or too technical (or too long or too short) for other journals, inclusive of papers that cross traditional disciplinary lines. Examination of the first four volumes (1972-1975) reveals a beautiful realization of the founders' vision - a collection of rigorous quantitative papers from across the social sciences, pushing frontiers in both theory and empirics and in both substance and methods. There is innovation and creativity - and a touch of the playfulness that accelerates the growth of knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Ciencias Sociales , Humanos , Chicago
11.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102784, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334929

RESUMEN

The emergence of big data and computational tools has introduced new possibilities for using large-scale textual sources in sociological research. Recent work in sociology of culture, science, and economic sociology has shown how computational text analysis can be used in theory building and testing. This review starts with an introduction of the history of computer-assisted text analysis in sociology and then proceeds to discuss five families of computational methods used in contemporary research. Using exemplary studies, it shows how dictionary methods, semantic and network analysis tools, language models, unsupervised, and supervised machine learning can assist sociologists with different analytical tasks. After presenting recent methodological developments, this review summarizes several important implications of using large datasets and computational methods to infer complex meaning in texts. Finally, it calls researchers from different methodological traditions to adopt text mining tools while remaining mindful of lessons learned from working with conventional data and methods.


Asunto(s)
Minería de Datos , Lenguaje , Humanos , Minería de Datos/métodos , Ciencias Sociales , Sociología
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(9): e00076922, 2022.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228275

RESUMEN

Scientific publishing is a socially valued practice, modulating academic trajectories. Scientific journals operate between two distinct social fields, the editorial and the scientific, having as axis the objective and intersubjective relationships of the scientific field. This article analyzes the performance of Social Science editors in the field of Public Health, as well as their conceptions about the process of evaluating scientific articles, their perspective and relationship with other agents of editorial practice, and their role in shaping a scientific habitus. The methodological option was the thematic analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews with editors-in-chief and associates of the Social Science area of prominent journals in Public Health. Editors are agents who operate with the contradictions and pressures derived from productivism in a relative autonomy of the editorial practice. They gradually create an editorial habitus coined by empirical practice, self-taught training, and voluntary dedication. They also establish a dialogue between authors and the peer-competitor community in the field. They delimit objects and themes of interest in the area from the legitimacy based on the "disinterested" action demanded by the scientific field. They will impose barriers to articles considered of low quality, defined especially by theoretical-methodological gaps and lack of originality. However, their didactic work of inculcation in a way considered appropriate in the management of theories and methodologies of Social Science is limited to the refusal of texts, which suggests the importance of greater articulation between editors, editors' forums, graduate programs, and other agents of training of researchers in the field.


A editoria científica constitui prática socialmente valorizada, modulando trajetórias acadêmicas. Revistas científicas atuam entre dois campos sociais distintos, o editorial e o científico, tendo como eixo as relações objetivas e intersubjetivas do campo científico. O presente artigo analisa a atuação dos editores de Ciências Sociais do campo da Saúde Coletiva e suas concepções acerca do processo de avaliação de artigos científicos, sua visão e relação com os demais agentes da prática editorial e seu papel na conformação de um habitus científico. A opção metodológica foi a análise temática de 13 entrevistas semiestruturadas com editores(as)-chefes e associados(as) da área de Ciências Sociais de revistas de destaque da Saúde Coletiva. Os editores são agentes que operam com as contradições e pressões derivadas do produtivismo numa relativa autonomia da prática editorial. Gradativamente conformam um habitus editorial cunhado pela prática empírica, formação autodidata e dedicação voluntária. Estabelecem o diálogo entre os autores e a comunidade de pares-concorrentes do campo. Delimitam objetos e temas de interesse da área a partir da legitimidade assentada no agir "desinteressado" que demanda o campo científico. Impõem barreiras aos artigos considerados de baixa qualidade, definida especialmente por lacunas teórico-metodológicas e falta de originalidade. No entanto, seu trabalho didático de inculcar um modo considerado adequado no manejo de teorias e metodologias das Ciências Sociais se encontra circunscrito à recusa dos textos, o que sugere a importância de maior articulação entre editores, fóruns de editores, programas de pós-graduação e demais agentes de formação de pesquisadores do campo.


La editorial científica es una práctica socialmente valorada que modula las trayectorias académicas. Las revistas científicas operan entre dos campos sociales distintos, lo editorial y lo científico, teniendo como eje las relaciones objetivas e intersubjetivas del campo científico. Este artículo analiza el papel de los editores de Ciencias Sociales en el campo de la Salud Colectiva y sus concepciones sobre el proceso de evaluación de artículos científicos, su visión y relación con otros agentes del proceso editorial y su rol en la conformación de un habitus científico. Se realizó un análisis temático con 13 entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a editores en jefe y editores asociados del área Ciencias Sociales de destacadas revistas de la Salud Colectiva. Los editores son agentes que operan con las contradicciones y presiones que resultan del productivismo en una relativa autonomía de la práctica editorial. De manera gradual, forman un habitus editorial, marcado por la práctica empírica, la formación autodidacta y la dedicación voluntaria. Llegan a entablar un diálogo entre los autores y la comunidad de pares competidores en el campo. Delimitan objetos y temas de interés en el campo a partir de la legitimidad basada en la acción "desinteresada" que demanda el campo científico. Además, imponen barreras a los artículos considerados como de baja calidad, debido especialmente a lagunas teórico-metodológicas y la falta de originalidad. Sin embargo, su labor didáctica de proponer un manejo considerado adecuado de las teorías y metodologías de las Ciencias Sociales se restringe al rechazo de los textos, lo que muestra la importancia de una mayor articulación entre editores, foros de editores, programas de posgrado y otros agentes formadores de investigadores del campo.


Asunto(s)
Políticas Editoriales , Salud Pública , Brasil , Humanos , Edición , Ciencias Sociales
13.
Nature ; 610(7933): 643-651, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289386

RESUMEN

The risks of climate change are enormous, threatening the lives and livelihoods of millions to billions of people. The economic consequences of many of the complex risks associated with climate change cannot, however, currently be quantified. Here we argue that these unquantified, poorly understood and often deeply uncertain risks can and should be included in economic evaluations and decision-making processes. We present an overview of these unquantified risks and an ontology of them founded on the reasons behind their lack of robust evaluation. These consist of risks missing owing to delays in sharing knowledge and expertise across disciplines, spatial and temporal variations of climate impacts, feedbacks and interactions between risks, deep uncertainty in our knowledge, and currently unidentified risks. We highlight collaboration needs within and between the natural and social science communities to address these gaps. We also provide an approach for integrating assessments or speculations of these risks in a way that accounts for interdependencies, avoids double counting and makes assumptions clear. Multiple paths exist for engaging with these missing risks, with both model-based quantification and non-model-based qualitative assessments playing crucial roles. A wide range of climate impacts are understudied or challenging to quantify, and are missing from current evaluations of the climate risks to lives and livelihoods. Strong interdisciplinary collaboration and deeper engagement with uncertainty is needed to properly inform policymakers and the public about climate risks.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Modelos Climáticos , Modelos Económicos , Medición de Riesgo , Humanos , Cambio Climático/economía , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Incertidumbre , Ciencias Sociales , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Naturales , Formulación de Políticas
14.
NTM ; 30(4): 541-567, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251039

RESUMEN

With the demand for "counter-knowledge" in the social movements of the 1970s and 1980s, "counter-experts" became an integral part of politics. In the field of environmental activism, counter-experts were particularly well represented in regions and agglomerations with high levels of industrial pollution. This essay argues that awareness correlated with a mode of knowledge production that was typical for the environmental sciences in the twentieth century. The history of the environmental sciences throughout that period was shaped by regional epistemologies, often emerging in the context of large-scale infrastructural projects. Many counter-experts therefore had strong ties with the field of the environmental sciences. The article traces three influential counter-experts in the Frankfurt Main region by 1980: the pastor Kurt Oeser; scientific green activist Jutta Ditfurth; and the project of a "social natural science" related to the Darmstadt philosopher Gernot Böhme.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Política , Historia del Siglo XX , Ciencias Sociales , Contaminación Ambiental
15.
PLoS Biol ; 20(10): e3001860, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251692

RESUMEN

The search for ways to protect and restore ocean health is rapidly accelerating and expanding. A new collection of articles draws on biological and social sciences to suggest changes in how ocean science and conservation are conducted to achieve a sustainable, healthy and inclusive future.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ciencias Sociales , Océanos y Mares
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273552, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054200

RESUMEN

Editorial boards play a key role in the production, dissemination, and promotion of scientific knowledge. The cross-presence of scholars in different journals, known as editorial board interlocking, maps the connections between such bodies of governance. Former research on this topic is typically restricted to individual disciplines and has failed to consider the relevance of potential interlocking between related, but different academic fields. Further, although existing studies note a significant lack of diversity in editorial board representation, they mainly focus on a single dimension, such as gender or geography. This study addressed these knowledge gaps by offering a complex cross-disciplinary approach to the geographical, gender, and institutional compositions of editorial boards, with a specific emphasis on within- and between-fields editorial board interlocking. We used graph and social network analysis to examine editorial board connections between 281 top journals (13,084 members and 17,092 connections) of six disciplines: communication, psychology, political science, sociology, economics, and management. We found substantial differences in terms of field connections, ranging from sociology with 42% interlocking with other fields, to management with only 11%. Psychology is significantly less connected to the other five disciplines. The results also show a clear overrepresentation of American institutions and native English-speaking countries in all fields, with Harvard, Columbia, Cornell, Stanford, UC Berkeley, and New York University forming a well-connected central cluster. Although female scholars are underrepresented, there are no significant differences in terms of positioning in the network. Female scholars are even employed in more central positions than male scholars in psychology, sociology, and management. Our findings extend the literature on editorial board diversity by evidencing a significant imbalance in their gender, geographical, institutional representation, and interlocking editorship both within and between fields.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Sociales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Estados Unidos
18.
Soc Sci Res ; 107: 102770, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058608

RESUMEN

Worries about a "credibility crisis" besieging science have ignited interest in research transparency and reproducibility as ways of restoring trust in published research. For quantitative social science, advances in transparency and reproducibility can be seen as a set of developments whose trajectory predates the recent alarm. We discuss several of these developments, including preregistration, data-sharing, formal infrastructure in the form of resources and policies, open access to research, and specificity regarding research contributions. We also discuss the spillovers of this predominantly quantitative effort towards transparency for qualitative research. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of mutual accountability for effective science, the essential role of openness for this accountability, and the importance of scholarly inclusiveness in figuring out the best ways for openness to be accomplished in practice.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Sociales , Confianza , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Responsabilidad Social
19.
Soc Sci Res ; 107: 102768, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058610

RESUMEN

Demographic methods have been evolving ever since the birth of demography in response to changes in the field's research contents and theoretical orientations. An early core mission of finding regularities underlying macro-level population phenomena and a later interest in explaining population changes inductively facilitated the development of formal demographic techniques. A more radical methodological shift occurred after the 1960s, with the increasing availability of micro-level survey data and a shift of theoretical focus toward causal mechanisms, leading to the widespread adoption of regression-based models and methods from other social science disciplines. The future development of demographic methods will likely continue to incorporate new methods first developed in other disciplines, including techniques for analyzing unstructured "big" data, but formal demographic techniques will still play a role in population forecasting, measurements improvements, and correction of faulty data, providing foundational knowledge for other social science disciplines.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Ciencias Sociales , Demografía , Predicción , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinámica Poblacional
20.
Soc Sci Res ; 107: 102772, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058612

RESUMEN

This article marks the occasion of Social Science Research's 50th anniversary by reflecting on the progress of sequence analysis (SA) since its introduction into the social sciences four decades ago, with focuses on the developments of SA thus far in the social sciences and on its potential future directions. The application of SA in the social sciences, especially in life course research, has mushroomed in the last decade and a half. Using a life course analogy, we examined the birth of SA in the social sciences and its childhood (the first wave), its adolescence and young adulthood (the second wave), and its future mature adulthood in the paper. The paper provides a summary of (1) the important SA research and the historical contexts in which SA was developed by Andrew Abbott, (2) a thorough review of the many methodological developments in visualization, complexity measures, dissimilarity measures, group analysis of dissimilarities, cluster analysis of dissimilarities, multidomain/multichannel SA, dyadic/polyadic SA, Markov chain SA, sequence life course analysis, sequence network analysis, SA in other social science research, and software for SA, and (3) reflections on some future directions of SA including how SA can benefit and inform theory-making in the social sciences, the methods currently being developed, and some remaining challenges facing SA for which we do not yet have any solutions. It is our hope that the reader will take up the challenges and help us improve and grow SA into maturity.


Asunto(s)
Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Ciencias Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...