Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.357
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020361

RESUMEN

High levels of adiposity in the population have a major impact on various diseases, but previous epidemiologic studies have largely been restricted to simple anthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI), an imperfect predictor of disease risk. There is a critical need for the use of improved measures of relative weight and body composition in large-scale, population-based research.The current article presents initial descriptive results of body composition and fat distribution based on the midterm baseline dataset of the German National Cohort, which included 101,817 participants who were examined in 18 study centers in Germany between March 2014 and March 2017. The anthropometric measures encompassed body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), sonography of abdominal adipose tissue, 3D-body scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging.BMI analyses showed that 46.2% of men and 29.7% of women were overweight and 23.5% of men and 21.2% of women were obese. On average, women in almost all age groups demonstrated more subcutaneous adipose tissue layer thickness than men. The mean values of visceral adipose tissue layer thickness, on the other hand, were higher among men than among women in all age groups and increased continuously across age groups in both sexes.The comprehensive assessment of body composition and fat distribution provides novel future opportunities for detailed epidemiologic analyses of overweight and adiposity in relation to the development of chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferencia de la Cintura
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19052, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028423

RESUMEN

Disturbances in adipocytokine profiles can contribute to peripheral insulin resistance and impairment of insulin production, which are 2 primary pathophysiological mechanisms involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies of disturbed adipocytokine profiles have resulted in ambiguous findings; therefore, we conducted the current study comparing leptin, resistin, and adiponectin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM who had normal body mass index (BMI) and those who were obese.We studied a population-based cohort of healthy participants and those with newly diagnosed T2DM. A normal BMI group was randomly selected; age- and sex-matched obese participants were recruited. Circulating leptin, resistin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured and compared between groups using analysis of variance; binary logistic regression analysis was then performed to compare the normal BMI and obese groups.In total, 85 healthy participants and 38 patients with diabetes (19 with normal BMI and 17 who were obese) were enrolled. After adjustment for BMI and waist circumference, the median leptin concentration was higher in the obese group (6.77 (3.89-10.73) ng/mL) than in the normal BMI group (1.69 (0.80-3.89) ng/mL) (P = .007), whereas the median adiponectin concentration was lower in the obese group (1.03 (0.75-2.36) µg/mL vs 3.36 (0.59-7.63) µg/mL, P = .03). In addition, the adiponectin/leptin ratio was higher in the normal BMI group (145.6 (41.3-495.9) ng/mL) than in the obese group (20.55 (8.74-36.94) ng/mL, P = .002).Compared with the normal BMI T2DM group, the obese T2DM group exhibited a disturbed adipocytokine profile in the form of a significantly increased leptin concentration and reduced adiponectin level. Further studies are needed to determine the causal relationship for this difference and evaluate its importance for personalized diabetic treatment.


Asunto(s)
Adiponectina/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Leptina/sangre , Obesidad/sangre , Resistina/sangre , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Circunferencia de la Cintura
3.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 103-108, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956154

RESUMEN

Waist circumference (WC) is measured for the assessment of abdominal obesity, whereas carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. The relationship between WC and carotid IMT in the general population is not fully understood. In this study, we examined 1,182 subjects (658 men and 524 women, 62.3 ± 11.7 years on average) who underwent voluntary health check-ups and sought to determine the optimal cut-off value of WC for predicting carotid IMT thickness. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of WC was utilized to predict high carotid IMT (defined as carotid IMT ≥ 1.1 mm). We determined that the appropriate WC cut-off value was a WC ≥ 79 cm for men and women. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of high carotid IMT between WC ≥ 79 cm and WC < 79 cm in both men and women. However, multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the WC category was independently associated with high carotid IMT in men, but not in women. Our study indicates that the optimal cut-off value of WC to identify preclinical atherosclerosis may be lower than the current Japanese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in both men and women. Compared to women, the association between WC and preclinical atherosclerosis may be more pronounced in men.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis/diagnóstico , Obesidad Abdominal/diagnóstico , Anciano , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Curva ROC , Factores Sexuales , Circunferencia de la Cintura
4.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(2): 203-212, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999468

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary flavonoid intake and the prevalence of obesity using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat (%BF) according to sex among Korean adults. Based on the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011, 23 118 adults in Korea were included. Dietary intakes were obtained using 24-h dietary recall data. A higher total intake of flavonoid was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity in women, based on %BF (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.82 [0.71-0.94]), and abdominal obesity (0.81 [0.71-0.92]). The intake of flavonols (0.88 [0.78-0.99]), flavanones (0.81 [0.72-0.92]), flavanols (0.85 [0.74-0.97]), isoflavones (0.85 [0.75-0.96]), and proanthocyanidins (0.81 [0.71-0.92]) was inversely associated with abdominal obesity, and a higher intake of flavanones (0.87 [0.76-0.99]) and proanthocyanidins (0.85 [0.75-0.98]) was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, with respect to %BF in women. In contrast, the intake of flavonols (1.16 [1.02-1.33]), flavanones (1.18 [1.04-1.35]), and anthocyanidins (1.27 [1.11-1.46]) was positively associated with obesity based on BMI in men. In conclusion, high intake of dietary flavonoids may be associated with a decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity and obesity, based on %BF, among women. Novelty Higher flavonoid intake was associated with decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity and obesity based on %BF in Korean women. However, in men, the intake of flavonols, flavanones, and anthocyanidins was positively associated with obesity as given by BMI.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Flavonoides/administración & dosificación , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto Joven
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1541-1552, 2020 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187481

RESUMEN

Adiposity increases estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer risk. While mechanisms underlying this relationship are uncertain, dysregulated sex-steroid hormone production and insulin signaling are likely pathways. Our aim was to quantify mediating effects of fasting insulin and free estradiol in the adiposity and ER-positive postmenopausal breast cancer association. We used data from a case-cohort study of sex hormones and insulin signaling nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Eligible women, at baseline, were not diagnosed with cancer, were postmenopausal, did not use hormone therapy and had no history of diabetes or diabetes medication use. Women with ER-negative disease or breast cancer diagnosis within the first follow-up year were excluded. We analyzed the study as a cumulative sampling case-control study with 149 cases and 1,029 controls. Missing values for insulin and free estradiol were multiply imputed with chained equations. Interventional direct (IDE) and indirect (IIE) effects were estimated using regression-based multiple-mediator approach. For women with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 compared to women with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 , the risk ratio (RR) of breast cancer was 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.91). The estimated IDE (RR) not through the mediators was 1.03 (95% CI 0.43-2.48). Percentage mediated effect through free estradiol was 72% (IIE-RR 1.56; 95% CI 1.11-2.19). There was no evidence for an indirect effect through insulin (IIE-RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.68-1.84; 28% mediated). Our results suggest that circulating free estradiol plays an important mediating role in the adiposity-breast cancer relationship but does not explain all of the association.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/fisiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Estradiol/sangre , Insulina/metabolismo , Posmenopausia/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Neoplasias de la Mama/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/metabolismo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Ayuno/sangre , Ayuno/fisiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posmenopausia/sangre , Receptores Estrogénicos/metabolismo , Medición de Riesgo , Victoria/epidemiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología
6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(1): 171-180, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373373

RESUMEN

Background & Objectives: Inconsistent data are available about the effect of curcumin supplementation on body weight. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to summarize data from available clinical trials on the effect of curcumin supplementation on body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Circumference (WC).Methods: PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched to find relevant articles up to August 2018. The effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Subgroup analysis was done to find possible sources of heterogeneity.Results: Totally, 11 studies that enrolled 876 subjects (53% women) were included. Combining effect sizes suggested a significant effect of curcumin administration on body weight (Weighed Mean Difference (WMD): -1.14 kg, 95% CI: -2.16, -0.12, P = 0.02) and BMI (WMD: -0.48 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.78, -0.17, P = 0.002), respectively. However, no significant effect of curcumin supplementation on WC was found (WMD: -1.51 cm, 95% CI: -4.041, 1.003, P = 0.23). Based on subgroup analysis, we found that the effect of curcumin on WC was significant in studies that prescribed ≥1000 mg/d curcumin (P ≤ 0.001), those with the intervention duration of ≥8 weeks (P ≤ 0.001), and those that was performed on overweight subjects (P ≤ 0.001).Conclusions: We found a significant effect of curcumin supplementation on body weight and BMI, but not on WC. However, the effect of curcumin on WC was significant in studies done on overweight subjects, used ≥1000 mg/d curcumin, and ≥8 weeks of duration.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Curcumina/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
7.
Radiol Med ; 125(3): 313-318, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883053

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Bone strain index (BSI) is a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived index of bone strength obtained from lumbar densitometric scan. We estimated the reproducibility of BSI in healthy women with different body mass index. METHODS: We enrolled postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD: 66 ± 10 years) divided into three groups (A, B and C) according to body mass index (BMI: < 25; 25-29.9; ≥ 30 kg/m2) and two groups (D and E) according to waist circumference (WC: ≤ 88; > 88 cm), each of 30 subjects. They underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning, according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines for precision estimation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and BSI were expressed as g/cm2 and absolute value, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root-mean-square standard deviation and mean; least significant change percentage (LSC%) as 2.77 × CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100% LSC. RESULTS: BSI increased proportionally to BMI and WC and significantly in group C compared to B and A (p = 0.032 and 0.006, respectively). BSI was significantly higher in E compared to D (p = 0.017), whereas no differences were observed in BMD. Although BSI reproducibility was slightly lower in group C (89%), the differences were not significant between all groups. BMD reproducibility did not significantly differ between all groups. CONCLUSIONS: BSI reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD and decreased proportionally to BMI and WC increase. This reduction of BSI reproducibility was more pronounced in patients with BMI ≥ 30 and WC > 88, as expected, being BSI a parameter sensible to weight.


Asunto(s)
Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Anciano , Densidad Ósea , Huesos/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen
8.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 586-595, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827342

RESUMEN

Among adolescents empirical studies examining the total daily steps translation of the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendation are scarce and inconsistent, and there are no previous studies with cadence-based steps and related to sedentary behavior. The main objective of the present study was to establish and compare the accuracy of daily step-based recommendations related to the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior thresholds in adolescents. The present study followed a cross-sectional design. A total of 126 adolescents (56 girls) aged 12-15 years old were assessed by ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers for eight consecutive days (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behavior, and steps) and the multistage 20-meter shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness). ROC curve analyses showed that total daily steps (AUC = 0.94, 0.89-0.99; Threshold ≥ 11,111 steps/ day; P = 0.93; k = 0.67; p < 0.001) was a more appropriate indicator than cadence-based daily steps for distinguishing between physically active and inactive adolescents. Daily step-based thresholds represent a promising way to translate a total daily sedentary behavior threshold (e.g., total daily steps, AUC = 0.87, 0.81-0.93; Sensitivity = 0.87; Specificity = 0.70). Adolescents who met a favorable combination of step-based recommendations related to both physical activity and sedentary behavior thresholds had a higher probability of having a healthy cardiorespiratory fitness profile than those who did not meet either of them (e.g., risk ratio = 5.05, 1.69-15.08) or only the one related to physical activity (e.g., risk ratio = 4.09, 1.36-12.29). These findings may help policy-makers to provide accurate daily step-based recommendations that would simplify the physical activity and sedentary behavior thresholds for adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Acelerometría , Adolescente , Estatura , Índice de Masa Corporal , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Curva ROC , Circunferencia de la Cintura
9.
S Afr Med J ; 109(12): 963-970, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865960

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of low testosterone among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is high. However, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of androgen deficiency symptoms and low serum testosterone levels in men with T2DM from sub-Saharan Africa. Scanty data are available from Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of low serum testosterone and associated risk factors and the prevalence of androgen deficiency symptoms in men with T2DM. METHODS: In a cross-sectional observational study, androgen deficiency symptoms in men with T2DM attending two outpatient diabetes clinics in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA, were assessed using the Ageing Males' Symptoms Scale (AMS) questionnaire and direct enquiry. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinising hormone (LH), fructosamine, serum lipids and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured and free testosterone (FT) was calculated. TT, SHBG and FT levels were measured in control subjects with no history of diabetes. RESULTS: There were 148 men with T2DM in the study group and 50 control subjects in the control group. In the study group, the majority were black Africans (58.8%); Indians (39.2%) and whites (2.0%) constituted the remainder. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 57.5 (11.2) years, the mean duration of diabetes 11.4 (8.9) years and the mean HbA1c 8.6% (1.9%). Of the study group, 85.8% had metabolic syndrome. Mean TT, SHBG and FT and median LH (interquartile range) in the study group were within normal ranges. However, mean (SD) serum TT and FT were lower in the study group than in the control subjects (14.5 (5.8) v. 18.8 (7.2) nmol/L; p<0.001 and 265.9 (90.4) v. 351.7 (127.3) pmol/L; p<0.001, respectively). The prevalence of low serum total testosterone (LSTT) and low serum free testosterone (LSFT) in the study group was 35.8% and 16.2%, respectively. The prevalence of androgen deficiency symptoms using the AMS questionnaire was 74.5% and correlated poorly with LSTT or LSFT. In multivariate analysis, LSFT was significantly associated with age (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 - 1.218; p=0.043) and waist circumference (WC) (OR 1.033, 95% CI 0.999 - 1.068; p=0.059). LSTT was associated with body mass index (BMI) only (OR 1.138, 95% CI 1.063 - 1.218; p<0.0001). TT correlated inversely with BMI, WC and the number of metabolic syndrome criteria. FT correlated inversely with BMI, WC and WHR. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of LSTT, LSFT and androgen deficiency symptoms in this study. Serum TT and FT were lower in men with T2DM than in control subjects. Risk factors associated with LSFT or LSTT included higher BMI and WC and older age. The AMS score was a poor predictor of low testosterone. More research is required locally before any screening policy can be recommended.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Testosterona/sangre , Testosterona/deficiencia , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Fructosamina/sangre , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Hormona Luteinizante/sangre , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Globulina de Unión a Hormona Sexual/metabolismo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Evaluación de Síntomas , Circunferencia de la Cintura
10.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(11): 1293-1297, 2019 Nov 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852647

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of body mass index (BMI) combined with waist circumference (WC) for new-onset nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This community-based prospective cohort study was conducted among 3501 T2DM patients without NAFLD recruited from the staff of Kailuan Company, who underwent routine physical examination in the year 2006 and 2007, and a total of 2920 subjects were included in the final analysis. According to the baseline BMI and WC, the subjects were divided into group A (with normal BMI and WC), group B (with normal BMI but elevated WC), group C (with elevated BMI but a normal WC) and group D (with elevated BMI and WC). The subjects in the 4 groups were followed for the occurrence of NAFLD by reviewing their reports of physical examinations during the periods of 2008-2009, 2010-2011, 2012-2013, 2014-2015 and 2016-2017. The cumulative incidence of NAFLD was compared across the 4 groups and Cox regression analysis was used to test the correlation of BMI and WC with new onset of NAFLD. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of NAFLD increased progressively in the 4 groups (50%, 66%, 68% and 77%, respectively). Cox regression analysis showed that compared with group A, groups B, C and D had increased risks of NAFLD after adjusting for age, gender and other risk factors, with HR values of 1.62, 1.98 and 2.47, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI and WC are both independent risk factors for NAFLD in type 2 diabetic patients, and the combination of BMI and WC has a greater predictive value for NAFLD than either of them alone.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Índice de Masa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Humanos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Obesidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Circunferencia de la Cintura
11.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 733-740, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In people with asthma, adiposity is associated with more symptoms and less control of the disease whereas on those without asthma adiposity is associated with a higher risk of developing the disease. AIM: To investigate the association between asthma and adiposity markers in Chilean adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 5,499 adults older than 15-years-old from the Chilean National Health Survey 20162017 were analyzed. Quintiles of body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used as a proxy of adiposity. The association between asthma and quintiles of BMI and WC was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A higher BMI and WC was associated with a higher odds for asthma. This trend remained significant even after adjusting the models for socio-demographic factors, physical activity and smoking (Odds Ratio [OR] BMI: 1.13 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04; 1.22], p < 0.01 and OR WC: 1.15 [95% IC: 1.06; 1.25], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI and WC were positively associated with asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adiposidad/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/fisiopatología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Valores de Referencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Circunferencia de la Cintura
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1299-1304, Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040128

RESUMEN

The 2D:4D is thought as a biomarker for prenatal androgen exposure. Some studies have reported a significant difference between the sexes. Earlier studies reported variations in different ethnic and geographic groups. 2D:4D is related to several medical conditions including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The present study investigated the relationships between hand preference, ratio of the index finger (2nd digit: 2D) and ring finger (4th digit: 4D) lengths (2D:4D), height, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC) and weight, body mass index (BMI) in a Turkish population. The study comprised 118 healthy subjects (68 males and 50 females). 2D and 4D finger lengths and some anthropometric traits (height, weight, WC) were measured. The BMI and WHtR were calculated. Hand preference was determined by using a questionnaire (Edinburgh handedness inventory). Geschwind scores were calculated to evaluate the degree of hand preference. The mean age was 26.74 (female 27.86, male 25.89). The right hand 2D:4D was found significantly lower in males (0.9797) than in females (0.9922) (p< 0.001), but the left hand 2D:4D was insignificant. Significant correlations (negative) were observed between the 2D:4D (both left and right) and WHtR; the 2D:4D ratio (both left and right) and WC in males. However, in females, these correlations were insignificant. The R2D:4D was sexually dimorphic in a Turkish population. There were significant differences between strong right (SR) and weak left (WL) in terms of the R2D:4D. However only 5 subject's hand preference was found WL. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the relationships between hand preference and R2D:4D in Turkish population. Further studies are needed to determine whether a larger sample population alters these possible associations between the ratio of 2D:4D and other investigated traits in a Turkish population.


El 2D:4D está pensado como un biomarcador para la exposición prenatal de andrógenos. Algunos estudios han reportado una diferencia significativa entre sexos. Estudios anteriores informaron variaciones en diferentes grupos étnicos y geográficos. 2D:4D está relacionado con varias afecciones médicas que incluyen enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y síndrome metabólico (MetS). El presente estudio investigó las relaciones entre la preferencia de la mano, la proporción del dedo índice (2º dígito: 2D) y el dedo anular (4º dígito: 4D), longitudes (2D:4D), altura, relación cintura-altura (WHtR), circunferencia de cintura y peso (WC), e índice de masa corporal (IMC), en una población de Turquía. El estudio incluyó 118 sujetos sanos (68 hombres y 50 mujeres). Se midieron longitudes de dedos 2D y 4D y algunos rasgos antropométricos (altura, peso, WC). Se calcularon el IMC y el WHtR. La preferencia de la mano se determinó mediante el uso de una escala (Edinburgh Handedness Inventory). Las puntuaciones de Geschwind se calcularon para evaluar el grado de preferencia de la mano. La edad media fue de 26,74 años (femenino 27,86; masculino 25,89). La mano derecha 2D: 4D se encontró significativamente más baja en los hombres (0,9797) que en las mujeres (0,9922) (p <0,001), pero la mano izquierda 2D: 4D fue no significante. Se observaron correlaciones significativas (negativas) entre la 2D: 4D (izquierda y derecha) y WHtR y la relación 2D: 4D (izquierda y derecha) y WC en hombres. Sin embargo, en las mujeres, estas correlaciones fueron no significantes. El R2D: 4D fue sexualmente dimorfo en una población de Turquía. Hubo diferencias significativas entre la mano derecha fuerte (SR) y la mano izquierda débil (WL) en términos de R2D: 4D. Sin embargo, sólo se encontraron 5 preferencias de mano en el sujeto con WL. Por lo tanto, se necesitan más estudios para determinar las relaciones entre la preferencia de mano y R2D: 4D en la población de Turquía. Se necesitan más estudios para determinar si una muestra mayor altera estas posibles asociaciones entre la proporción de 2D: 4D y otros rasgos investigados en una población de Turquía.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Antropometría/métodos , Dedos/anatomía & histología , Lateralidad Funcional , Turquia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Circunferencia de la Cintura
13.
Hum Mov Sci ; 68: 102523, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683083

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: While novel analytical methods have been used to examine movement behaviours, to date, no studies have examined whether a frequency-based measure, such a spectral purity, is useful in explaining key facets of human movement. The aim of this study was to investigate movement and gait quality, physical activity and motor competence using principal component analysis. METHODS: Sixty-five children (38 boys, 4.3 ±â€¯0.7y, 1.04 ±â€¯0.05 m, 17.8 ±â€¯3.2 kg, BMI; 16.2 ±â€¯1.9 kg∙m2) took part in this study. Measures included accelerometer-derived physical activity and movement quality (spectral purity), motor competence (Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd edition; MABC2), height, weight and waist circumference. All data were subjected to a principal component analysis, and the internal consistency of resultant components were assessed using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: Two principal components, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α >0.9) were found; the 1st principal component, termed "movement component", contained spectral purity, traffic light MABC2 score, fine motor% and gross motor% (α = 0.93); the 2nd principal component, termed "anthropometric component", contained weight, BMI, BMI% and body fat% (α = 0.91). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study demonstrate that accelerometric analyses can be used to assess motor competence in an automated manner, and that spectral purity is a meaningful, indicative, metric related to children's movement quality.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio/fisiología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Movimiento/fisiología , Acelerometría/métodos , Antropometría/métodos , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Marcha/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Componente Principal , Circunferencia de la Cintura
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1555-1565, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695344

RESUMEN

Purpose: Nordic walking (NW) has been recommended as a form of exercise for clinical populations. Despite intervention programs designed to face a clinical status may last several months, no longitudinal studies have compared the effect of NW to another usual form of exercise, like walking (W). We evaluated the effects of diet combined with a long-supervised NW versus W training on body composition, aerobic capacity and strength in overweight adults. Patients and methods: Thirty-eight participants, randomized into a NW (n=19, 66±7 years, body mass index (BMI) 33±5)) and a W (n=19, 66±8 years, BMI 32±5) group, followed a diet and a supervised training routine 3 times/week for 6 months. The variables assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months were: anthropometric indexes (ie, BMI and waist circumference (WC)), body composition, aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption (VO2peak), peak power output (PPO), 6-min walking test (6MWT)) and strength (maximal voluntary contraction of biceps brachialis (MVCBB) and quadriceps femoris (MVCQF), chair stand and arm curl (AC)). Results: After 6 months both NW and W group decreased significantly BMI (6% and 4%, respectively) and WC (8% and 4%, respectively), but only the NW group reduced (P<0.05) total body fat (8%), android fat (14%) and leg fat (9%). After 6 months, PPO increased (P<0.05) in both groups, but VO2peak improved (P<0.05) only in the NW group (8%). After 6 months, 6MWT increased (P<0.001) in both groups and only the NW group improved (P<0.05) in MVCBB (14%), MVCQF (17%) and AC (35%). Conclusion: Our results suggest that NW can give in some relevant health parameters, greater and faster benefits than W. Thus, NW can be a primary tool to counteract the obesity and overweight state in middle-aged adults.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Caminata/fisiología , Adiposidad , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fuerza Muscular , Consumo de Oxígeno , Músculo Cuádriceps/fisiología , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Prueba de Paso
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1353-1360, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668457

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Circulating level of glutamate, a by-product of the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, has been positively correlated with visceral adipose tissue accumulation and waist circumference (WC). The aim of the present study was to assess the potential of using glutamate level to identify individuals with abdominal obesity and a high cardiometabolic risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study sample included 99 men and 99 women. Fasting serum glutamate was measured using the Biocrates p180 kit. Anthropometric and metabolic variables were used to identify individuals with abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 95 cm in both sexes), the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mean (±SD) age was 34.1 ± 10.1 years, mean BMI was 29.0 ± 6.2 kg/m2 and mean WC was 92.7 ± 16.5 cm. Glutamate was strongly correlated with WC (r = 0.66 for men; r = 0.76 for women, both p < 0.0001) and multiple markers of metabolic dysfunction, particularly fasting triglyceride level (r = 0.59 for men; r = 0.57 for women, both p < 0.0001), HDL-cholesterol level (r = -0.45, p < 0.0001 in both sexes) and the HOMA-IR index (r = 0.65 for men; r = 0.60 for women, both p < 0.0001). Logistic regressions showed that glutamate had an excellent accuracy to identify individuals with abdominal obesity (ROC_AUC: 0.90 for both sexes), a good accuracy to identify those with the HTW phenotype (ROC_AUC: 0.82 for men; 0.85 for women) and fair-to-good accuracy for the MetS (ROC_AUC: 0.78 for men; 0.89 for women). CONCLUSION: Glutamate level may represent an interesting potential biomarker of abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Glutámico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Obesidad Abdominal/sangre , Adiposidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/etiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Obesidad Abdominal/diagnóstico , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Triglicéridos/sangre , Regulación hacia Arriba , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1439, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675936

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies indicate an effect of smoking toward abdominal obesity, but few assess hip and waist circumferences (HC and WC) independently. The present study aimed to assess the associations of smoking status and volume smoked with HC and WC and their ratio in a population with low prevalence of obesity together with high prevalence of smoking. METHODS: We used cross-sectional survey data from 11 of a total 19 Norwegian counties examined in 1997-99 including 65,875 men and women aged 39-44 years. Analysis of associations were adjusted for confounding by socioeconomic position, health indicators, and additionally for BMI. RESULTS: Compared with never-smokers, when adjusting for confounders and in addition for BMI, mean HC remained lower while mean WC and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) were higher in current smokers. The finding of a lower HC and higher WHR level among smokers was consistent by sex and in strata by levels of education and physical activity, while the finding of higher WC by smoking was less consistent. Among current smokers, BMI-adjusted mean HC decreased whereas WC and WHR increased by volume smoked. Compared with current smokers, former smokers had higher BMI-adjusted HC, lower WHR and among women WC was lower. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding in this study was the consistent negative associations of smoking with HC. In line with the hypothesis that lower percentage gluteofemoral fat is linked with higher cardiovascular risk, our results suggest that smoking impacts cardiovascular risk through mechanisms that reduce the capacity of fat storage in the lower body region.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Relación Cintura-Cadera/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(11): 1098-1102, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738500

RESUMEN

Objective: This study investigates the effects of high-intensity focused electromagnetic technology for induction of changes in abdominal muscles and abdominal subcutaneous fat. Methods: 22 male and female subjects (aged 34 to 64, mean BMI, 23.5kg/m2) underwent 8 treatments of the abdomen (2 per week) with a high-intensity focused electromagnetic field device. Subjects were scanned by computed tomography (CT) at baseline and 1 month after the eighth treatment. Sub-umbilical and epi-umbilical slices were used to measure the thickness of subcutaneous fat and abdominal muscles and the abdominal separation. In addition, standardized photographs, weight, and circumference measurements were collected. Results: While comparing baseline to follow-up measurements, CT data showed on average 17.5% (-3.1±1.9mm) reduction in subcutaneous fat and simultaneous 14.8% (+1.5±0.8mm) thickening of the rectus abdominis muscle. Subjects lost on average 3.9±3.1cm in the waist circumference. Most of the waist reduction effect was achieved after the fourth treatment. The width of abdominal separation decreased by 9.5% (-2.0±1.7mm). All results were highly significant (P<0.01) while weight change was insignificant (P<0.05). Digital photographs showed aesthetic improvement in most subjects. The treatments were painless and without adverse events. Conclusion: Results suggest that the investigated device is effective for abdominal body sculpting. This technology produced rectus muscle hypertrophy and a reduction in subcutaneous abdominal fat. Data suggests 4 treatments as the ideal protocol delivering 86% of the observed improvement. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(11):1098-1102.


Asunto(s)
Terapia de Campo Magnético/instrumentación , Sobrepeso , Recto del Abdomen/fisiología , Grasa Subcutánea Abdominal/fisiología , Adulto , Radiación Electromagnética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recto del Abdomen/diagnóstico por imagen , Grasa Subcutánea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento , Circunferencia de la Cintura
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1533, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730482

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing worldwide. Adults with abdominal obesity have been reported to have increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether non-obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2) with abdominal obesity examined in the framework of the Swiss-Hungarian Cooperation Programme had increased metabolic risk compared to participants without abdominal obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 5228 non-obese individuals. Data were collected between July 2012 and February 2016. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression models were applied, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) being the outcomes. RESULTS: 607 (11.6%) out of the 5228 non-obese individuals had abdominal obesity. The correlation analysis indicated that the correlation coefficients between BMI and waist circumference (WC) were 0.610 in males and 0.526 in females. In this subgroup, the prevalence of high systolic blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, and high total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher. The logistic regression model based on these data showed significantly higher risk for developing high systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.20-1.94), low HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09-3.89), and high trygliceride level (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.27-2.16). CONCLUSIONS: There was a very high, significant, positive correlation between WC and BMI. Abdominal obesity was found to be strongly related to certain metabolic risk factors among non-obese subjects. Hence, measuring waist circumference could be recommended as a simple and efficient tool for screening abdominal obesity and related metabolic risk even in non-obese individuals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Metabólicas/etiología , Obesidad Abdominal/fisiopatología , Adulto , Glucemia/análisis , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Obesidad Abdominal/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Circunferencia de la Cintura
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 96, 2019 10 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672163

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between sitting for extended periods (i.e. prolonged sedentary time (PST)) and cardio-metabolic health is inconsistent in children. We aimed to estimate the differences in cardio-metabolic health associated with substituting PST with non-prolonged sedentary time (non-PST), light (LIPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 14 studies (7 countries) in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD, 1998-2009) was included. Accelerometry in 19,502 participants aged 3-18 years, together with covariate and outcome data, was pooled and harmonized. Iso-temporal substitution in linear regression models provided beta coefficients (95%CI) for substitution of 1 h/day PST (sedentary time accumulated in bouts > 15 min) with non-PST, LIPA or MVPA, for each study, which were meta-analysed. RESULTS: Modelling substitution of 1 h/day of PST with non-PST suggested reductions in standardized BMI, but estimates were > 7-fold greater for substitution with MVPA (- 0.44 (- 0.62; - 0.26) SD units). Only reallocation by MVPA was beneficial for waist circumference (- 3.07 (- 4.47; - 1.68) cm), systolic blood pressure (- 1.53 (- 2.42; - 0.65) mmHg) and clustered cardio-metabolic risk (- 0.18 (- 0.3; - 0.1) SD units). For HDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure, substitution with LIPA was beneficial; however, substitution with MVPA showed 5-fold stronger effect estimates (HDL-cholesterol: 0.05 (0.01; 0.10) mmol/l); diastolic blood pressure: - 0.81 (- 1.38; - 0.24) mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of PST with MVPA may be the preferred scenario for behaviour change, given beneficial associations with a wide range of cardio-metabolic risk factors (including adiposity, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure and clustered cardio-metabolic risk). Effect estimates are clinically relevant (e.g. an estimated reduction in waist circumference of ≈1.5 cm for 30 min/day replacement). Replacement with LIPA could be beneficial for some of these risk factors, however with substantially lower effect estimates.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Ejercicio/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Acelerometría , Adolescente , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Niño , Preescolar , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1600-1605, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719283

RESUMEN

Background: Findings from studies on obesity and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) have been inconsistent. With a previous study done in our facility showing no correlation between anthropometric indices of obesity and BPE, this study aimed at reevaluating the association between obesity and BPE using sonographic indices of abdominal/central obesity. Materials and Methods: Ninety consenting subjects with clinically confirmed BPE had their height and weight [(to calculate body mass index (BMI)] as well as waist and hip circumference [to calculate waist-hip ratio (WHR)] done. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal, and visceral fat thicknesses (SFT, PFT, and VFT, respectively) of these subjects and their prostate volumes were measured on transabdominal Ultrasonography (USS). Transrectal USS was also done to measure the total prostate and transitional zone volumes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: WHR and waist circumference correlated positively with SFT (r = 0.325, P = 0.002 and r = 0.370, P = 0.000, respectively) and PFT (r = 0.209, P = 0.048 and r = 0.313, P = 0.003, respectively). While BMI correlated positively (r = 0.23, P = 0.029) with transrectal transitional zone volume, all three sonographic indices of adiposity correlated negatively (SFT: r = -0.223, P = 0.035; PFT: r = -0.321, P = 0.002; VFT: r = -0.242, P = 0.021) with transrectal total prostate volume. In addition, PFT correlated negatively with transabdominal prostate volume (r = -0.222, P = 0.037) and transrectal transitional zone volume (r = -0.211, P = 0.046). Conclusion: The relationship of BMI with transrectal transitional zone volume was a direct one, while that of SFT, PFT, and VFT with transrectal total prostate volume as well as PFT with transabdominal prostate volume and transrectal transitional zone volume was an inverse one.


Asunto(s)
Grasa Intraabdominal , Obesidad/complicaciones , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagen , Grasa Subcutánea Abdominal , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adiposidad , Adulto , Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad Abdominal , Hiperplasia Prostática/epidemiología , Hiperplasia Prostática/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Relación Cintura-Cadera
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA