Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 898
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244055, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338060

RESUMEN

Porcine cysticercosis and associated human infections are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Poor agricultural practices, sanitary practices, and lack of knowledge increase the burden of the diseases in susceptible populations. This study investigates the seroprevalence of Taenia spp. in township pigs in Gauteng, South Africa and describes knowledge and farming practices of pig farmers regarding T. solium infections. Blood samples were collected from 126 pigs in three Gauteng township areas, and analyzed for active Taenia spp. infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Farmer questionnaire surveys were conducted in four township areas to investigate the level of knowledge and practices associated with porcine cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the outcome variable, knowledge of porcine cysticercosis or knowledge of neurocysticercosis. Overall, 7% of the pigs were seropositive for active Taenia spp. infection. 46% of farmers practiced a free-ranging system, while 25% practiced a semi-intensive system. Latrines were absent on all farms; however, 95% of farmers indicated that they have access to latrines at home. Most farmers had no knowledge of porcine cysticercosis (55%) or neurocysticercosis (79%), and this was not associated with any of the factors investigated. The prevalence of active Taenia spp. infection was reasonably low in this study, yet the knowledge level was also low, thus calling for further educational and training programmes to prevent Taenia spp. transmission in these communities.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/psicología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Prevalencia , Pruebas Serológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia solium/clasificación , Taenia solium/patogenicidad , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(10): 826-834, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819826

RESUMEN

The presentation of cysticercosis is very heterogeneous both between and within countries. Several host and parasite factors are involved in this heterogeneity. Differences in the intensity of infection pressure have not been studied thus far. We have compiled data that could demonstrate that differences in infection pressure are involved in the still high prevalence of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and ocular cysticercosis in some countries (which have a stable infection pressure) and in the high proportion of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in others (which have had a progressive decrease in infection pressure). Therefore, the distribution of clinicoradiological forms of cysticercosis could be a marker of the intensity of infection pressure and could help to determine in which countries control programs should be a priority.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Humanos , Prevalencia , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/normas
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMEN

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Equinococosis/veterinaria , Taenia/genética , Animales , Cestodos/genética , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros/parasitología , Equinococosis/parasitología , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Heces/parasitología , Haplotipos , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , NADH Deshidrogenasa/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Ovinos/genética
4.
Acta Trop ; 207: 105445, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224076

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to identify and treat carriers of adult Taenia solium present in two rural Venezuelan communities through examination of faecal samples by coproscopical analysis, and by the application of a polyclonal and a monoclonal (VP-1) coproantigen ELISA. Both the polyclonal and monoclonal ELISA's were negative when tested with soluble extracts of adults of Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Trichuris trichura. The polyclonal ELISA was positive for soluble extracts adults of T. solium and T. saginata, whereas the monoclonal ELISA, which recognizes a glycoprotein, was restricted to T. solium, and was also negative with faecal samples from five cases of T. saginata adult infections. In the first community studied, Potrero Largo (Total population: 300), of 248 faecal samples examined, 2 individuals were positive for Taenia spp eggs by coproscopical analysis and the VP-1 ELISA, and yielded T. solium adults upon purging. In contrast, when the polyclonal coproAg ELISA was applied to the same 248 faecal samples, there were a considerable number of positives. Indeed, seven patients highly positive in the polyclonal ELISA did not yield a Taenia spp upon purging and were negative in the VP-1 ELISA. In the second community studied La Yuca (Total population 560), none of the 333 individuals who donated faeces was positive for Taenia spp eggs. Many, however, were infected with a range of intestinal helminth and protozoan parasites. A total of 76 faecal samples with representative intestinal parasite were then tested in the polyclonal and VP-1 assays. Of these, many gave an unacceptable number of significant optical densities in the polyclonal coproAg ELISA. In contrast, all were negative in the VP-1 ELISA, thus providing evidence for the species specificity of the VP-1 ELISA in faecal samples. These results with the VP-1 coproAg ELISA, although preliminary, justify further validation through the testing of more faecal samples from T. solium and T. saginata adult infected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Helmínticos/análisis , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Población Rural , Especificidad de la Especie , Taenia/inmunología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/inmunología , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Venezuela/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(5): 566-578, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083787

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To report on relevant national surveillance systems of (N)CC and taeniasis (the infection with the adult tapeworm) in the European Union/European Economic Area and to assess the magnitude of (N)CC occurrence by retrieving information on cases for the period 2000-2016. METHODS: (N)CC cases were retrieved via national reporting systems, a systematic literature search, contact with clinicians and a search for relevant 'International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems' (ICD)-based data. RESULTS: Mandatory notification systems for (N)CC were found in Hungary, Iceland and Poland. Ten cases were reported in Poland and none in Hungary and Iceland. Through the systematic literature review and information given by clinicians, 263 individual and 721 aggregated (N)CC cases from 19 European countries were identified. ICD-based data were obtained from five countries. From 2000 to 2016, a total of 3489 cases (N)CC cases were coded: 832 in Italy, eight in Latvia, 357 in Portugal, 2116 in Spain and 176 in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Despite being classified as a possible eradicable disease, (N)CC is still diagnosed across Europe, yet its true extent and impact remain unclear.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Notificación Obligatoria , Vigilancia de la Población , Cisticercosis/etiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 92, 2020 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085721

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis has been well studied in several countries. Brazil is one of the most important beef exporting countries and has one of the highest cattle population size in the world. In this country, bovine cysticercosis (BCC) remains the most frequent reported zoonosis detected during post-mortem inspection, resulting in costs for the beef sector and public health. We performed a systematic literature review regarding data about BCC epidemiology in Brazil and meta-analyses for its prevalence in different administrative regions and the distribution over time, and based on this discussed possible control strategies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to obtain data about BCC in Brazil using the words "bovine cysticercosis" and "Brazil" to construct the search phrase. The inclusion criteria used to select articles were: (i) published from 2000 to 2018; (ii) full text available online in Portuguese or English; and (iii) contain information at least regarding one of the following aspects of BCC in Brazil: prevalence, incidence, spatial distribution, risk-factors, economic burden and measures for control. RESULTS: A set of 42 articles was included, covering the prevalence of BCC in Brazil, ranging between 0.01-18.75%. Prevalence results of 40 articles were included in a meta-analysis per administrative region. The highest prevalence was found in the South (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2%), followed by the Southeast (2.7%; 95% CI: 1.9-3.6%), Northeast (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.6-2.7%), Central-western (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3-1.7%) and North (0.0%; 95% CI: 0.0-0.6%) region. In addition, a reduction in prevalence over time was observed in all the evaluated states except for Alagoas and Pará. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the large availability of data, a critical lack of information about BCC epidemiology remains in Brazil. Nevertheless, the available data on prevalence, high risk-areas and risk factors should contribute to a better understanding of transmission and the formulation of recommendations for control. A One Health approach will be required to reduce T. saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis prevalence and the consequent economic burden for the beef sector in Brazil, one of the most important beef exporters in the world.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Taenia saginata/clasificación , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia saginata/fisiología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 107, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, Taenia solium can cause cysticercosis in humans (including neurocysticercosis) and in pigs through ingestion of eggs and taeniasis in humans through ingestion of raw/undercooked pork contaminated with mature cysts. It is now recognised globally as one of the most prevalent food-borne parasitic diseases. The majority of cases have been reported in developing countries where consumption of food produced under unhygienic conditions is prevalent, exacerbated by lack of food safety education. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices of consumers towards pork safety in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic in pigs and humans. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-sixty-one (361) participants were conveniently interviewed on consumer knowledge (harmfulness of T. solium cysticercosis, ability to identify cysts, trustworthiness of registered butcheries and legal requirements) and practices (storage of pork and method(s) of cooking pork safely) through a structured questionnaire. Chi-square for association of variables was used to compare differences in the districts. RESULTS: Overall, 73.1% of the study group from both districts agreed that pork forms an important part of their diet. Consumers (54.2%: 189/349) agreed that pork infected with T. solium cysts could be harmful, and 57.3% (188/328) indicated their inability to identify T. solium cysts in pork when slaughtered at home. Although 69.5% (234/352) trusted pork bought from butcheries, only 52.2% (187/358) were aware that butcheries must present a registration certificate in order to operate. This coincides with the fact that very few (< 10%) were aware of the legal requirements in terms of disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Most consumers (88.7%: 268/302) kept pork in the fridge and only 11.3% (34/302) kept it in a freezer (p = 0.02). Although not significantly different between the districts (p = 0.15), consumers in Alfred Nzo (71.4%: 152/213) and OR Tambo (61.2%: 74/12) mostly cooked pork as a stew, followed by braai/barbeque and frying or baking. This was in line with the fact that consumers in Alfred Nzo (79%: 147/186) and OR Tambo (80.8%: 120) preferred well-cooked pork; the main reason for this was the belief that cooking kills germs (43.6%: 121/277) followed by rendering the meat tasty (26.4%: 73/277). CONCLUSIONS: Consumers surveyed in the two districts were somewhat aware that T. solium cysticercosis could be harmful, although some were not able to identify T. solium cysts in pork. They also lacked sufficient knowledge regarding butchery certification and other legal requirements related to disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Practices related to cooking have the potential to promote the transmission of human taeniasis and the fact that most respondents preferred stewed pork could be a positive sign, as the cysts are destroyed during the cooking process. Results from this study are useful for the development of a control and prevention strategy targeted towards consumers, and the creation of awareness of food safety, with special emphasis on T, solium cysticercosis.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Conocimiento , Carne de Cerdo/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Culinaria , Estudios Transversales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Parasitología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/parasitología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Carne de Cerdo/efectos adversos , Prevalencia , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Teniasis/parasitología , Teniasis/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 2: 69-81, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231968

RESUMEN

Infections with Taenia solium cause significant public health and economic losses worldwide. Despite effective control tools, long-term sustained control/elimination of the parasite has not been demonstrated to date. Success of intervention programs is dependent on their acceptability to local communities. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires (QS) were conducted in two study communities in eastern Zambia to assess local perceptions and acceptance of two piloted intervention strategies: one targeting pigs only ('control' study arm), and one integrated human- and pig-based ('elimination') strategy. QS (n = 227) captured data regarding participation in project activities, knowledge and perceptions of T. solium and of the interventional drugs used in the study. FGDs (n = 18) discussed perceived advantages and disadvantages of the interventions and of the project's delivery and value. QS data revealed 67% of respondents participated in at least one educational activity, and 80% correctly identified at least one disease targeted by the education. All elimination study arm respondents (n = 113) had taken the human treatment, and 98% intended to do so next time. Most (70%) indicated willingness to pay for future treatments (median 0.20 USD per dose). Of pig-owning respondents, 11/12 (92%) had allowed their pigs to be treated/vaccinated and all intended to do so again next time. Four pig owners indicated willingness to pay 0.10-0.50 USD per dose of treatment or vaccine. FGD feedback revealed positive perceptions of interventions; people reported improved health in themselves and their pigs, and fewer cysticerci in pork. Latrine use, hand washing, meat inspection and proper cooking of pork had reportedly increased since the program's inception. Preliminary assessment indicates that the piloted intervention methods are generally acceptable to the communities. The reported willingness of many respondents to pay for the medications would contribute to the feasibility of long-term, government-led T. solium intervention programs in future.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Participación del Paciente/psicología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Niclosamida/uso terapéutico , Proyectos Piloto , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología
9.
Geospat Health ; 15(2)2020 12 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461276

RESUMEN

Cysticercosis remains a public health problem in China, with disease prevalence attributed to poor socio-economic and public health conditions. This parasitic food-borne disease was prioritized for effective control following implementation of the national surveys on parasitic diseases carried out in China. We predicted the cysticercosis distribution in Dali, Yunnan Province by assessing spatio-temporal distribution characteristics between 2000 and 2014 to better understand the trend of the disease incidence. A database of cysticercosis cases was provided by the clinical department at the Dali Prefectural Institute of Research and Control of Schistosomiasis. Describing the epidemiological features of cysticercosis and analyzing its spatiotemporal distribution of cases using mapping, scanning and spatial autocorrelation analysis, our findings found a total of 3,347 patients with cysticercosis infection, neurocysticercosis in particular. Cysticercosis prevalence was the highest among young and middle-aged male farmers, and also predominant among the Bai nationality. Three aggregation areas were identified during the period 2000-2014. Hotspot analysis implicated Dali City, Eryuan County and Yangbi County between 2000 and 2007, with areas gradually shifting towards the western and northern parts of the province. The hotspot map indicated that Eryuan County was a constant problem with respect to cysticercosis. The results indicated three cysticercosis clusters in Dali that could be attributed to environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyles. Multi-sectoral control initiatives are, therefore, recommended in these areas to effectively control and prevent cysticercosis among the population.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , China/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007751, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809501

RESUMEN

In Africa, urbanization is happening faster than ever before which results in new implications for transmission of infectious diseases. For the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium, a major cause of acquired epilepsy in endemic countries, the prevalence in urban settings is unknown. The present study investigated epidemiological, neurological, and radiological characteristics of T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis (TSCT) in people with epilepsy (PWE) living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, one of the fastest growing cities worldwide. A total of 302 PWE were recruited from six health centers in the Kinondoni district of Dar es Salaam. Serological testing for T. solium cysticercosis-antigen (Ag) and -antibodies (Abs) and for T. solium taeniasis-Abs was performed in all PWE. In addition, clinical and radiological examinations that included cranial computed tomography (CT) were performed. With questionnaires, demographic data from study populations were collected, and factors associated with TSCT were assessed. Follow-up examinations were conducted in PWE with TSCT. T. solium cysticercosis-Ag was detected in three (0.99%; 95% CI: 0-2.11%), -Abs in eight (2.65%; 95% CI: 0.84-4.46%), and taeniasis-Abs in five (1.66%; 95% CI: 0.22-3.09%) of 302 PWE. Six PWE (1.99%; 95% CI: 0.41-3.56%) were diagnosed with neurocysticercosis (NCC). This study demonstrates the presence of TSCT in Dar es Salaam, however, NCC was only associated with a few cases of epilepsy. The small fraction of PWE with cysticercosis- and taeniasis-Abs may suggest that active transmission of T. solium plays only a minor role in Dar es Salaam. A sufficiently powered risk analysis was hampered by the small number of PWE with TSCT; therefore, further studies are required to determine the exact routes of infection and risk behavior of affected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/complicaciones , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Población Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Ciudades/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Cisticercosis/patología , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagen , Epilepsia/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
11.
Euro Surveill ; 24(35)2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481148

RESUMEN

BackgroundFew case reports on human infections with the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata and the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, diagnosed in Belgium have been published, yet the grey literature suggests a higher number of cases.AimTo identify and describe cases of taeniasis and cysticercosis diagnosed at two Belgian referral medical institutions from 1990 to 2015.MethodsIn this observational study we retrospectively gathered data on taeniasis and cysticercosis cases by screening laboratory, medical record databases as well a uniform hospital discharge dataset.ResultsA total of 221 confirmed taeniasis cases were identified. All cases for whom the causative species could be determined (170/221, 76.9%) were found to be T. saginata infections. Of those with available information, 40.0% were asymptomatic (26/65), 15.4% reported diarrhoea (10/65), 9.2% reported anal discomfort (6/65) and 15.7% acquired the infection in Belgium (11/70). Five definitive and six probable cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC), and two cases of non-central nervous system cysticercosis (non-CNS CC) were identified. Common symptoms and signs in five of the definitive and probable NCC cases were epilepsy, headaches and/or other neurological disorders. Travel information was available for 10 of the 13 NCC and non-CNS CC cases; two were Belgians travelling to and eight were immigrants or visitors travelling from endemic areas.ConclusionsThe current study indicates that a non-negligible number of taeniasis cases visit Belgian medical facilities, and that cysticercosis is occasionally diagnosed in international travellers.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Bélgica/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Teniasis/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria
12.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105117, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369727

RESUMEN

The Snakes and Ladders board game was modified so that it contained information on taeniasis. A quantitative approach was used to evaluate if elementary school children were able to answer correctly more questions about Taenia saginata and Taenia solium transmission and control after playing the game compared to before playing the game. In total, 78 children (9-12 years of age) from Dukuh elementary school in Karangasem District, Bali, Indonesia, were evaluated. The children were asked to complete a pre- and post-test assessment before and after playing the game a single time. Overall proportion of correct answers was 40.3% before playing the game and 58.8% after playing the game. There was a greater proportion of correct answers for questions pertaining to the transmission route for T. saginata (p < 0.001) and T. solium (p < 0.001), human infection type with T. solium (p = 0.035) and T. saginata (p < 0.001), and animal infection type with T. solium or T. saginata (p < 0.001) after playing the game compared to before playing the game. However, there was no significant difference for any question for the youngest grade level. Use of this popular board game appears to be a promising tool for teaching older (10 years of age and above) children about taeniasis in endemic areas.


Asunto(s)
Juegos Recreacionales , Conocimiento , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Teniasis , Animales , Niño , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Memoria y Aprendizaje , Registros , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/transmisión
13.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105133, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415736

RESUMEN

Data in China on human Taenia infections, including Taenia solium cysticercosis, is largely lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of taeniasis with all three human Taenia species as well as T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, China. During April 2016 to December 2017, we did a cross-sectional study in five western Sichuan Province primary schools in Liangshan (3 schools), Ganzi (1 school) and Aba (1 school) prefectures. Diagnosis of taeniasis was made by stool microscopy for presence of Taenia eggs, as well as recovery of taeniid tapeworms or proglottids by medicinal treatment followed by species identification using multiplex PCR. Diagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis was made serologically using an ELISA with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid to detect specific IgG antibodies. A total of 1672 children were screened for taeniasis and 1639 were evaluated for cysticercosis antibodies. Overall prevalence of taeniasis was 7.5% but was as high as 15.6% at one school site (e.g., Shuiluo). Of the three known human Taenia species, adult T. solium tapeworms were detected in 42 children from four of the five schools (all three schools in Liangshan and one in Aba), giving a prevalence of T. solium taeniasis of 2.5% (95% confidence interval 0-6.7%). Cysticercosis antibody seropositivity by school varied from 2.3% to 15.6% (overall 7.5%). T. solium taeniasis carriers were more likely to have cysticercosis antibodies than children without T. solium taeniasis (43.6% vs 6.6%). Schools with higher prevalences of T. solium taeniasis were more likely to have children with human cysticercosis IgG antibodies. This study shows a high prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, suggesting an urgent necessity for school-based disease control.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Taenia solium , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Taenia solium/inmunología
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007501, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291239

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a public health and agricultural problem in many low and middle-income countries where health education, sanitation, pig management practices and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. Cysticercosis affects both human and animal health and has important economic consequences. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the monetary burden of cysticercosis. This study aimed at estimating the 2015 costs associated with cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Mexico. METHODS: The monetary burden of human cysticercosis was estimated based on costs incurred by living with and treating epilepsy and severe chronic headaches associated with neurocysticercosis (NCC). The estimated cost of porcine cysticercosis took into consideration losses due to the reduction in the price of cysticercosis-infected animals. Epidemiologic and economic data were obtained from the published literature, government reports, and setting-specific questionnaires. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs). All results are reported in 2015 U.S.$. FINDINGS: The overall monetary burden associated with NCC morbidity was estimated at U.S.$215,775,056 (95% CR U.S.$109,309,560 -U.S.$361,924,224), with U.S.$436 (95% CR: U.S.$296 -U.S.$604) lost per patient. If loss of future years of income and productivity due to NCC-associated deaths was included, this value increased by U.S.$54.26 million, assuming that these individuals earned Mexico's median wage salary. An additional U.S.$19,507,171 (95% CR U.S.$5,734,782 -U.S.$35,913,487) was estimated to be lost due to porcine cysticercosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that T. solium cysticercosis results in considerable monetary losses to Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Cisticercosis/economía , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Cisticercosis/complicaciones , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Epilepsia/economía , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/parasitología , Femenino , Hospitalización/economía , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Neurocisticercosis/economía , Neurocisticercosis/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Salud Pública/economía , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium , Adulto Joven
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 135-141, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330322

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: As is the case for all of Southeast Europe, Serbia is an area traditionally endemic for Taenia saginata and Taenia solium infections. This study was performed to analyse the epidemiological data on taeniosis and cysticercosis in Serbia for the period 1990-2018. METHODS: Data on cases of T. saginata and T. solium infection were collected via a systematic search of published articles, the grey literature, and official reports, as well as by performing clinical observational studies of patients treated in the departments for infectious diseases of hospitals and university clinics in Serbia. RESULTS: A total of 212 cases of taeniosis were reported, all between 1997 and 2004 when taeniosis was notifiable (incidence range 0.04-0.9/100 000 population/year). From 1990 to 2018, 170 cases of cysticercosis (all but one of neurocysticercosis), were registered (incidence range 0-0.29/100 000 population/year), with a strong decrease since 2000 and a single case in the last 9 years. The annual number of cases of both taeniosis (Pearson's r = 0.914, p = 0.001) and cysticercosis (Pearson's r = 0.582, p = 0.014) correlated with the consumer price index. CONCLUSIONS: In Serbia, T. saginata and T. solium infections are autochthonous but occur only sporadically. However, the potential for re-emergence exists, depending on the socio-economic state of the country.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Teniasis/veterinaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Serbia/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Taenia saginata , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104690, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311631

RESUMEN

Taenia solium, a zoonotic tapeworm species of human and pigs, has been targeted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for elimination in endemic areas of Africa, Latin America and some parts of Asia. Unfortunately, the assessment of control measures against T. solium is complicated by the lack of specificity of current immunodiagnostic techniques for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Many authors have concluded that the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs in Africa is low and extensive epidemiological studies on T. solium cysticercosis in pigs have been carried out using serological tests that cannot differentiate the taeniid species. To estimate and compare the prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs in Cameroon, we examined 416 slaughtered pigs at a pig abattoir in Yaoundé city with the animals originating from several parts of the country. At post-mortem inspection, 35 pigs (8.4%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 5.9-11.5 %) were found infected exclusively with T. solium and 27 (6.5%; 95% CI, 4.3-9.3 %) infected exclusively with T. hydatigena metacestodes. One animal was infected with T. solium and T. hydatigena. A stochastic simulation model which took into account the sensitivity of dissection of the tongue, external masseters and heart for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis (TMH dissection test) and examination of mesentery, surfaces of the intestines and liver to identify T. hydatigena cysticerci in slaughtered pigs was developed to estimate the prevalence of these taeniid species. The results revealed that the actual prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in Cameroon were 24.8% (95% CI, 20.1-30.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI, 15.1-24.1%), respectively. This study reports the highest porcine T. hydatigena prevalence ever in Africa and adjusted the prevalence of porcine T. solium infection obtained with genus-specific Ag-ELISA (Dorny et al., 2000) in Cameroon due to the presence of T. hydatigena.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Animales , Camerún/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/patología , Geografía , Pruebas Inmunológicas , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Taenia/inmunología
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104707, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311641

RESUMEN

Ethiopia is well known for its huge livestock resource that stands number one in Africa and 10th in the world. However, cattle production is constrained by inadequate nutrition, disease, lack of support services and inadequate information. This systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of C. bovis in Ethiopia aims to provide a national level prevalence of the parasite from reports conducted in different parts of the country. Due to the expected variation between studies, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out using the total sample size and number of positives (effect size and standard error of the effect size). Individual study prevalence estimates ranged from 0% to 20% with an overall pooled prevalence of 7% (95% CI = 5%-8%). Studies weighted approximately equal with weights on individual studies ranging from 2% to 2.6% due to high heterogeneity between studies. The meta-analysis indicated that between-study variability was high (τ2 = 0.001; heterogeneity I2 = 99.20% with Heterogeneity chi-square = 4974.9 and, an associated p-value of 0.01). This parasite is indicated to be one of the causes of organ condemnation causing losses of million dollars annually in the country.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Mataderos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/economía , Cisticercosis/economía , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 258-265, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271641

RESUMEN

Cysticercus ovis or sheep measles is the larval stage of Taenia ovis, which is the intestinal tapeworm of dogs. It is found in the cardiac and skeletal muscles of sheep and can be the cause of partial or total condemnation of carcasses at abattoirs. The aim of the current work was to determine the prevalence of C. ovis among sheep in Upper Egypt and to present the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of this using the amplified Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene. A total of 1885 sheep slaughtered at local abattoirs of 4 different governorates of Upper Egypt (Asuit, Sohag, Qena and Aswan) were carefully examined for C. ovis. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.02%. The highest rate of infection was observed in adult animals over 4 years of age (44.73%). There was no significant effect of animal sex on infection rates. The phylogenic analysis of C. ovis Egyptian isolates showed very close similarity to the New Zealand isolate (AB731675). This is the first report showing the genetic analysis of C. ovis in Egypt, which provides a very powerful tool for taxonomy and definitive diagnosis of C. ovis, which could be helpful for preventive and control programs.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Cysticercus/genética , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Ovinos/parasitología , Mataderos , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Egipto/epidemiología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 145, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308860

RESUMEN

Introduction: porcine cysticercosis is under-reported particularly in Nigeria, despite the reportedly high prevalence of epilepsy and associated life-threatening health implications. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and factors related to Taenia solium transmission to humans. Methods: slaughtered pigs at a major abattoir, south-western Nigeria were randomly inspected and questionnaire was administered to pig workers/consumers while the data were analysed using Stata 12.0. Results: a 4.4% (11/250) prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was obtained; the age, breed, sex and body conditions of pigs were not significant for infection (p < 0.05). Further, none (0.0%) of the respondents knew that T. solium could cause epilepsy in man and 39.5% often defaecated on neighbouring open fields and farmlands. Respondents purchasing pork from home slaughter were about four and ten times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74) and practice (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.05-0.22) than those purchasing from abattoir. Moreover, those lacking toilet facility were about four and five times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.86) and practice (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.45) than those who had it. Other factors associated with practices related to T. solium transmission included age (p = 0.000), sex (p = 0.000) and duration (p = 0.003). Conclusion: the increased odds of poor knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission especially among respondents purchasing home slaughter pork and lacking toilet facility provides insights into the parasite epidemiology. Above findings are important in lowering the infection prevalence in pigs and humans in this endemic area.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Epilepsia/parasitología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/parasitología , Prevalencia , Carne Roja/parasitología , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Adulto Joven
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 352, 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Perú/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...