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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244055, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338060

RESUMEN

Porcine cysticercosis and associated human infections are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Poor agricultural practices, sanitary practices, and lack of knowledge increase the burden of the diseases in susceptible populations. This study investigates the seroprevalence of Taenia spp. in township pigs in Gauteng, South Africa and describes knowledge and farming practices of pig farmers regarding T. solium infections. Blood samples were collected from 126 pigs in three Gauteng township areas, and analyzed for active Taenia spp. infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Farmer questionnaire surveys were conducted in four township areas to investigate the level of knowledge and practices associated with porcine cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the outcome variable, knowledge of porcine cysticercosis or knowledge of neurocysticercosis. Overall, 7% of the pigs were seropositive for active Taenia spp. infection. 46% of farmers practiced a free-ranging system, while 25% practiced a semi-intensive system. Latrines were absent on all farms; however, 95% of farmers indicated that they have access to latrines at home. Most farmers had no knowledge of porcine cysticercosis (55%) or neurocysticercosis (79%), and this was not associated with any of the factors investigated. The prevalence of active Taenia spp. infection was reasonably low in this study, yet the knowledge level was also low, thus calling for further educational and training programmes to prevent Taenia spp. transmission in these communities.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/psicología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Prevalencia , Pruebas Serológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia solium/clasificación , Taenia solium/patogenicidad , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(7): 575-578, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376114

RESUMEN

Changes in the incidence of porcine cysticercosis is used commonly in the assessment of efforts to control the transmission of Taenia solium, the cause of human neurocysticercosis. Although cysticerci may occasionally occur in tissues other than the striated muscles, particularly the brain, infection in pigs can be diagnosed reliably by assessment of muscle tissue alone.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Músculo Esquelético/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132754

RESUMEN

The cestode Taenia solium is responsible for a considerable cross-sectoral health and economic burden due to human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. The 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) roadmap for neglected tropical diseases called for the development of a validated strategy for control of T. solium; however, such a strategy is not yet available. In 2019, WHO launched a global consultation aimed at refining the post-2020 targets for control of T. solium for a new roadmap for neglected tropical diseases. In response, two groups working on taeniasis and cysticercosis mathematical models (cystiSim and EPICYST models), together with a range of other stakeholders organized a workshop to provide technical input to the WHO consultation and develop a research plan to support efforts to achieve the post-2020 targets. The workshop led to the formation of a collaboration, CystiTeam, which aims to tackle the population biology, transmission dynamics, epidemiology and control of T. solium through mathematical modelling approaches. In this paper, we outline developments in T. solium control and in particular the use of modelling to help achieve post-2020 targets for control of T. solium. We discuss the steps involved in improving confidence in the predictive capacities of existing mathematical and computational models on T. solium transmission, including model comparison, refinement, calibration and validation. Expanding the CystiTeam partnership to other research groups and stakeholders, particularly those operating in different geographical and endemic areas, will enhance the prospects of improving the applicability of T. solium transmission models to inform taeniasis and cysticercosis control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Taenia solium , Teniasis/prevención & control , Animales , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zoonosis/prevención & control
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 92, 2020 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085721

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis has been well studied in several countries. Brazil is one of the most important beef exporting countries and has one of the highest cattle population size in the world. In this country, bovine cysticercosis (BCC) remains the most frequent reported zoonosis detected during post-mortem inspection, resulting in costs for the beef sector and public health. We performed a systematic literature review regarding data about BCC epidemiology in Brazil and meta-analyses for its prevalence in different administrative regions and the distribution over time, and based on this discussed possible control strategies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to obtain data about BCC in Brazil using the words "bovine cysticercosis" and "Brazil" to construct the search phrase. The inclusion criteria used to select articles were: (i) published from 2000 to 2018; (ii) full text available online in Portuguese or English; and (iii) contain information at least regarding one of the following aspects of BCC in Brazil: prevalence, incidence, spatial distribution, risk-factors, economic burden and measures for control. RESULTS: A set of 42 articles was included, covering the prevalence of BCC in Brazil, ranging between 0.01-18.75%. Prevalence results of 40 articles were included in a meta-analysis per administrative region. The highest prevalence was found in the South (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2%), followed by the Southeast (2.7%; 95% CI: 1.9-3.6%), Northeast (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.6-2.7%), Central-western (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3-1.7%) and North (0.0%; 95% CI: 0.0-0.6%) region. In addition, a reduction in prevalence over time was observed in all the evaluated states except for Alagoas and Pará. CONCLUSIONS: Besides the large availability of data, a critical lack of information about BCC epidemiology remains in Brazil. Nevertheless, the available data on prevalence, high risk-areas and risk factors should contribute to a better understanding of transmission and the formulation of recommendations for control. A One Health approach will be required to reduce T. saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis prevalence and the consequent economic burden for the beef sector in Brazil, one of the most important beef exporters in the world.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Taenia saginata/clasificación , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia saginata/fisiología
5.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105117, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369727

RESUMEN

The Snakes and Ladders board game was modified so that it contained information on taeniasis. A quantitative approach was used to evaluate if elementary school children were able to answer correctly more questions about Taenia saginata and Taenia solium transmission and control after playing the game compared to before playing the game. In total, 78 children (9-12 years of age) from Dukuh elementary school in Karangasem District, Bali, Indonesia, were evaluated. The children were asked to complete a pre- and post-test assessment before and after playing the game a single time. Overall proportion of correct answers was 40.3% before playing the game and 58.8% after playing the game. There was a greater proportion of correct answers for questions pertaining to the transmission route for T. saginata (p < 0.001) and T. solium (p < 0.001), human infection type with T. solium (p = 0.035) and T. saginata (p < 0.001), and animal infection type with T. solium or T. saginata (p < 0.001) after playing the game compared to before playing the game. However, there was no significant difference for any question for the youngest grade level. Use of this popular board game appears to be a promising tool for teaching older (10 years of age and above) children about taeniasis in endemic areas.


Asunto(s)
Juegos Recreacionales , Conocimiento , Taenia saginata , Taenia solium , Teniasis , Animales , Niño , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Memoria y Aprendizaje , Registros , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/transmisión
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 145, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308860

RESUMEN

Introduction: porcine cysticercosis is under-reported particularly in Nigeria, despite the reportedly high prevalence of epilepsy and associated life-threatening health implications. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and factors related to Taenia solium transmission to humans. Methods: slaughtered pigs at a major abattoir, south-western Nigeria were randomly inspected and questionnaire was administered to pig workers/consumers while the data were analysed using Stata 12.0. Results: a 4.4% (11/250) prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was obtained; the age, breed, sex and body conditions of pigs were not significant for infection (p < 0.05). Further, none (0.0%) of the respondents knew that T. solium could cause epilepsy in man and 39.5% often defaecated on neighbouring open fields and farmlands. Respondents purchasing pork from home slaughter were about four and ten times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74) and practice (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.05-0.22) than those purchasing from abattoir. Moreover, those lacking toilet facility were about four and five times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.86) and practice (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.45) than those who had it. Other factors associated with practices related to T. solium transmission included age (p = 0.000), sex (p = 0.000) and duration (p = 0.003). Conclusion: the increased odds of poor knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission especially among respondents purchasing home slaughter pork and lacking toilet facility provides insights into the parasite epidemiology. Above findings are important in lowering the infection prevalence in pigs and humans in this endemic area.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Epilepsia/parasitología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/parasitología , Prevalencia , Carne Roja/parasitología , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Adulto Joven
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 352, 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Perú/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 230, 2019 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal larval cestodiasis induced by Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 (Cyclophyllidea: Mesocestoididae) is a common cause of severe infections in domestic dogs and cats, reported also from other mammals and less frequently from birds. However, there is a limited knowledge on the taxonomy of causative agents of this disease. RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated a massive, likely lethal, infection of a song thrush Turdus philomelos (Passeriformes: Turdidae) by Mesocestoides sp. tetrathyridia. We performed combined morphological and phylogenetic analysis of the tetrathyridia and compared them with the materials obtained previously from other birds and mammals. The metrical data fitted within the wide range reported by previous authors but confirmed the limited value of morphological data for species identification of tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. The molecular analyses suggested that the isolates represented an unidentified Mesocestoides sp. that was previously repeatedly isolated and sequenced in larval and adult forms from domestic dogs and cats in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In contrast to the present study, which found encysted tetrathyridia, four of the five previous studies that identified the same species described infections by acephalic metacestodes only. CONCLUSIONS: The tetrathyridia of the examined Mesocestoides sp. are described in the present study for the first time. However, the possible match with the species that were previously reported to infect birds remains uncertain. The phylogenetic analyses also suggested the rejection of two cases that were previously identified as Mesocestoides corti as they were likely caused by the same species as in the presently reported infection case. The newly provided DNA sequences should allow the assignment to species in the future, when adults of the genus Mesocestoides are more thoroughly sequenced.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Mamíferos/parasitología , Mesocestoides/genética , Mascotas/parasitología , Pájaros Cantores/parasitología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Perros , Resultado Fatal , Femenino , Mesocestoides/patogenicidad , Filogenia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007301, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cestode Taenia solium causes the neglected (zoonotic) tropical disease cysticercosis, a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in endemic low and middle-income countries. Transmission models can inform current scaling-up of control efforts by helping to identify, validate and optimise control and elimination strategies as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PRISMA approach to identify and compare existing T. solium transmission models, and related Taeniidae infection transmission models. In total, 28 modelling papers were identified, of which four modelled T. solium exclusively. Different modelling approaches for T. solium included deterministic, Reed-Frost, individual-based, decision-tree, and conceptual frameworks. Simulated interventions across models agreed on the importance of coverage for impactful effectiveness to be achieved. Other Taeniidae infection transmission models comprised force-of-infection (FoI), population-based (mainly Echinococcus granulosus) and individual-based (mainly E. multilocularis) modelling approaches. Spatial structure has also been incorporated (E. multilocularis and Taenia ovis) in recognition of spatial aggregation of parasite eggs in the environment and movement of wild animal host populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gaps identified from examining the wider Taeniidae family models highlighted the potential role of FoI modelling to inform model parameterisation, as well as the need for spatial modelling and suitable structuring of interventions as key areas for future T. solium model development. We conclude that working with field partners to address data gaps and conducting cross-model validation with baseline and longitudinal data will be critical to building consensus-led and epidemiological setting-appropriate intervention strategies to help fulfil the WHO targets.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Modelos Biológicos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Teniasis/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium , Teniasis/transmisión , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zoonosis/parasitología
10.
Theor Biol Med Model ; 16(1): 4, 2019 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The application of effective vaccines against pig cysticercosis and mass chemotherapy against pig cysticercosis and human taeniasis have shown the feasibility of interrupting the parasite's life cycle in endemic areas. METHODS: A mathematical model that divides the population into susceptible, infected, and vaccinated individuals is formulated. The model is based upon the life cycle of the parasite. Computer numerical simulation experiments to evaluate the impact of pig vaccination under different vaccination schedules, and combined intervention strategies including pig vaccination and anthelmintic treatment against human taeniasis are carried out. RESULTS: Vaccination against either pig cysticercosis or against human taeniasis will influence the transmission dynamics not only among vaccinees but also the dynamics of the other hosts as well. When the protective efficacy and/or the coverage rate is less than 100%, different mass interventions like vaccinating the pig population twice in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment against human taeniasis, the elimination of the infection in both pigs and humans can also be achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Our mathematical model has the potential for planning, and designing effective intervention strategies including both mass vaccination and/or chemotherapeutic treatment to eliminate pig cysticercosis, human taeniasis and human neurocysticercosis. The model can be adapted to any given community with mild, moderate endemicity, or even in hyperendemic regions.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Modelos Teóricos , Teniasis/prevención & control , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Animales , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Quimioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Porcinos , Teniasis/transmisión
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(2): 314-322, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560769

RESUMEN

The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is among the leading causes of preventable epilepsy in the world and is common in rural areas of developing countries where sanitation is limited and pigs have access to human feces. Prior studies in rural villages of Peru have observed clusters of T. solium cysticercosis among pigs that live near human tapeworm carriers. Such spatial analyses, however, have been limited by incomplete participation and substandard diagnostic tests. In this study, we evaluated the association between necropsy-confirmed cysticercosis in pigs and their distance to T. solium tapeworm carriers in six villages in northern Peru. A total of six (1.4%) tapeworm carriers were detected using copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and seven of 10 (70%) pigs belonging to the tapeworm carriers were found with viable cyst infection on necropsy. This was significantly greater than the prevalence of viable cyst infection among pigs living < 500 m (11%) and > 500 m (0.5%) from a tapeworm carrier (P < 0.001 for distance trend). Similar statistically significant prevalence gradients were observed after adjustment for possible confounders and for other pig-level outcomes including infection with > 10 viable cysts, degenerated cyst infection, and serological outcomes. This investigation confirms that porcine cysticercosis clusters strongly around tapeworm carriers in endemic rural regions of northern Peru and supports interventions that target these hotspots.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/inmunología , Adulto , Animales , Autopsia , Análisis por Conglomerados , Cisticercosis/inmunología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(1): 165-169, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027489

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Palmarito Arriba, a small village in the rural area of the Portuguesa state of Venezuela, through (1) an evaluation of T. solium transmission risk factors present in the community and (2) serological detection of the secreted metacestode HP10 antigen (HP10 Ag) and of anti-metacestode antibodies in sera from rural pigs. Risk factors associated with transmission of cysticercosis were the following: 100% (23/23) of the households lacked piped water, 87.0% (20/23) of households lacked latrines, 88.0% (100/114) of inhabitants routinely defecated in the open/air, 19.05% (12/63) of the interviewed population had observed proglottids in their stools. More significantly, 9/13 householders breeding pigs reported seeing proglottids in their stools. Of the 25 pigs available for bleeding and serological testing, 64% (16/25) were free roaming and 36% (9/25) were "backyard" animals; 28% (7/25) were seropositive for both the HP10 Ag and antibody, 20.0% (5/25) were seropositive for HP10 Ag alone, and 36.0% (9/25) were seropositive for antibody alone. Given this clear evidence of endemic porcine cysticercosis, further studies are needed to assess and control the level of porcine and human taeniasis and cysticercosis in this and neighboring communities.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/fisiología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Antígenos Helmínticos/sangre , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Venezuela/epidemiología
13.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(5): 754-758, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378339

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the transmission characteristics of Cysticercuscellulose infections from a social network perspective in Tibetan school children in Sichuan. METHODS: A cluster sampling strategy was adopted to select two primary schools with high level of Cysticercuscellulose infections in the Tibetan agriculture areas of Liangshan prefecture, Sichuan province. All of the students from the selected schools were enrolled in the study. Their social network data, including classroom seating, dormitory roommates, best playmates, and those who shared meals and snacks etc, were collected by trained investigators. Stool and blood samples of the students were collected for parasite detection. The transmission network of Cysticercuscellulose infections and the overall social network of school children were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 644 children participated in the study. Taenia solium were found in 6.11% of the stool samples and 13.25% blood samples returned with seropositive. The transmission was centered around the sources of infections: dormitory-clustering in the boarding school and playmate-clustering in the day school. The overall social network analysis revealed "core people" (more relationships), "information disseminators" (closer to other nodes) and "information hubs" (between two nodes) in both schools. CONCLUSION: Close contacts in dormitories and playgrounds are the main sources of transmission of cysticercosis in the Tibetan schools. The "core people" "information disseminators" and "information hubs" are critical for the prevention and control of cysticercosis in the future.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/transmisión , Instituciones Académicas , Red Social , Niño , Humanos , Estudiantes , Tibet
14.
Theor Biol Med Model ; 15(1): 18, 2018 11 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is the aetiological agent of human taeniasis, pig cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis, which are serious public health problems, especially in developing countries. METHODS: A mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of taeniasis-cysticercosis is formulated. The model consists of a coupled system of differential equations, which are density-dependent equations for describing the flow of the parasite through the life cycle. The model is hybrid since it comprises deterministic equations with stochastic elements which describe changes in the mean parasite burden and incorporates the overall pattern of the parasites' distribution. RESULTS: Sensitivity and bifurcation analyses were carried out to determine the range of values of the model. The model can reproduce the observed epidemiological patterns of human taeniasis, pig and human cysticercosis. For example, for a wide range of parameter values, the mean intensity of adult worms tends to rapidly stabilize in one parasite per individual host. From this model, we also derived a Susceptible-Infected model to describe the prevalence of infection in humans and pigs. Chemotherapeutic interventions against pig cysticercosis or human taeniasis may reduce rapidly and effectively the mean intensity of human taeniasis, pig cysticercosis and human cysticercosis. This effect can be achieved even if the protective efficacy of the drug is of the order of 90% and the coverage rate is 90%. This means that health in humans infected either with adult worms or cysticerci may be achieved by the application of anthelmintic drugs against pig cysticercosis. However, treatment against human cysticercosis alone, does not influence neither human teniasis nor pig cysticercosis. This is because human cysticercosis infection does not influence the value of the basic reproductive number (Ro). CONCLUSIONS: Even coverage of 100% in the administration of anthelmintics did not eliminate the infection. Then elimination of the infection in all hosts does not seem a feasible goal to achieve by administering only chemotherapeutic interventions. Throughout the manuscript a discussion of our model in the context of other models of taeniasis-cysticercosis is presented.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Cisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Taenia solium/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Cisticercosis/fisiopatología , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida/efectos de los fármacos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida/fisiología , Porcinos , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Taenia solium/fisiología , Teniasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Teniasis/fisiopatología , Teniasis/transmisión
15.
Parasite ; 25: 49, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230445

RESUMEN

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium. Few data are available on the prevalence of this disease in pigs and humans in West African countries. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of existing data concerning the spread of this parasitosis in the countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on the basis of the literature published over the last five decades. Systematic searches for publications were carried out on PubMed and Google Scholar, as well as in certain regional and local journals. From a total of 501 articles initially retrieved concerning T. solium cysticercosis in West African countries, only 120 articles were relevant for this review and therefore finally retained. For pigs, only eight out of sixteen countries of the region have reported porcine cysticercosis. Post-mortem examination of carcasses at slaughterhouses, meat inspection at butcheries or tongue inspection in herds have been the main source of data, but may not entirely reflect actual parasite distribution. For humans, only five out of sixteen countries reported epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis. Most data referred to neurocysticercosis prevalence among epileptic patients or isolated clinical cases. Furthermore, existing data are often old. Overall, T. solium cysticercosis remains largely neglected in West Africa, and its prevalence appears not to be affected by any religion in particular. There is an urgent need to promote and implement health partnerships and programs on this disease in order to collect more data and identify sensitive populations in the countries of the ECOWAS area.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , África Occidental/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/epidemiología , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(4): 1018-1027, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182917

RESUMEN

Taeniasis/cysticercosis (CC) is an important disease complex with significant burden. This large-scale cohort study aimed at estimating and exploring individual- and village-level factors associated with the cumulative incidences of seroconversion (SC) and seroreversion (SR) of active human CC in three provinces of Burkina Faso. In 60 villages, blood samples were collected and interviews regarding sociodemographic variables and knowledge, attitude, and practices toward the disease complex were conducted at baseline and 18-month follow-up (N = 2,211), with the presence of active CC being determined using the B158/B60 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The 18-month Ag SC and SR were estimated at 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6; 4.2%) and 35.8% (95% CI: 24.5; 48.5%), respectively. Marked provincial differences were found for the 18-month Ag SC (Boulkiemde: cumulative incidence ratio [CIR]: 2.41 (95% CI: 1.21; 4.78) and Nayala: CIR: 3.28 (95% CI: 1.37; 7.84), compared with Sanguie), while not being significantly associated with other sociodemographic factors. A continued refraining from pork consumption was associated with a lower 18-month Ag SC (CIR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.28; 1.07]), whereas at the village level, the percentage of households owning pigs was associated with a higher 18-month Ag SC (CIR: 1.03 [95% CI: 1.01; 1.05]). In conclusion, this is one of few cohort studies and the first to have enough power to assess possible causal links between individual- and village-level variables and CC in humans. Variables linked to province, pig raising, and pork consumption behaviors were found to cause Ag SC in humans. The latter results further support the importance of adopting a One Health approach to the control of CC.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Carne/parasitología , Seroconversión , Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/inmunología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Composición Familiar , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taenia solium/inmunología
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 376, 2018 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954438

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Catalonia (north-eastern Spain), Taenia saginata has been described in cattle but its occurrence in humans is unclear. Moreover, whether cattle acquired the infection in Catalonia or outside Catalonia and its economic impact have not been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in Catalonia (2008-2015), and the burden from T. saginata upon the animal and human sectors in Catalonia (2013-2015). METHODS: Data on cattle diagnosed with cysticercosis at meat inspection were collected and analysed. Cattle movement history was used to identify the most likely place of bovine cysticercosis infection and to investigate its spatial distribution. Data on taeniosis treatment (niclosamide and praziquantel) costs and their supply in Catalonia as well as data on patients attending primary care with diagnosis of taeniosis were collected. The financial impact associated with T. saginata due to carcasses condemned and frozen, meat inspection and human taeniosis was estimated. RESULTS: During 2008-2015, between 18 and 107 cattle were found positive for cysticercosis each year (prevalence at slaughter of 0.010%). Movement history was available for 44% of the infected cattle and in 53% of them Catalonia was identified as the place where the infection was acquired with highest probability. Two significant bovine cysticercosis clusters were detected. The number of patients diagnosed with taeniosis in primary care during the period 2013-2016 was 41-63/year. The overall economic impact of T. saginata (2013-2015) amounted to 154,903 €/year (95% CI: 113,075-196,762). Meat inspection accounted for 81.9% (95% CI: 75.8-86.2%) of the costs, followed by costs due to carcass condemnation and freezing (9.4%; 95% CI: 6.9-12.8%), and taeniosis-associated costs (8.7%; 95% CI: 6.7-11.6%). Costs due to freezing and condemnation of carcasses reached 19,442 €/year (95% CI: 17,528-21,391) (509 €/lightly infected carcass and 1,140 €/heavily infected carcass). Taeniosis-associated costs were estimated at 12,848.5 €/year (237 €/patient). CONCLUSIONS: The public health risk of T. saginata in the area seems to be low. The economic impact due to T. saginata was mainly attributed to meat inspection. The cost due to carcass condemnation and freezing was limited compared to the revenue of the beef sector. Developing and implementing risk-based surveillance is needed to lower the costs of meat inspection. Considering cattle movements might be useful in the development of such a strategy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/economía , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Teniasis/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Cisticercosis/economía , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Parasitología de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Carne Roja , España/epidemiología , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/economía , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/transmisión
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1748-1754, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663901

RESUMEN

Infection of the brain with Taenia solium larvae (neurocysticercosis) is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy worldwide. Effective and sustainable strategies to control parasite transmission in rural endemic communities are needed to prevent the disease. Surveillance and targeted intervention around infected pigs (ring control strategy) have been shown to be effective when carried out by research teams. However, this strategy has not been implemented or tested as a community-based program. In this small trial in northern Peru, eight villages were randomly assigned to community-led surveillance and treatment (five villages, 997 residents) or control (three villages, 1,192 residents). In intervention villages, community-led surveillance and reporting were promoted by community health workers, radio advertisement, and school and household education. Each suspected pig infection was verified, with confirmed cases resulting in treatment with niclosamide for taeniasis and oxfendazole for pigs in clusters of homes nearby. No incentives beyond human and pig treatment were offered. Control villages received basic disease education but no treatment intervention in response to reports. Despite 14 case reports, community-based replication of ring control strategy did not replicate prior results. After 12 months, there was no change in seroincidence in intervention villages between the baseline and study end, and no difference compared with control villages. There was no difference in prevalence of taeniasis or porcine cysticercosis at study end. Community members described lack of knowledge as the main reason for not reporting infected pigs. Further exploration of methods to transfer ring strategy and other control interventions for cysticercosis to the community is needed.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Notificación de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Perú/epidemiología , Proyectos Piloto , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Población Rural , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Zoonosis
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 251: 63-67, 2018 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426478

RESUMEN

The tapeworm Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, however its socioeconomic cost is unknown. During a large-scale interventional study conducted in Zambia, baseline economic costs of human and porcine T. solium infections were measured. Questionnaire surveys were conducted within three neighbourhoods in Zambia's Eastern province in 2015 and 2016. A human health questionnaire, capturing costs of clinical symptoms commonly attributable to human cysticercosis and taeniasis, was conducted in randomly selected households (n = 267). All pig-keeping households were administered a pig socioeconomic questionnaire (n = 271) that captured pig demographic data, costs of pig-keeping, and economic losses from porcine cysticercosis. Of all respondents 62% had reportedly experienced at least one of the surveyed symptoms. Seizure-like episodes were reported by 12%, severe chronic headaches by 36%, and vision problems by 23% of respondents. These complaints resulted in 147 health care consultations and 17 hospitalizations in the five years preceding the study, and an estimated productivity loss of 608 working days per year. Of all pigs 69% were bought within villages. Nearly all adult pigs were sold to local traders, and tongue palpation for detection of cysticerci was commonly performed. Reportedly, 95% of pig owners could not sell tongue-positive pigs, while infected pigs fetched only 45% of the normal sale value. These preliminary costing data indicate that human and porcine T. solium infections substantially impact endemic areas of Eastern Zambia. A full socioeconomic burden assessment may enable improved T. solium management in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/economía , Salud Pública/economía , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/economía , Zoonosis/economía , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/economía , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Teniasis/transmisión , Zambia/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Zoonosis/transmisión
20.
J Helminthol ; 92(2): 203-209, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349853

RESUMEN

The complex life cycle of taeniids represents an ideal model of a multi-host system. The complexity of these parasites can therefore cover the epidemiological issues of the interface between wild and domestic animals, especially once spatial overlap between wild and domestic definitive and intermediate hosts occurs. Here we use the occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei in two model areas as an example of this epidemiological complexity. In two contiguous areas in the Italian northern Apennines, two hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed numerous cysticerci in the muscles of their whole body and an adult tapeworm was recorded in a semi-stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Through molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene, cysticerci and the adult tapeworm of T. krabbei were identified. Taenia krabbei cysticercosis was recorded for the first time in Italy. Although the role of dogs in the parasite's life cycle emerges, the overlap between wild and domestic definitive hosts and the increase of wild population densities raise concerns about the temporal (old or new) introduction and the spread of this parasite by one of these canid species (wolf (Canis lupus) or dog). Although T. krabbei is not a public health issue, economic concerns emerged for hunters and meat producers, related to the damage of carcasses by cysticerci. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the spread of T. krabbei in the intermediate and definitive host populations, and to ensure the relevant sanitary education for hunters in order to avoid practices that could favour the spread and maintenance of its life cycle.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Taenia/genética , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Domésticos/parasitología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Ciervos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Perros/parasitología , Genes Mitocondriales/genética , Italia/epidemiología , Ovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/transmisión , Taenia/fisiología , Lobos/parasitología
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