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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMEN

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Equinococosis/veterinaria , Taenia/genética , Animales , Cestodos/genética , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros/parasitología , Equinococosis/parasitología , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Heces/parasitología , Haplotipos , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , NADH Deshidrogenasa/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Ovinos/genética
2.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(7): 575-578, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376114

RESUMEN

Changes in the incidence of porcine cysticercosis is used commonly in the assessment of efforts to control the transmission of Taenia solium, the cause of human neurocysticercosis. Although cysticerci may occasionally occur in tissues other than the striated muscles, particularly the brain, infection in pigs can be diagnosed reliably by assessment of muscle tissue alone.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Músculo Esquelético/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Taenia solium , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132754

RESUMEN

The cestode Taenia solium is responsible for a considerable cross-sectoral health and economic burden due to human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. The 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) roadmap for neglected tropical diseases called for the development of a validated strategy for control of T. solium; however, such a strategy is not yet available. In 2019, WHO launched a global consultation aimed at refining the post-2020 targets for control of T. solium for a new roadmap for neglected tropical diseases. In response, two groups working on taeniasis and cysticercosis mathematical models (cystiSim and EPICYST models), together with a range of other stakeholders organized a workshop to provide technical input to the WHO consultation and develop a research plan to support efforts to achieve the post-2020 targets. The workshop led to the formation of a collaboration, CystiTeam, which aims to tackle the population biology, transmission dynamics, epidemiology and control of T. solium through mathematical modelling approaches. In this paper, we outline developments in T. solium control and in particular the use of modelling to help achieve post-2020 targets for control of T. solium. We discuss the steps involved in improving confidence in the predictive capacities of existing mathematical and computational models on T. solium transmission, including model comparison, refinement, calibration and validation. Expanding the CystiTeam partnership to other research groups and stakeholders, particularly those operating in different geographical and endemic areas, will enhance the prospects of improving the applicability of T. solium transmission models to inform taeniasis and cysticercosis control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Taenia solium , Teniasis/prevención & control , Animales , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zoonosis/prevención & control
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 2: 69-81, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231968

RESUMEN

Infections with Taenia solium cause significant public health and economic losses worldwide. Despite effective control tools, long-term sustained control/elimination of the parasite has not been demonstrated to date. Success of intervention programs is dependent on their acceptability to local communities. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires (QS) were conducted in two study communities in eastern Zambia to assess local perceptions and acceptance of two piloted intervention strategies: one targeting pigs only ('control' study arm), and one integrated human- and pig-based ('elimination') strategy. QS (n = 227) captured data regarding participation in project activities, knowledge and perceptions of T. solium and of the interventional drugs used in the study. FGDs (n = 18) discussed perceived advantages and disadvantages of the interventions and of the project's delivery and value. QS data revealed 67% of respondents participated in at least one educational activity, and 80% correctly identified at least one disease targeted by the education. All elimination study arm respondents (n = 113) had taken the human treatment, and 98% intended to do so next time. Most (70%) indicated willingness to pay for future treatments (median 0.20 USD per dose). Of pig-owning respondents, 11/12 (92%) had allowed their pigs to be treated/vaccinated and all intended to do so again next time. Four pig owners indicated willingness to pay 0.10-0.50 USD per dose of treatment or vaccine. FGD feedback revealed positive perceptions of interventions; people reported improved health in themselves and their pigs, and fewer cysticerci in pork. Latrine use, hand washing, meat inspection and proper cooking of pork had reportedly increased since the program's inception. Preliminary assessment indicates that the piloted intervention methods are generally acceptable to the communities. The reported willingness of many respondents to pay for the medications would contribute to the feasibility of long-term, government-led T. solium intervention programs in future.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Participación del Paciente/psicología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Niclosamida/uso terapéutico , Proyectos Piloto , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología
5.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(4): 36-39, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740815

RESUMEN

A 5-year-old, 0.92-kg (2-lb), spayed female Dwarf Hotot rabbit was evaluated for a 1-day duration of lethargy and anorexia. Survey radiographs revealed evidence of gastrointestinal stasis. Abdominal ultrasonography characterized multiple small, round, anechoic structures embedded in the mesentery. These structures were thin walled with hyperechoic strands/septations. Most of the structures contained a well-defined, eccentric, hyperechoic nodule adherent to the intraluminal wall. Mesenteric cysticercosis was confirmed via exploratory laparotomy and histopathology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of the ultrasonographic features of mesenteric cysticercosis in a domestic rabbit.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Mesenterio/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Peritoneales/veterinaria , Conejos , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Cisticercosis/patología , Femenino , Mesenterio/parasitología , Enfermedades Peritoneales/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Peritoneales/parasitología , Ultrasonografía/veterinaria
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 564, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775845

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis has a negative impact on human health and the meat industry, as it makes infected meat unaproprieted for consuption and it is the main etiology of epileptic seizures in developing countries. There are multiple serological assays that use crude antigens with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of both porcine and human cysticercosis. Nonetheless, antigen preparation is time-consuming, needs a well-equipped laboratory and trained personnel and places those manipulating the meat at great risk for infection. New serodiagnostic approaches to the diagnosis of porcine and human cysticercosis have been directed towards the development of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology for the generation of synthetic proteins that can serve as simplified, low-cost and harmless substitutes for native antigens. The aim of the present study was to further evaluate the recombinant Tsol-p27 protein as a target molecule in immunoassays for the serodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. From these data, we hoped to develop recommendations regarding its use in the serodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. RESULTS: We studied a panel of 83 naturally infected pig sera from Angónia District, Mozambique, an endemic area for porcine and human cysticercosis. These sera were previously tested by antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) to detect antigens of T. solium. The serum panel was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay against the recombinant Tsol-p27 protein and the Ag-ELISA assay results were used to compare and evaluate the performance of Tsol-p27 for the diagnosis of cysticercosis. Out of 83 sera, 24 (29.0%) were positive for Tsol-p27 and 59 (71%) were negative in the same assay. From the 37 sera that tested positive to Ag-ELISA, 11 (13.3%) were positive to Tsol-p27, while from 46 sera that tested negative to Ag-ELISA, 33 (39.7%) also tested negative to Tsol-p27. The sensitivity and specificity of Tsol-p27 was 29.7% and 71.7%, respectively, while the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 45.8% and 55.9%, respectively, as calculated using Medcalc® version 15.0 software (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium). CONCLUSION: While Tsol-p27 recombinant protein might be suitable for testing human sera, its performance in pigs is not acceptable, so other recombinant proteins should be evaluated alone or multiplexed.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Proteínas del Helminto/inmunología , Immunoblotting/normas , Pruebas Serológicas/normas , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Animales , Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Proteínas del Helminto/genética , Immunoblotting/métodos , Mozambique , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Taenia solium
7.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(4): 938-941, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444647

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, due to Cysticercus tenuicollis, is a parasitic disease infecting domestic and wild animals worldwide causing economic and productive losses. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the wild ungulates in the epidemiology of this disease. In the last years, the increasing population of wild boars in Europe has raised the attention of researchers on their role in the spreading of several infections, including those caused by cestodes. Herein, we report the description of a massive infection due to T. hydatigena cysticercosis in a wild boar from southern Italy. METHODS: An adult female boar was examined during the hunting season 2018 within the regional project "Piano Emergenza Cinghiali in Campania". A complete necropsy was performed on the boar carcass and all viscera were examined to determine number and location of the cysts. Morphological and molecular analyses of the cysts were performed to confirm the C. tenuicollis identity. RESULTS: The boar examined has revealed an impressive massive infection with 265 cysts. Measurements of the large and small larval hooks showed a mean of length as 200.3 µm and 136.8 µm, respectively. Molecular analysis of Cox1 and ND1 mitochondrial genes confirmed the C. tenuicollis identity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that wild boar could be involved in the epidemiology of T. hydatigena, due to the significant amount of boar raw offal available to definitive hosts (i.e., hunting dogs, foxes and wolves), during the hunting seasons.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Sus scrofa/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Ciclooxigenasa 1/genética , Cysticercus/anatomía & histología , Cysticercus/genética , Femenino , Genes Mitocondriales , Italia , Hígado/parasitología , Filogenia , Bazo/parasitología , Porcinos
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104690, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311631

RESUMEN

Taenia solium, a zoonotic tapeworm species of human and pigs, has been targeted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for elimination in endemic areas of Africa, Latin America and some parts of Asia. Unfortunately, the assessment of control measures against T. solium is complicated by the lack of specificity of current immunodiagnostic techniques for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Many authors have concluded that the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs in Africa is low and extensive epidemiological studies on T. solium cysticercosis in pigs have been carried out using serological tests that cannot differentiate the taeniid species. To estimate and compare the prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs in Cameroon, we examined 416 slaughtered pigs at a pig abattoir in Yaoundé city with the animals originating from several parts of the country. At post-mortem inspection, 35 pigs (8.4%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 5.9-11.5 %) were found infected exclusively with T. solium and 27 (6.5%; 95% CI, 4.3-9.3 %) infected exclusively with T. hydatigena metacestodes. One animal was infected with T. solium and T. hydatigena. A stochastic simulation model which took into account the sensitivity of dissection of the tongue, external masseters and heart for diagnosis of T. solium porcine cysticercosis (TMH dissection test) and examination of mesentery, surfaces of the intestines and liver to identify T. hydatigena cysticerci in slaughtered pigs was developed to estimate the prevalence of these taeniid species. The results revealed that the actual prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in Cameroon were 24.8% (95% CI, 20.1-30.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI, 15.1-24.1%), respectively. This study reports the highest porcine T. hydatigena prevalence ever in Africa and adjusted the prevalence of porcine T. solium infection obtained with genus-specific Ag-ELISA (Dorny et al., 2000) in Cameroon due to the presence of T. hydatigena.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Animales , Camerún/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/patología , Geografía , Pruebas Inmunológicas , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Taenia/inmunología
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104707, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311641

RESUMEN

Ethiopia is well known for its huge livestock resource that stands number one in Africa and 10th in the world. However, cattle production is constrained by inadequate nutrition, disease, lack of support services and inadequate information. This systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of C. bovis in Ethiopia aims to provide a national level prevalence of the parasite from reports conducted in different parts of the country. Due to the expected variation between studies, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out using the total sample size and number of positives (effect size and standard error of the effect size). Individual study prevalence estimates ranged from 0% to 20% with an overall pooled prevalence of 7% (95% CI = 5%-8%). Studies weighted approximately equal with weights on individual studies ranging from 2% to 2.6% due to high heterogeneity between studies. The meta-analysis indicated that between-study variability was high (τ2 = 0.001; heterogeneity I2 = 99.20% with Heterogeneity chi-square = 4974.9 and, an associated p-value of 0.01). This parasite is indicated to be one of the causes of organ condemnation causing losses of million dollars annually in the country.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Mataderos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/economía , Cisticercosis/economía , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100299, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303223

RESUMEN

Porcine and human cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of tapeworm Taenia solium, is a zoonosis in southern Africa and known to be endemic in South Africa, mainly in Eastern Cape Province. No efforts to control or eradicate this parasite have been made, despite the increasing occurrence in most Eastern Cape districts, except for routine meat inspection at local abattoirs. The parasite poses a potentially serious agricultural problem, public health risk and economic loss amongst Eastern Cape smallholder pig production communities. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of routine meat inspection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in pigs from rural smallholder/subsistence production systems in Eastern Cape Province villages. The effectiveness of meat inspection, by registered meat inspectors, in the detection of pigs infected with T. solium cysts was assessed and compared with whole carcass dissection as the "gold standard" method. The commercial antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (B158/B160 Ag-ELISA) kit screened all the slaughtered animals. The proportion of pigs found infected with T. solium cysts, as measured by meat inspection, was lower (5%, 9/180) than with carcass dissection (18.9%, 34/180) and B158/B60 Ag-ELISA test (21.6%, 38/176). Four out of 180 carcasses were heavily infested with T. solium cysts, evenly distributed throughout the carcasses, to a level impossible to enumerate. Of the remaining 176 carcasses, approximately 526 cysticerci, distributed at various anatomical regions of the pig, were counted during carcass dissection. Sites with higher cyst counts, such as the back and hind leg, do not form part of the normal meat inspection regime. The level of agreement (Kappa statistic) between dissection (gold standard) and meat inspection of the two districts was negative (-0.1955). There was a slight agreement in the Kappa statistic (0.0328) between dissection and B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. This study confirms that current meat inspection procedures alone are not sufficiently sensitive to detect all cases of porcine cysticercosis at the abattoirs and require modifications, or should be supplemented by other methods. A risk-based meat safety assurance system, such as HACCP, that considers specific food safety aspects before and after the abattoir (point of slaughter) should be followed. Before slaughter, aspects such as origin, husbandry practices and on-farm animal health control should be considered; after slaughter, the abattoir should inform the next entity in the supply chain of the limitations of meat inspections and the real meaning of an "Approval" stamp. New validated testing methods that can be routinely used should be developed, and government should develop policies and legislation that promotes a risk-based meat safety assurance system throughout the food supply chain.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Inspección de Alimentos , Carne/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/parasitología , Mataderos , Animales , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Disección/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Inspección de Alimentos/normas , Carne/normas , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Porcinos , Zoonosis/epidemiología
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 258-265, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271641

RESUMEN

Cysticercus ovis or sheep measles is the larval stage of Taenia ovis, which is the intestinal tapeworm of dogs. It is found in the cardiac and skeletal muscles of sheep and can be the cause of partial or total condemnation of carcasses at abattoirs. The aim of the current work was to determine the prevalence of C. ovis among sheep in Upper Egypt and to present the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of this using the amplified Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene. A total of 1885 sheep slaughtered at local abattoirs of 4 different governorates of Upper Egypt (Asuit, Sohag, Qena and Aswan) were carefully examined for C. ovis. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.02%. The highest rate of infection was observed in adult animals over 4 years of age (44.73%). There was no significant effect of animal sex on infection rates. The phylogenic analysis of C. ovis Egyptian isolates showed very close similarity to the New Zealand isolate (AB731675). This is the first report showing the genetic analysis of C. ovis in Egypt, which provides a very powerful tool for taxonomy and definitive diagnosis of C. ovis, which could be helpful for preventive and control programs.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Cysticercus/genética , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Ovinos/parasitología , Mataderos , Animales , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Egipto/epidemiología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 352, 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Perú/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 652-657, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165988

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cysticercus tenuicollis, the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena has a worldwide distribution and is particularly common in rural areas and developing countries. In rare cases, T. hydatigena infection may result in the death of its host due to severe damage or secondary bacterial infections. Generally, when multiple cysts are attached to the liver, it causes economic losses. The infection can be detected using morphological, histopathological and more recently, molecular investigations. METHODS: In the present study, we describe molecular and morphological characterization of C. tenuicollis detected in a 3 month-old female red deer (Cervus elaphus) during necropsy. Cystic samples were stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome stain for histopathological examination, and molecular characterization of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene region was performed. PURPOSE: This study provides the first morphological, histopathological, and molecular data on C. tenuicollis isolated from red deer in Turkey.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Cysticercus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cysticercus/genética , Ciervos/parasitología , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/patología , Cysticercus/clasificación , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Femenino , Proteínas del Helminto/genética , Masculino , Turquia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 324, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic tapeworm Taenia saginata, although causing only minor discomfort in humans, is responsible for considerable economic losses in the livestock sector due to condemnation or downgrading of infected beef carcasses. An overview of current knowledge on the distribution and prevalence of this parasite in West and Central Africa is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, collecting information on published and grey literature about T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis from 27 countries/territories in West and Central Africa, published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: The literature search retrieved 1672 records, of which 51 and 45 were retained for a qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. Non-specified human taeniosis cases were described for Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic Congo, Guinea, and Ivory Coast (seven out of 27 countries/territories), while T. saginata taeniosis specifically was only reported for Cameroon. Most prevalence estimates for taeniosis ranged between 0-11%, while three studies from Nigeria reported prevalence estimates ranging between 23-50%. None of the studies included molecular confirmation of the causative species. The presence of bovine cysticercosis was reported for Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tristan da Cunha (14 out of 27 countries/territories). Prevalence estimates ranged between 0-29%. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review has revealed that human taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis are seriously understudied in West and Central Africa. The high prevalence estimates of both conditions suggest an active dissemination of this parasite in the region, calling for a concerted One Health action from public health, veterinary health and food surveillance sectors.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Ganado/parasitología , Taenia saginata/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/veterinaria , África Central/epidemiología , África Occidental/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Carne Roja/parasitología , Teniasis/epidemiología
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007408, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237878

RESUMEN

The definitive method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis is the detection of cysticerci at necropsy. Cysts are typically located in the striated muscle and brain. Until recently Taenia solium cysticerci have not been definitively identified in other tissue locations, despite several comprehensive investigations having been undertaken which included investigation of body organs other than muscle and brain. Recently a study conducted in Zambia reported 27% infection with T. solium in the liver of pigs with naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, as well as some T. solium infection in the lungs and spleen of some animals. We investigated the cause of lesions in sites other than the muscle or brain in a total of 157 pigs from T. solium endemic regions of Uganda and Nepal which were subjected to extensive investigations at necropsy. Lesions which had the potential to be caused by T. solium were characterised by macroscopic and microscopic examination, histology as well as DNA characterisation by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Lesions were confirmed as being caused by Taenia hydatigena (both viable and non-viable), by T. asiatica and Echinococcus granulosus (in Nepal) and nematode infections. No T. solium-related lesions or cysticerci were identified in any tissue other than muscle and brain. It is recommended that future evaluations of porcine cysticercosis in aberrant tissue locations include DNA analyses that take appropriate care to avoid the possibility of contamination of tissue specimens with DNA from a different tissue location or a different animal. The use of appropriate control samples to confirm the absence of cross-sample contamination is also recommended.


Asunto(s)
Estructuras Animales/patología , Estructuras Animales/parasitología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/patología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Autopsia , Cisticercosis/diagnóstico , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cisticercosis/patología , Histocitoquímica , Nepal , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Uganda
16.
Parasitology ; 146(8): 1047-1054, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084634

RESUMEN

Taenia hydatigena, is a common parasite, lived mostly in dogs and wild carnivores in its mature stage, and the larvae, Cysticercus tenuicollis, is found on ruminants and pigs. The aim of the current study was to determine the genetic diversity in 20 isolates of the sheep and goats. After the isolation of total genomic DNA from C. tenuicollis isolates, genetic characterization of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 gene region was amplified using specific JB11-JB12 primers in PCR and the PCR products were sequenced and haplotype and genetic diversity analyses were utilized. As a result, multiple nucleotide changes were determined in the sequence analyses of the isolates leading to detection of 16 and 15 different haplotypes in sheep and goat samples, respectively. These findings are important in terms of showing the diversity of nucleotide variation in C. tenuicollis in Turkey.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Cysticercus/genética , Variación Genética , Enfermedades de las Cabras/parasitología , Haplotipos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Animales , Cisticercosis/parasitología , Cabras , Ovinos , Taenia/genética , Turquia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 230, 2019 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal larval cestodiasis induced by Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 (Cyclophyllidea: Mesocestoididae) is a common cause of severe infections in domestic dogs and cats, reported also from other mammals and less frequently from birds. However, there is a limited knowledge on the taxonomy of causative agents of this disease. RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated a massive, likely lethal, infection of a song thrush Turdus philomelos (Passeriformes: Turdidae) by Mesocestoides sp. tetrathyridia. We performed combined morphological and phylogenetic analysis of the tetrathyridia and compared them with the materials obtained previously from other birds and mammals. The metrical data fitted within the wide range reported by previous authors but confirmed the limited value of morphological data for species identification of tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. The molecular analyses suggested that the isolates represented an unidentified Mesocestoides sp. that was previously repeatedly isolated and sequenced in larval and adult forms from domestic dogs and cats in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In contrast to the present study, which found encysted tetrathyridia, four of the five previous studies that identified the same species described infections by acephalic metacestodes only. CONCLUSIONS: The tetrathyridia of the examined Mesocestoides sp. are described in the present study for the first time. However, the possible match with the species that were previously reported to infect birds remains uncertain. The phylogenetic analyses also suggested the rejection of two cases that were previously identified as Mesocestoides corti as they were likely caused by the same species as in the presently reported infection case. The newly provided DNA sequences should allow the assignment to species in the future, when adults of the genus Mesocestoides are more thoroughly sequenced.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Mamíferos/parasitología , Mesocestoides/genética , Mascotas/parasitología , Pájaros Cantores/parasitología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Perros , Resultado Fatal , Femenino , Mesocestoides/patogenicidad , Filogenia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007301, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969966

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cestode Taenia solium causes the neglected (zoonotic) tropical disease cysticercosis, a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in endemic low and middle-income countries. Transmission models can inform current scaling-up of control efforts by helping to identify, validate and optimise control and elimination strategies as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PRISMA approach to identify and compare existing T. solium transmission models, and related Taeniidae infection transmission models. In total, 28 modelling papers were identified, of which four modelled T. solium exclusively. Different modelling approaches for T. solium included deterministic, Reed-Frost, individual-based, decision-tree, and conceptual frameworks. Simulated interventions across models agreed on the importance of coverage for impactful effectiveness to be achieved. Other Taeniidae infection transmission models comprised force-of-infection (FoI), population-based (mainly Echinococcus granulosus) and individual-based (mainly E. multilocularis) modelling approaches. Spatial structure has also been incorporated (E. multilocularis and Taenia ovis) in recognition of spatial aggregation of parasite eggs in the environment and movement of wild animal host populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gaps identified from examining the wider Taeniidae family models highlighted the potential role of FoI modelling to inform model parameterisation, as well as the need for spatial modelling and suitable structuring of interventions as key areas for future T. solium model development. We conclude that working with field partners to address data gaps and conducting cross-model validation with baseline and longitudinal data will be critical to building consensus-led and epidemiological setting-appropriate intervention strategies to help fulfil the WHO targets.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Modelos Biológicos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Teniasis/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium , Teniasis/transmisión , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zoonosis/parasitología
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 258-265, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013739

RESUMEN

Abstract Cysticercus ovis or sheep measles is the larval stage of Taenia ovis, which is the intestinal tapeworm of dogs. It is found in the cardiac and skeletal muscles of sheep and can be the cause of partial or total condemnation of carcasses at abattoirs. The aim of the current work was to determine the prevalence of C. ovis among sheep in Upper Egypt and to present the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of this using the amplified Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene. A total of 1885 sheep slaughtered at local abattoirs of 4 different governorates of Upper Egypt (Asuit, Sohag, Qena and Aswan) were carefully examined for C. ovis. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.02%. The highest rate of infection was observed in adult animals over 4 years of age (44.73%). There was no significant effect of animal sex on infection rates. The phylogenic analysis of C. ovis Egyptian isolates showed very close similarity to the New Zealand isolate (AB731675). This is the first report showing the genetic analysis of C. ovis in Egypt, which provides a very powerful tool for taxonomy and definitive diagnosis of C. ovis, which could be helpful for preventive and control programs.


Resumo Cysticercus ovis "sheep measles" é o estágio larval da Taenia ovis, encontrada nos músculos de carneiros, causado pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia ovis, parasita de cães. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de C. ovis entre ovinos no Alto Egito e apresentar as análises moleculares e filogenéticas, utilizando o gene da subunidade mitocondrial citocromo-oxidase amplificada 1 (MT-CO1). Um total de 1885 ovinos abatidos em matadouros locais de 4 províncias diferentes do Alto Egito (Asuit, Sohag, Qena e Aswan) foram cuidadosamente examinados para C. ovis. A prevalência geral de infecção foi de 2,02%. A maior taxa de infecção foi observada em animais adultos com mais de 4 anos de idade (44,73%). Não houve efeito significativo do sexo nas taxas de infecção. A análise filogenética de isolados egípcios de C. ovis mostrou uma similaridade muito próxima ao isolado da Nova Zelândia (AB731675). Este é o primeiro relato mostrando a análise genética de C. ovis no Egito, fornecendo uma ferramenta para taxonomia e diagnóstico definitivo de C. ovis, podendo ser útil para programas preventivo e de controle.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Ovinos/parasitología , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Cysticercus/genética , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Mataderos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Cysticercus/aislamiento & purificación , Egipto/epidemiología
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 113, 2019 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876439

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia saginata utilizes bovines as an intermediate host (causing cysticercosis) and humans as the definitive host (causing taeniosis). The public health burden of T. saginata is assumed to be low, but the economic burden is large, due to the resources utilized in the detection and condemnation of infected carcasses and carcass parts. As part of a collaborative effort to synthesize worldwide epidemiological data on this parasite, we present here the results of a systematic review on the distribution of T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). METHODS: Information on the occurrence and prevalence of T. saginata taeniosis and cysticercosis in the MENA region was obtained through a systematic review of published and grey literature, including OIE reports, published between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 63 publications were retrieved across the 21 MENA countries. Taenia saginata taeniosis was reported in 11 of these countries, whereas unspecified taeniosis was reported for a further seven. Microscopy-based prevalence values ranged between 0.02-8.6%. Bovine cysticercosis prevalence estimates based on meat inspection were only reported for Egypt and Israel, with prevalence data ranging between 0.2-20% and 0.1-9.1% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The presence of bovine cysticercosis could be confirmed for 10 additional countries through OIE reports. CONCLUSIONS: Human taeniosis occurrence was confirmed for 86% (18/21) of the countries in the MENA region, although in several of these countries the species responsible was not specified. Religious prohibitions on the consumption of pork and the limited extent of pig farming across much of this region, however, suggest that many reported taeniosis cases are likely to be attributable to T. saginata rather than Taenia solium or Taenia asiatica. There was a paucity of data regarding both the prevalence and economic impact of bovine cysticercosis. More detailed epidemiological data on both T. saginata taeniosis and bovine cysticercosis could be obtained by adopting an integrated "One Health" approach, considering the characteristics (e.g. ecosystem related and sociopolitical aspects) of the MENA region. Compared with more conventional approaches, this could lead to an enhanced performance and cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Teniasis/epidemiología , África del Norte/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Humanos , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Taenia saginata
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