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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252794, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469450

RESUMEN

While there has been much speculation on how the pandemic has affected work location patterns and home location choices, there is sparse evidence regarding the impacts that COVID-19 has had on amenity visits in American cities, which typically constitute over half of all urban trips. Using aggregate app-based GPS positioning data from smartphone users, this study traces the changes in amenity visits in Somerville, MA from January 2019 to December 2020, describing how visits to particular types of amenities have changed as a result of business closures during the public health emergency. Has the pandemic fundamentally shifted amenity-oriented travel behavior or is consumer behavior returning to pre-pandemic trends? To address this question, we calibrate discrete choice models that are suited to Census block-group level analysis for each of the 24 months in a two-year period, and use them to analyze how visitors' behavioral responses to various attributes of amenity clusters have shifted during different phases of the pandemic. Our findings suggest that in the first few months of the pandemic, amenity-visiting preferences significantly diverged from expected patterns. Even though overall trip volumes remained far below normal levels throughout the remainder of the year, preferences towards specific cluster attributes mostly returned to expected levels by September 2020. We also construct two scenarios to explore the implications of another shutdown and a full reopening, based on November 2020 consumer behavior. While government restrictions have played an important role in reducing visits to amenity clusters, our results imply that cautionary consumer behavior has played an important role as well, suggesting a likely long and slow path to economic recovery. By drawing on mobile phone location data and behavioral modeling, this paper offers timely insights to help decision-makers understand how this unprecedented health emergency is affecting amenity-related trips and where the greatest needs for intervention and support may exist.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Pandemias/economía , SARS-CoV-2 , Teléfono Inteligente , Viaje/economía , COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17649, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480051

RESUMEN

The ubiquitous activity of humans is a fundamental feature of urban environments affecting local wildlife in several ways. Testing the influence of human disturbance would ideally need experimental approach, however, in cities, this is challenging at relevant spatial and temporal scales. Thus, to better understand the ecological effects of human activity, we exploited the opportunity that the city-wide lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic provided during the spring of 2020. We assessed changes in reproductive success of great tits (Parus major) at two urban habitats affected strikingly differently by the 'anthropause', and at an unaffected forest site. Our results do not support that urban great tits benefited from reduced human mobility during the lockdown. First, at one of our urban sites, the strongly (- 44%) reduced human disturbance in 2020 (compared to a long-term reference period) did not increase birds' reproductive output relative to the forest habitat where human disturbance was low in all years. Second, in the other urban habitat, recreational human activity considerably increased (+ 40%) during the lockdown and this was associated with strongly reduced nestling body size compared to the pre-COVID reference year. Analyses of other environmental factors (meteorological conditions, lockdown-induced changes in air pollution) suggest that these are not likely to explain our results. Our study supports that intensified human disturbance can have adverse fitness consequences in urban populations. It also highlights that a few months of 'anthropause' is not enough to counterweight the detrimental impacts of urbanization on local wildlife populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosistema , Cuarentena , Reproducción/fisiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Pájaros Cantores/fisiología , Animales , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Ciudades/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 373-379, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505444

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and diagnosis of imported malaria before and after malaria elimination in Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the malaria control strategy after malaria elimination. METHODS: Data pertaining to the epidemic situation and individual investigation of malaria in Nanjing City before (from 2012 to 2016) and after malaria elimination (from 2017 to 2020) were captured from the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention and were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A total of 178 malaria cases were reported in Nanjing City from 2012 to 2020, and all were imported cases. There were 99 malaria cases reported before malaria elimination in Nanjing City, including 78 cases with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (78.79%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (5.05%), 10 cases with P. ovale malaria (10.10%), 3 cases with P. malariae malaria (3.03%) and 3 cases with mixed infections (3.03%), and 79 malaria cases reported after elimination, including 63 cases with P. falciparum malaria (79.75%), 5 cases with P. vivax malaria (6.33%), 9 cases with P. ovale malaria (11.39%), 2 cases with P. malariae malaria (2.53%). There was no significant difference in the proportion of each type of malaria cases in Nanjing City before and after malaria elimination (χ2 =2.400, P > 0.05). Malaria cases mainly acquired Plasmodium infections in African regions, and no significant difference was seen in the proportion of malaria cases returning to Nanjing City from African countries before and after malaria elimination (χ2 = 0.093, P > 0.05). The number of malaria cases peaked in Nanjing City in January and during the period from May to July before elimination, and there was no apparent seasonal variation in the distribution of malaria cases after elimination. The proportion of malaria cases living in Nanjing City was significantly greater after malaria elimination than before elimination (72.15% vs. 55.56%; χ2 = 5.187, P = 0.023). The proportions of businessmen and international students were both 5.05% before malaria elimination, and increased to 15.19% and 13.92% after elimination, respectively (χ2 = 5.229 and 4.229, both P values < 0.05). The percentage of definitive diagnosis of malaria at initial diagnosis was 18.75% in county-level hospitals before malaria elimination and increased to 61.11% after elimination (χ2 = 6.275, P = 0.012), while the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses in county-level hospitals was 4.04% before malaria elimination and increased to 13.92% after elimination (χ2 = 5.562, P = 0.018). During the period from 2012 to 2020, the proportion of malaria cases with definitive diagnoses within 1 to 3 days post-admission increased from 27.27% in Nanjing City before malaria elimination to 45.57% after elimination (χ2 = 6.433, P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic situation of imported malaria remains serious in Nanjing City during the post-elimination stage, and malaria parasite infections predominantly occur in African regions. In addition, there are changes in regional and occupational distributions of malaria cases and the diagnostic capability of malaria increases in county-level hospitals in Nanjing City after malaria elimination. Further improvements in the malaria surveillance system and the diagnostic and treatment capability of malaria in medical institutions at each level are required to consolidate malaria elimination achievements in Nanjing City.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Malaria Falciparum , Malaria Vivax , Malaria , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 401-405, 2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505448

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and changing trend of Enterobius vermicularis infections among children in Shandong Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the adjustment and development of the enterobiasis control strategy. METHODS: Soil-borne nematodiasis surveillance sites were assigned in 51 counties (districts, cities) in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020, and the E. vermicularis infections were detected using a modified Kato-Katz technique and the cellophane tape method among children at ages of 3 to 9 years living in these surveillance sites. The epidemiological profiles of E. vermicularis-infected children were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5 060 children at ages of 3 to 9 years were detected in 51 soil-borne nematodiasis surveillance sites in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020, and the overall prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 2.23%. The annual prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 3.99% (26/651), 1.70% (14/824), 0.96% (8/837), 2.90% (45/1 552) and 1.67% (20/1 196) from 2016 to 2020, respectively, with a significant difference detected among years (χ2 = 21.455, P < 0.01). The prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 1.25% (15/1 198), 1.85% (14/755), 3.18% (84/2 640) and 0 (0/467) among children from central, eastern, southern and northern Shandong Province (χ2 = 27.326, P < 0.01). In addition, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of E. vermicularis infections between male (1.98%, 56/2 831) and female children (2.56%, 57/2 229) (χ2 = 1.916, P > 0.05); however, there was age-specific prevalence of E. vermicularis infections among children (χ2 = 16.448, P < 0.05), with the greatest prevalence detected among children at ages of 6 years (3.18%, 25/786), and the lowest prevalence seen among children at ages of 3 years (0.75%, 6/800). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of E. vermicularis infections remained at a medium level among children at ages of 3 to 9 years in Shandong Province from 2016 to 2020, with region-specific prevalence found across the province. An integrated strategy is required for enterobiasis control.


Asunto(s)
Enterobiasis , Infecciones por Nematodos , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades , Enterobiasis/epidemiología , Enterobius , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Suelo
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 417-419, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505452

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the water-saving irrigation project on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in hilly regions of Yixing City, Jiangsu Province. METHODS: A retrospective survey combined with cross-sectional investigation was employed. The implementation of the water-saving irrigation development project in Yixing City from 2005 to 2007 was retrospectively collected, and the snail status was collected in regions where the water-saving irrigation project was located and the project-affected regions from 2003 to 2018, to examine the effect of the project on snail control. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was performed to investigate the destruction of the water-saving irrigation project in 2018. RESULTS: A total of 22 water-saving irrigation projects were implemented in 5 townships in hilly regions of Yixing City from 2005 to 2007, where snail habitats were treated covering 266.97 hm2. Before the implementation of the project from 2003 to 2006, cumulative 47.87 hm2 snail habitats were detected in regions where the project was located, and no snails were found in regions where the project was located from the implementation of the project in 2006 to 2018. However, a few snails were found in the project-affected regions in 2017 and 2018. In addition, there were problems found in the later-stage maintenance and management of the project. CONCLUSIONS: The water-saving irrigation projects shows a high efficiency on snail control in hilly regions of Yixing City. The later-stage maintenance of the project and monitoring of snails remain to be intensified to enhance the snail control efficiency of the water-saving irrigation project.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis , China , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Agua
6.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20210138, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516604

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the consequences of psychoactive substance use among users of mental health services in Brazil and Portugal. METHOD: Cross-sectional, comparative, quantitative study, carried out with 362 users of two specialized treatment services in the cities of São Paulo (n = 200) and Lisbon (n = 162). Data collected in 2019 through the application of the Substance Addiction Consequences scale. A descriptive analysis and ordinary least squares and logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS: All dimensions assessed by the scale were more severe for Brazilian users, with a difference for the physical domain and cognitive skills (p < 0.01). Brazilian participants were more likely to consume cocaine (p < 0.01) and have psychosis (p = 0.02) and Portuguese participants to have hepatitis (p < 0.01), personality disorders (p < 0.01), use benzodiazepines (p < 0.01) and tobacco (p < 0.01), and receive pharmacological support (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: It was found that Brazilian users have more serious consequences related to substance use, and Portuguese users have more comorbidities and exposure to risky consumption. It emerges that Portuguese responses minimize the consequences severity.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
7.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3457, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495186

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate family and community guidance in adolescence, within the scope of Primary Health Care. METHOD: an evaluative and descriptive study with a quantitative approach, developed through the application of the Primary Care Assessment Instrument (PCATool), with 70 professionals from the Family Health Strategy and 140 adolescents from the widerange areas. Data collection took place in Basic Health Units and in the adolescents' homes in a municipality of southern Brazil, from May to September 2019. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using ANOVA and Tukey's test, performed using the R Studio software. RESULTS: there was divergence in the assessment of the attributes of family and community guidance between users and responsible professionals, showing weaknesses in the communication process and in the formation of the care bond in this reality, with impacts on quality of care. CONCLUSION: there was a need for continued assessment of the care practice in primary health care, as well as for permanent education with a focus on increasing qualification of care for adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Salud de la Familia , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adolescente , Brasil , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
8.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 232-239, 2021.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468569

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the perception of vulnerability to HIV and its associated factors among transgender women (TW) in Bogotá, Medellín and Santiago de Cali, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in which 620 TW participated. Sociodemographic aspects, sexual behavior, consumption of psychoactive substances and the perception of vulnerability to HIV were studied. We carried out a descriptive analysis, in which bivariate associations were evaluated using chi-square. We also conducted a multivariate analysis and built a model using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Of the participants, 63% were 35 years old or younger, had low income, started sexual relations at an early age and worked mainly as sex workers, webcam models and hairdressers; 84.7% of the participants had received money in exchange for sex at some point. The perception of vulnerability to HIV increased among those who were single, worked in prostitution, had sexually transmitted infections in the last year, avoided preventive health services and consumed cocaine during the six months before this survey. CONCLUSION: The perception of vulnerability to HIV among the TW participants in this study is high; therefore, effective interventions are required to improve the living conditions and sexual behavior of this population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Personas Transgénero , Adulto , Ciudades , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Percepción , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3397-3408, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468637

RESUMEN

The paper presents the relationship between the allocation of financial resources and the type of local basic health infrastructure in an initial sample of 5,570 Brazilian municipalities. This is an explanatory research using multiple correspondence analysis and quantile regression between expenditure/control variables and the type of structure of PHC Units. The correspondence between the type and the representative variables of expenditure shows that inferior typologies are related to lower per capita expenditure in these variables, and vice versa. Quantile regression showed a positive relationship with the type of infrastructure in the two cycles evaluated. There is evidence that expenditure variables are positively related to infrastructure, which allows us to understand that allocating more resources leads to better infrastructure. Results point to the need to improve the governance of financial resources for health, as municipalities with lower socioeconomic indicators have an infrastructure in the lower categories. We can conclude that there are multiple actors, and the various criteria for allocating and decentralizing resources bring about difficulties of coordination and integration between the entities, restricting the appropriate prioritization in the distribution of resources.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Ciudades , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3567-3579, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468652

RESUMEN

Health services, the access to which is a right of all citizens and the duty of the state, must be efficiently provided, as public resources are scarce and there is a growing demand called for by the population. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the efficiency of public spending on Primary Health Care in the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 70) in 2015. Initially, the jackstrap procedure was used to identify possible outliers, and Data Envelopment Analysis was then applied to calculate robust efficiency scores. In the second stage, the efficiency scores were regressed into non-discretionary variables using the Tobit method, that may affect the efficiency of municipalities. The results show that 63.9% of municipalities efficiently applied ABS resources, however, given the expenses incurred, ABS outputs could have been, on average, 6% higher. In addition, no evidence was found that wealthier, more socially developed and/or populous municipalities, were more (or less) efficient in public spending on ABS than not.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Ciudades
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3647-3655, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468659

RESUMEN

Fluoridation is considered an effective and wide-ranging measure in combatting dental caries. Despite being mandatory in Brazil since 1974, the implementation continues to be unequal throughout the country. The objective was to describe and analyze fluorine levels in the waters of the public supply grid of the 2nd macro region of the state of Pernambuco in municipalities with 50,000 inhabitants or more. This is a descriptive study based on a comparison of data from Pernambuco Sanitation Company (Compesa), the Vigifluor Project, the Water Quality Surveillance Information System for Human Consumption (Sisagua) the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the National Sanitation Information System (SNIS), on the fluoridation of water in municipalities of the 2nd health macro region of Pernambuco. Although the municipalities studied do not have artificial fluoridation, significant levels of natural fluorine were found in the sources that supply the regions. However, these levels of fluorine do not remain constant in the waters of the supply network of the municipalities studied, therefore there is no effective prevention against caries. Artificial fluoridation is an effective measure in preventing caries and should therefore be expanded in regions that are not yet fluoridated.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Fluoruros , Brasil , Ciudades , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Fluoruración , Fluoruros/análisis , Humanos , Abastecimiento de Agua
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3671-3682, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468661

RESUMEN

Little is known regarding the use of emergency contraception among women from different regions of Brazil. The use of emergency contraception as well as contraceptive methods before and after coitus was analyzed. This cross-sectional study assessed the use of emergency contraception by interviewing 2,051 women aged between 18 and 49 attending 76 basic health units in three capitals: São Paulo-SP, Aracaju-SE and Cuiabá-MT. Aspects associated with the use of emergency contraception were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. Over half of the women reported the use of emergency contraception (56.7%). Having a high level of education, being from a more privileged socioeconomic group, having a paid job and having had four or more sexual partners were associated with the use of emergency contraception. Being 35 years of age or older and being in a stable relationship was negatively associated. The last time they used emergency contraception, 53.2% used another method, with the male condom and oral pill being the most frequent. Of those who did not use the method, half adopted the regular method after using it (51.7%). The conclusion drawn is that emergency contraception is widely used and does not appear to affect the use of the regular contraceptive method.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción Postcoital , Anticonceptivos Poscoito , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Ciudades , Conducta Anticonceptiva , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto Joven
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 618, 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476627

RESUMEN

Recent studies concluded that air quality has improved due to the enforcement of lockdown in the wake of COVID-19. However, they mostly concentrated on the changes during the lockdown period, and the studies considering the consequences of de-escalation of lockdown are inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during the pre-lockdown, strict lockdown, unlocking, and post-lockdown scenarios. In addition, we assessed the influence of meteorology, mobility, air mass transport, and biomass burning on PM2.5 using Google's mobility data, back trajectory model, and satellite-based fire incident data. Average PM2.5 concentrations in Ghaziabad, Noida, and Faridabad decreased by 60.70%, 63.27%, and 60.40%, respectively, during the lockdown. When compared with the preceding year (2019), the reductions during the shutdown period (25 March-31 May) were within the range of 36.34-44.55%. However, considering the entire year, this reduction in PM2.5 is momentary, and a steady increase in traffic density and industrial operations within cities during post-lockdown reflects a potent recovery of aerosol level, during which the average mass of PM2.5 three- to four-folds higher than the lockdown period. Back trajectories and fire activity results showed that biomass burning in the nearby states (Haryana and Punjab) influence aerosol load. We conclude that a partial lockdown in the event of a sudden surge in pollution would be a beneficial approach. However, reducing fossil fuel consumption and switching to more environmentally friendly energy sources, developing green transport networks, and circumventing biomass burning are efficient ways to improve air quality in the long term.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Biomasa , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Meteorología , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1640, 2021 09 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a global public health issues, especially in China. It has threat the health of children under 5 years old. The early recognition of high-risk districts and understanding of epidemic characteristics can facilitate health sectors to prevent the occurrence of HFMD effectively. METHODS: Descriptive analysis was used to summarize epidemic characteristics, and the spatial autocorrelation analysis and space-time scan analysis were utilized to explore distribution pattern of HFMD and identify hot spots with statistical significance. The result was presented in ArcMap. RESULTS: A total of 52,095 HFMD cases were collected in Zibo city from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 Dec 2019. The annual average incidence was 129.72/100,000. The distribution of HFMD was a unimodal trend, with peak from April to September. The most susceptible age group was children under 5 years old (92.46%), and the male-to-female ratio is 1.60: 1. The main clusters were identified in Zhangdian District from 12 April 2010 to 18 September 2012. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the global spatial correlation in Zibo were no statistical significance, except in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2018. Cold spots were gathered in Boshan county and Linzi district, while hot spots only in Zhangdian District in 2018, but other years were no significance. CONCLUSION: Hot spots mainly concentrated in the central and surrounding city of Zibo city. We suggest that imminent public health planning and resource allocation should be focused within those areas.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie , Enfermedades de la Boca , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Femenino , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501672

RESUMEN

The coronavirus became a phenomenon in 2020, which is making an unwanted but wide space for the study of various scientific disciplines. The COVID-19 pandemic situation which has reached almost the whole civilized world by its consequences thus offers a unique possibility to analyze the graphic space and the human activities inside it. The aim of this study is to predict and identify the potential rate of threat on the example of COVID-19 in Slovakia through an established model. This model consisted of an assessment of the partial phenomena of exposure, vulnerability, and overall risk. The statistical data used to evaluate these phenomena concerned individual cities in Slovakia. These represent the smallest administrative unit. Indirect methods based on the point method were applied in the paper. The spreading and transfer of the disease was influenced much more by the exposure presented by traffic availability, especially, but also the concentration of inhabitants in the selected locations (shops, cemeteries, and others). In the results, our modeling confirmed the regions with the highest intensity, especially in the districts (Bratislava, Kosice, Presov, and Nitra). The selection of the data and method used in this study together with the results reached and presented may serve as an appropriate tool for the support of decision-making of other measures for the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ciudades , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Eslovaquia/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501965

RESUMEN

The spread of COVID-19 is having a serious impact on socioeconomic development, and increased environmental risk perception (ERP). ERP provide new ideas for the orderly recovery of society. However, there have been studies that often pay attention to individual factors, and less concerned about the external environment. In fact, ERP will be affected by the external environment and individual factors. We used a Python script to collect 65,277 valid Weibo comments during the COVID-19 epidemic in China to assess urban residents' environmental risk perception (ERP). SnowNLP emotion analysis was used to measure the ERP of 366 urban in China, and the structural proportion characteristics and spatial-temporal differentiation of ERP were analyzed. Then, an order logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between economic level, social security, medical facilities and ERP. The study investigated the Chinese cities have a higher ERP during the COVID-19 period, and it shows marked fluctuations. As COVID-19 spreads, the ERP shows a distribution pattern of "high in the southeast and low in the northwest" with Hu line as the boundary and "from high to low" with Wuhan as the high value center. COVID-19 serves as catalysts for ERP, the impact of COVID-19 is enhanced after socioeconomic factors are considered. The economic level effectively regulates ERP, except the stage of accelerating diffusion. ERP is effectively stabilized by social security and medical facilities. After considering all the variables simultaneously, we found that the mitigation effect of social security and medical facilities on ERP has improved.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemias , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Percepción , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 7028-7059, 2021 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517570

RESUMEN

In this paper we introduce a space-dependent multiscale model to describe the spatial spread of an infectious disease under uncertain data with particular interest in simulating the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy. While virus transmission is ruled by a SEIAR type compartmental model, within our approach the population is given by a sum of commuters moving on a extra-urban scale and non commuters interacting only on the smaller urban scale. A transport dynamics of the commuter population at large spatial scales, based on kinetic equations, is coupled with a diffusion model for non commuters at the urban scale. Thanks to a suitable scaling limit, the kinetic transport model used to describe the dynamics of commuters, within a given urban area coincides with the diffusion equations that characterize the movement of non-commuting individuals. Because of the high uncertainty in the data reported in the early phase of the epidemic, the presence of random inputs in both the initial data and the epidemic parameters is included in the model. A robust numerical method is designed to deal with the presence of multiple scales and the uncertainty quantification process. In our simulations, we considered a realistic geographical domain, describing the Lombardy region, in which the size of the cities, the number of infected individuals, the average number of daily commuters moving from one city to another, and the epidemic aspects are taken into account through a calibration of the model parameters based on the actual available data. The results show that the model is able to describe correctly the main features of the spatial expansion of the first wave of COVID-19 in northern Italy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ciudades , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Incertidumbre
18.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 5942574, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484322

RESUMEN

A rapid rise in inhabitants across the globe has led to the inadmissible management of waste in various countries, giving rise to various health issues and environmental pollution. The waste-collecting trucks collect waste just once or twice in seven days. Due to improper waste collection practices, the waste in the dustbin is spread on the streets. Thus, to defeat this situation, an efficient solution for smart and effective waste management using machine learning (ML) and the Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed solution, the authors have used an Arduino UNO microcontroller, ultrasonic sensor, and moisture sensor. Using image processing, one can measure the waste index of a particular dumping ground. A hardware prototype is also developed for the proposed framework. Thus, the presented solution for the efficient management of waste accomplishes the aim of establishing clean and pollution-free cities.


Asunto(s)
Internet de las Cosas , Administración de Residuos , Ciudades , Aprendizaje Automático
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e009721, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495043

RESUMEN

Hemoplasmas are epierythrocytic bacteria that infect mammals. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris' was detected in white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from southern and central-western Brazil. The present study aimed at: i) screening opossums for tick-borne (TBP) pathogens (Piroplasmida and Anaplasmataceae) and ii) detecting and characterizing hemoplasma species infecting opossums from Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu cities in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Thirty blood samples from white-eared opossums were evaluated by PCR assays. Animals were not infested by ectoparasites. The mammalian endogenous gapdh gene was consistently amplified in all samples. All opossums tested negative for Theileria/Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. by PCR based on 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. A genus-specific PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas showed that three/13 (23.08%; CI 95%: 8.18-50.26%) opossums from Foz do Iguaçu were positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. All opossums from Curitiba tested negative for hemoplasmas. Sequencing of both the 16S and 23S rRNA genes revealed that the animals were infected by 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris'. Although 'Ca. M. haemoalbiventris' is prevalent in opossums in Brazil, clinical signs associated with its infection and its putative vectors remain unknown.


Asunto(s)
Didelphis , Infecciones por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma , Garrapatas , Animales , Brasil , Ciudades , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 918, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488740

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Welfare technology has been launched as a concept to accelerate digital transformation in care services, but the deployment of these technologies is still hindered by organisational resistance, lack of infrastructure, and juridical and ethical issues. This paper investigates decision-making among municipal actors in the application and deployment of welfare technology from a procurement process perspective. The study explores the perceptions and negotiations involved in purchasing welfare technology at each stage of the procurement model, revealing the impact of technical, economic, juridical and ethical competence on the mapping, planning, procurement, implementation and management of welfare technology. METHODS: The study presents empirical findings from qualitative interviews conducted among municipal actors in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were gathered in 2020 among procurement managers, IT managers, and managers in social administration in three different municipalities (n = 8). Content analysis and systematic categorisation were applied resulting in the division of procurement practices into sub-categories, generic categories and main categories. RESULTS: Challenges in the application and deployment of welfare technology occur at all stages of the procurement model. In mapping and planning, barriers are identified in the need analysis, requirement specification and market analysis. In the procurement stage, economic resources, standardisation and interoperability hinder the procurement process. Implementation and management are complicated by supplier assessment, legislation, cross-organisational collaboration and political strategy. Building on these findings, this study defines 'procurement competence' as consisting of technical, economic, juridical and ethical expertise in order to assess and evaluate welfare technology. Technical and ethical competence is needed in early stages of procurement, whereas juridical and economic competence relates to later stages of the model. CONCLUSIONS: Procurement competence is associated with the application and deployment of welfare technology in (1) assessment of the end-user's needs, (2) estimation of the costs and benefits of welfare technology and (3) management of juridical and legislative issues in data management. Economic and juridical decisions to purchase welfare technology are not value-neutral, but rather associated with socially shared understandings of technological possibilities in care provision. Optimisation of procurement processes requires a combination of capabilities to introduce, apply and deploy welfare technology that meets the demands and needs of end-users.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar Social , Tecnología , Ciudades , Investigación Cualitativa , Suecia
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