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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMEN

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humedad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Temperatura , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Italia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 632-637, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012863

RESUMEN

Problem: On 21 January 2020, the city of Taizhou, China, reported its first imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case and subsequently the number of cases rapidly increased. Approach: To organize the emergency responses, the government of Taizhou established on 23 January 2020 novel headquarters for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak, by coordinating different governmental agencies. People at high risk of acquiring COVID-19, as well as probable and confirmed cases, were identified and quarantined. The government closed public venues and limited gatherings. The Taizhou Health Commission shared information about identified COVID-19 patients and probable cases with affected agencies. To timely track and manage close contacts of confirmed cases, Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention did epidemiological investigations. Medical institutions or local centers for disease control and prevention reported confirmed cases to the national Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Local setting: Taizhou, a city in Zhejiang province with about 6 million residents, reported 18 confirmed COVID-2019 cases by 23 January 2020, which ranked it third globally in number of cases after Wuhan and Xiaogan cities in the Hubei province. Relevant changes: In total, 146 confirmed cases (85 cases imported and 61 cases through community transmission) and no deaths due to COVID-19 had been reported in Taizhou by 1 June 2020. Between 16 February and 1 June 2020, no confirmed case had been reported. Lesson learnt: Identifying and managing imported cases and people at risk for infection, timely information sharing, limiting gatherings and ensuring collaborations between different agencies were important in controlling COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMEN

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Pobreza , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027398

RESUMEN

Chagas disease is an important endemic morbidity in Latin America affecting millions of people in the American continent. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted through the feces of the insect vector belonging to the subfamily Triatominae. The present conducted an entomological survey of triatomines and analyzed entomological indicators, such as the rate of infestation, colonization, triatomine density and natural infection in rural communities in the municipality of Campinas do Piaui, Piaui State, in the Northeast region of Brazil. Data on the search of triatomines performed in 167 domiciliary units (DUs), harvested during the period of February to July 2019, in 12 rural communities were analyzed. The capture of triatomines occurred in all studied communities, being 76 the number of positive DUs, of the 167 surveyed, presenting a global rate of infestation of 45.51%. Two triatomines species were collected: Triatoma brasiliensis (98.49%) and T. pseudomaculata (1.51%), the first was found in the domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas, while the second was captured only in peridomiciliary areas. The index of colonization was 17.1%. Natural infection was observed only in 5.44% of T. brasiliensis samples. The entomological survey was conducted in rural communities, showingthe risk of transmission of Chagas disease to the local population, requiring continuous entomological surveillance and vector control.


Asunto(s)
Triatoma/parasitología , Triatominae/parasitología , Animales , Brasil , Ciudades , Humanos , Población Rural
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076238

RESUMEN

In this work, we establish a methodological framework to analyze the care demand for elderly citizens in any area with a large proportion of elderly population, and to find connections to the cumulative incidence of COVID-19. Thanks to this analysis, it is possible to detect deficiencies in the public elderly care system, identify the most disadvantaged areas in this sense, and reveal convenient information to improve the system. The methods used in each step of the framework belong to data analytics: choropleth maps, clustering analysis, principal component analysis, or linear regression. We applied this methodology to Barcelona to analyze the distribution of the demand for elderly care services. Thus, we obtained a deeper understanding of how the demand for elderly care is dispersed throughout the city. Considering the characteristics that were likely to impact the demand for homecare in the neighborhoods, we clearly identified five groups of neighborhoods with different profiles and needs. Additionally, we found that the number of cases in each neighborhood was more correlated to the number of elderly people in the neighborhood than it was to the number of beds in assisted living or day care facilities in the neighborhood, despite the negative impact of COVID-19 cases on the reputation of this kind of center.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Evaluación de Necesidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Ciudades/epidemiología , Humanos , España/epidemiología
6.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1312-1326, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079712

RESUMEN

The Municipality of Asker (Norway) is at risk of not meeting the water quality targets set by the European Union Water Framework Directive within the stipulated timeframe. While there are multiple factors negatively impacting water quality in the municipality, wastewater is likely to be a major contributor. Infiltration and inflow water (I/I-water) leads to a number of unwanted consequences, of which direct discharge of untreated wastewater through overflow points is particularly important. In Aker municipality the portion of I/I-water is about 63%, while the goal is to achieve a level of about 30%. This study utilises a socio-economic cost-effectiveness analysis of measures to prevent sewer overflows into waterbodies. The most effective alternative identified in the analysis is a complete renovation of old pipes in combination with troubleshooting for faulty stormwater connections, when compared to alternatives considering upsizing/retention. I/I-water cost the municipality of Asker NOK34 million in 2017, when using a price of NOK16,434 for each kg of total phosphorus (Tot-P) let into the recipient water bodies. If the phosphorus cost is equal to or less than NOK17,806/kg Tot-P, then it will not be socio-economically justified to reduce I/I-water.


Asunto(s)
Movimientos del Agua , Agua , Ciudades , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Noruega
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1585, 2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease, which has caused numerous deaths and health problems worldwide. This study aims to examine the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution and population mobility on COVID-19 across China. METHODS: We obtained daily confirmed cases of COVID-19, air particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), weather parameters such as ambient temperature (AT) and absolute humidity (AH), and population mobility scale index (MSI) in 63 cities of China on a daily basis (excluding Wuhan) from January 01 to March 02, 2020. Then, the Generalized additive models (GAM) with a quasi-Poisson distribution were fitted to estimate the effects of PM10, PM2.5 and MSI on daily confirmed COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: We found each 1 unit increase in daily MSI was significantly positively associated with daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in all lag days and the strongest estimated RR (1.21, 95% CIs:1.14 ~ 1.28) was observed at lag 014. In PM analysis, we found each 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 was positively associated with the confirmed cases of COVID-19, and the estimated strongest RRs (both at lag 7) were 1.05 (95% CIs: 1.04, 1.07) and 1.06 (95% CIs: 1.04, 1.07), respectively. A similar trend was also found in all cumulative lag periods (from lag 01 to lag 014). The strongest effects for both PM10 and PM2.5 were at lag 014, and the RRs of each 10 µg/m3 increase were 1.18 (95% CIs:1.14, 1.22) and 1.23 (95% CIs:1.18, 1.29), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Population mobility and airborne particulate matter may be associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Dinámica Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 701, 2020 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051711

RESUMEN

Investigating the spatiotemporal trends and trade-off/synergy relationships among ecosystem services can provide effective support for urban planning and decision making toward sustainable development. With Nanjing city in China as a case study, this study assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of six key ecosystem services from 2005 to 2030. Integration of Markov-cellular automata and ecosystem services models was realized to analyze the potential impacts of future urbanization on ecosystem services by simulating business-as-usual (BAU), cropland protection (CP), and ecological restoration (ER) scenarios. Furthermore, an innovative trade-off/synergy degree was developed to quantify the magnitude of the complex relationship among the multiple ecosystem services under the different scenarios. Due to the rapid expansion of built-up land, carbon storage, habitat quality, and air purification decreased 2.92%, 5.80%, and 7.91%, respectively. The CP scenario exhibited the highest crop production values, and the ER scenario was a better urban development strategy that enhanced the regulating ecosystem services at the expense of crop production. To promote urban ecosystem services and minimize trade-offs, we proposed certain future urban development strategies, including ecological corridor construction and compact development. The study could provide a scientific reference for the effective ecosystem management of Nanjing and other rapidly urbanized regions.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1557, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066742

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious diseases that seriously endanger people's health. In Shandong province, the relationship between the level of economic development and TB incidence has not been studied. This study aims to provide more research basis for the government to prevent and control TB by exploring the impact of different economic factors on TB incidence. METHODS: By constructing threshold regression model (TRM), we described the extent to which different economic factors contribute to TB registered incidence and differences in TB registered incidence among seventeen cities with different levels of economic development in Shandong province, China, during 2006-2017. Data were retrieved from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: Per capita medical expenditure (regression coefficient, -0.0314462; SD, 0.0079305; P > |t|, 0.000) and per capita savings (regression coefficient, 0.0001924; SD, 0.0000566; P > |t|, 0.001) passed the significance test at the level of 1%.They are the two economic indicators that have the greatest impact on TB registered incidence. Through the threshold test, we selected the per capita savings as the threshold variable. In the three stages of per capita savings (<9772.8086 China Yuan(CNY); 9772.8086-33,835.5391 CNY; >33,835.5391 CNY), rural per capita income always has a significant negative impact on the TB registered incidence (The regression coefficients are - 0.0015682, - 0.0028132 and - 0.0022253 respectively. P is 0.007,0.000 and 0.000 respectively.).In cities with good economies, TB registered incidence was 38.30% in 2006 and dropped to 25.10% by 2017. In cities with moderate economies, TB registered incidence peaked in 2008 at 43.10% and dropped to 27.1% by 2017.In poorer cities, TB registered incidence peaked in 2008 at 56.30% and dropped to 28.9% in 2017. CONCLUSION: We found that per capita savings and per capita medical expenditure are most closely related to the TB incidence. Therefore, relevant departments should formulate a more complete medical system and medical insurance policy to effectively solve the problem of "difficult and expensive medical treatment". In order to further reduce the TB incidence, in addition to timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment, it is more important for governments to increase investment in medicine and health care.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Sistema de Registros
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066177

RESUMEN

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has made it the focus of current attention. At present, the law of COVID-19 spread in cities is not clear. Cities have long been difficult areas for epidemic prevention and control because of the high population density, high mobility of people, and high frequency of contacts. This paper analyzed case information for 417 patients with COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China. The nearest neighbor index method, kernel density method, and the standard deviation ellipse method were used to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics of the COVID-19 spread in Shenzhen. The factors influencing that spread were then explored using the multiple linear regression method. The results show that: (1) The development of COVID-19 epidemic situation in Shenzhen occurred in three stages. The patients showed significant hysteresis from the onset of symptoms to hospitalization and then to diagnosis. Prior to 27 January, there was a relatively long time interval between the onset of symptoms and hospitalization for COVID-19; the interval decreased thereafter. (2) The epidemic site (the place where the patient stays during the onset of the disease) showed an agglomeration in space. The degree of agglomeration constantly increased across the three time nodes of 31 January, 14 February, and 22 February. The epidemic sites formed a "core area" in terms of spatial distribution and spread along the "northwest-southeast" direction of the city. (3) Economic and social factors significantly impacted the spread of COVID-19, while environmental factors have not played a significant role.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , China/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
11.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(3): 030403, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071554

RESUMEN

To fight the virus SARS-CoV-2 spread to Europe from China and to give support to the collapsed public health system, the Spanish Health Authorities developed a field hospital located in the facilities of Madrid exhibition centre (IFEMA) to admit and treat patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infectious disease (COVID-19). The Department of Laboratory Medicine of La Paz University Hospital in Madrid (LMD-HULP) was designated to provide laboratory services. Due to the emergency, the IFEMA field hospital had to be prepared for patient admission in less than 1 week and the laboratory professionals had to collaborate in a multidisciplinary group to assure that resources were available to start on time. The LMD-HULP participated together with the managers in the design of the tests portfolio and the integration of the healthcare information systems (IS) (hospital IS, laboratory IS and POCT management system). Laboratorians developed a strategy to quickly train clinicians and nurses on test requests, sample collection procedures and management/handling of the POCT blood gas analyser both by written materials and training videos. The IFEMA´s preanalytical unit managed 3782 requests, and more than 11,000 samples from March 27th to April 30th. Furthermore, 1151 samples were measured by blood gas analysers. In conclusion, laboratory professionals must be resilient and have to respond timely in emergencies as this pandemic. The lab's personnel selection, design and monitoring indicators to maintain and further improve the quality and value of laboratory services is crucial to support medical decision making and provide better patient care.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Unidades Móviles de Salud/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Ciudades , Sistemas de Información en Laboratorio Clínico/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Capacidad de Camas en Hospitales , Sistemas de Información en Hospital/organización & administración , Hospitales Universitarios/organización & administración , Humanos , Laboratorios de Hospital/organización & administración , Personal de Hospital/educación , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , España , Manejo de Especímenes
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1247-1251, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, caused by the Human Papilloma Virus, has a significant economic impact worldwide and there are no epidemiological data of this disease in Brasil. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of laryngeal papillomatosis of some otorhinolaryngology centers in São Paulo State (Brasil). METHODS: A questionnaire containing data on the number of new and follow-up cases diagnosed with laryngeal papillomatosis was sent to the Otorhinolaryngology services (n=35) of São Paulo State (Brasil). RESULTS: A total of 20 otorhinolaryngology centers answered the questionnaire. Of these, the five largest regional health centers were selected as follows: Campinas (42 cities - 4,536,657 inhabitants), Sao Jose do Rio Preto (102 cities - 1,602,845 inhabitants), Ribeirão Preto (26 cities - 1,483,715 inhabitants), Bauru (68 cities - 1,770,427 inhabitants), and Sorocaba (47 cities - 2,478,208 inhabitants). The incidence and prevalence of each regional health centers were, respectively: Campinas (5.51;7.27), Sorocaba (2.02;6.86), São José do Rio Preto (1.87;7.49), Ribeirão Preto (11.46;22.92), and Bauru (3.95;7.91). CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of the laryngeal papillomatosis of the five largest regional health centers of the interior of São Paulo State (Brasil) varied between 1.87 to 11.46 and 6.86 to 22.92 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, respectively for a total population of 11,871,852 inhabitants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Papiloma , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Incidencia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiología , Papiloma/epidemiología , Prevalencia
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(9): e00184820, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027475

RESUMEN

The inter-cities mobility network is of great importance in understanding outbreaks, especially in Brazil, a continental-dimension country. We adopt the data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the terrestrial flow of people between cities from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database in two scales: cities from Brazil, without the North region, and from the São Paulo State. Grounded on the complex networks approach, and considering that the mobility network serves as a proxy for the SARS-CoV-2 spreading, the nodes and edges represent cities and flows, respectively. Network centrality measures such as strength and degree are ranked and compared to the list of cities, ordered according to the day that they confirmed the first case of COVID-19. The strength measure captures the cities with a higher vulnerability of receiving new cases. Besides, it follows the interiorization process of SARS-CoV-2 in the São Paulo State when the network flows are above specific thresholds. Some countryside cities such as Feira de Santana (Bahia State), Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State), and Caruaru (Pernambuco State) have strength comparable to states' capitals. Our analysis offers additional tools for understanding and decision support to inter-cities mobility interventions regarding the SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Viaje , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Pandemias
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 689, 2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030599

RESUMEN

Flooding in urban basins is a major natural catastrophe that leads to many causalities of life and property. The semi-urbanized Koraiyar River basin in Tamil Nadu has important cities like Tiruchirappalli and many towns located in it. The basin unfailingly experiences a flood event in almost every decade. It is anticipated that the basin will undergo rapid unplanned urbanization in the years to come. Such fast and erratic urban developments will only increase the risk of urban floods ultimately resulting in loss of human lives and extensive damages to property and infrastructure. The effects of urbanization can be quantified in the form of land use land cover (LULC) changes. The LULC change and its impacts on urban runoff are studied for the continuous 30-year present time period of (1986-2016) to reliably predict the anticipated impact in the future time period of (2026-2036). The analysis of land cover patterns over the years shows that urbanization is more prevalent in the northern part of the basin of the chosen study area when compared with the other regions. The extreme rainfall events that occurred in the past, and the probable future LULC changes, as well as their influence on urban runoff, are studied together in the current study. In order to minimize flood damages due to these changing land use conditions, certain preventive and protective measures have to be adopted at the earliest. There are some inevitable limitations while applying traditional measures in flood modeling studies. This investigative work considers a case study on the ungauged Koraiyar floodplains. The spatial scale risk assessment is assessed by coupling geographic information systems, remote sensing, hydrologic, and hydraulic modeling, to estimate the flood hazard probabilities in the Koraiyar basin. The maximum flood flow is generated from the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS), the hydrologic model adopted in the present study. The maximum flood flow is given as input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), an effective hydraulic model that generates water depth and flood spread area in the basin. The flood depth and hazard maps are derived for 2, 5, 10, 50, and 100-year return periods. From the analysis, it is observed that the minimum flood depth is less than 1.2 m to a maximum of 4.7 m for the 100-year return period of past to predicted future years. The simulated results show that the maximum flood depth of 4.7 m with flood hazard area of 4.32% is identified as high hazard zones from the years 1986-2036, located in the center of the basin in Tiruchirappalli city. The very high hazard flood-affected zone in the Koraiyar basin during this period is about 198.85 km2. It is noticed that the very low hazard zone occupies more area in the basin for the present and future simulations of flood hazard maps. The results show that the increase in peak runoff and runoff volume is marginally varied.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Inundaciones , Ciudades , Hidrología , India
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 690, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034731

RESUMEN

Urbanization is occurring globally at an unprecedented rate. The byproduct of this mounting urbanization is an increase in municipal solid waste (MSW), which has a significant effect on population health and the surrounding environment. This trend poses a challenge to the cities responsible for managing waste in a socially and environmentally acceptable manner. Effective waste management strategies depend on local waste characteristics, which vary under different cultural, climatic, and socioeconomic conditions. It is important to note that MSW disposal represents one of the largest sources for anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study found a direct proportional urban and rural gradient between household income and GHG emissions under a typical urban household size. The distribution of GHG is U-shaped. This study found that urbanization exhibited a pattern of continuous growth, and the effect of urbanization was less than the effect of the population in magnitude. The correlation between GHG and income level in recent urban sprawl along a north-south transect was lower than during the period of early urban expansion.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Administración de Residuos , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Efecto Invernadero , Residuos Sólidos , Urbanización
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 407-415, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046934

RESUMEN

In 2018, Cape Town, South Africa, nearly ran out of water. That this has not yet happened is in large part due to the water-saving efforts of its citizens. It is highly likely that this situation will be repeated in Cape Town and that similar situations will be experienced by major cities in other parts of the world. Efforts to save water should thus continue and the lessons learned in Cape Town should be shared. The functioning of Veterinary Services during a drought is affected in the same way as any business, in terms of running an office, but veterinary professionals face an increased risk of exposure to pathogens, compared to that of many occupations, and of veterinary officials becoming disease vectors. One component of Veterinary Services is veterinary laboratory services. Laboratory procedures rely heavily on water and, without advance planning, a laboratory's function can be severely limited by a restricted water supply. In many cases, innovative water-saving techniques can be used to reduce water use substantially without compromising the quality of the services offered. Here, the authors share their experiences and some lessons learned while working in Veterinary Services in the Western Cape province of South Africa.


Asunto(s)
Vectores de Enfermedades , Sequías , Animales , Ciudades , Sudáfrica
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4575-4578, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019012

RESUMEN

Manual wheelchair users experience numerous invisible barriers while navigating cities, often reporting how stressful journeys are. This stress affects a wheelchair user's quality of life. To alleviate such psychological burden, we propose a novel intervention strategy with a respiratory biofeedback interface which is designed to help users feel relaxed in urban navigation. We conducted a study in a real-world setting to explore its potential to provide real-time psychological support. From qualitative and quantitative analysis, we report on the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Silla de Ruedas , Biorretroalimentación Psicológica , Ciudades , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
18.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(9): 1096-1100, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081897

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status quo of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Qinhuangdao area and its influence on the prognosis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Based on the Utstein model CPR database of Qinhuangdao, data of 1 162 OHCA patients admitted to the Health Emergency Dispatch Center of Qinhuangdao City from January 2018 to January 2019 were collected, and they were divided into two groups according to whether BCPR was performed or not. The patients' demographic parameters (gender, age), precardiac arrest parameters (location of cardiac arrest), the parameters of the CPR (first aid response time before hospital, initial diagnosis of causes of cardiac arrest, initial cardiac rhythm) and the parameters of the CPR results [whether to achieve on-site restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival rate] were collected. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed for the relationship between BCPR and on-site ROSC rate. The social characteristics of bystanders implementing BCPR, including gender, age, occupation, educational background, and acquisition method of CPR knowledge, were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 1 162 OHCA patients, the patients witnessed by professional medical personnel in nursing homes, hospitals and other places and pre-hospital emergency personnel were excluded. 852 OHCA patients were enrolled, among which only 24 patients obtained BCPR (2.8%), and the remaining 828 patients did not obtain BCPR (97.2%). There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, location of cardiac arrest, pre-hospital emergency response time, primary diagnosis of cardiac arrest causes and initial cardiac rhythm between the two groups. Compared with the non-BCPR group, the on-site ROSC rate and the 30-day survival rate of the BCPR group were significantly increased [on-site ROSC rate: 16.7% (4/24) vs. 5.2% (43/828), 30-day survival rate: 8.3% (2/24) vs. 1.3% (11/828), both P < 0.05]. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that BCPR [odds ratio (OR) = 32.132, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 11.129-65.471], location of cardiac arrest (OR = 0.080, 95%CI was 1.212-3.125) and response time during pre-hospital emergency treatment (OR = 0.121, 95%CI was 0.174-0.816) were important factors for on-site ROSC of OHCA patients (all P < 0.01). A total of 30 bystanders participated in the implementation of OHCA patients' BCPR, excluding 2 bystanders of lost follow-up, 28 bystanders with effective return visit. The 28 bystanders of BCPR practitioners were mainly male (85.7%), the age was mainly 18-40 years old (57.1%), the occupation was mainly in the tourism service industry (21.5%), students (17.9%), soldiers (14.3%) and bus drivers (10.7%), and the education background was mainly junior college or above (85.7%), the methods of acquiring CPR knowledge mainly included APP and new media (42.9%) and lectures (21.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The BCPR implementation rate of OHCA in Qinhuangdao was only 2.8%. BCPR can improve the success rate of pre-hospital CPR and the 30-day survival rate of OHCA patients. Targeted selection of tourism service industry, students, military personnel and bus drivers as CPR training targets may obtain more significant social benefits.


Asunto(s)
Reanimación Cardiopulmonar , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciudades , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tasa de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 60, 2020 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038922

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Improving and maintaining the health of mothers and newborns is indisputably a global priority, especially during a pandemic. This study intends to examine the factors associated with cesarean section (CS) during lockdown time. METHODS: A total of 678 women who just gave birth within 7 days were enrolled from maternal and children hospitals in nine cities of China from April to May 2020. The delivery modes and potential influencing factors were investigated. The subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to examine the association of CS and risk factors among populations with different characteristics and to control for possible confounding, respectively. RESULTS: The overall rate of cesarean delivery was 37.3%. In multi-variant model, maternal age > 30 years (OR, 95% CI = 1.71, 1.21-2.41), higher pre-gestational BMI (OR, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.10-1.23), living in regions with confirmed COVID-19 cases > 500 (OR, 95% CI = 2.45, 1.74-3.45), and excess gestational weight gain (OR, 95% CI = 1.73, 1.17-2.55) were associated with cesarean delivery. These trends of associations were not changes in sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis. Cesarean delivery occurred more in women who got more nutrition instruction during the pandemic period in the univariant model; however, this association showed insignificance in the multiple-variant analysis. CONCLUSION: A high cesarean delivery rate was found in uninfected women who experienced lockdown in their third trimester. During the COVID-19 pandemic, more medical support should be provided in severely affected regions to ensure and promote health in pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Madres , Pandemias , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Waste Manag ; 118: 573-584, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002824

RESUMEN

This paper assesses the performance of waste services in the region of Tuscany in Italy. It adopts non-parametric techniques for this purpose. Furthermore, it investigates the influence of the operational environment on the estimated performance by using the robust order-m technique. Meaningful levels of inefficiency were found in the Italian waste services. A specification of the ownership of the operator entrusted with waste management by municipalities and the formal adoption of the zero-waste strategy are included as environmental variables. The study concludes that the influence of the operational environment is a determinant of performance. The income per capita is negatively associated with efficiency, while population density is positively associated. Furthermore, efficiency levels are lower for municipalities with higher mixed waste per capita produced. Improving good pro-environmental behaviours is likely to improve efficiency and, thus, tariffs. The empirical results support the idea that it is necessary to make relevant organizational decisions that imply higher costs to increase the refuse collection rate. An increase in the separate collection rate beyond 50% is associated with the reduction of the efficiency level reached. Efficiency analysis does not consider the additional costs and the opportunities for municipalities to get revenues by selling them as secondary raw materials. Besides, the adoption of a zero-waste strategy is related to higher efficiency in MSW service provision. Finally, results about the ownership issue support the idea that privatization is not necessarily associated with the performance improvement of the waste services.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Alimentos , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Ciudades , Italia
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