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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 138, 2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321378

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a causal link between childhood socioeconomic status and health status in adulthood and beyond. It's vital to comprehend the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status and mental health among older Chinese individuals from the current generation who have undergone significant social changes in China. This understanding is critical to foster healthy demographic and social development in China. METHODS: Using data from the 2020 China Family Panel Studies, we investigate the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status and depression in older adults. Additionally, we examine the mediating role of adult socioeconomic status and subjective well-being. RESULTS: 1) Childhood socioeconomic status of Chinese older adults differences by region of residence, while depression levels differences by gender, region of residence, and marital status. 2) Adult socioeconomic status mediated the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status and depression in older adults. 3) Adult socioeconomic status and subjective well-being had a chain-mediated role in the relationship between childhood socioeconomic status and depression in older adults. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of childhood socioeconomic status, older adults in urban regions were significantly higher than those in rural regions. As for depression level, female older adults were more depressed than males; married older people have the lowest depression levels, while unmarried and widowed older people have higher depression levels; older adults in rural regions had higher depression levels than those in urban regions. Evidence from our study further suggests that childhood socioeconomic status can suppress the depression level in older adults through adult socioeconomic status; it can also further reduce the depression level in older adults through the chain mediation of adult economic status affecting subjective well-being. As depression is more prevalent among older individuals with a lower childhood socioeconomic status, it is vital to prioritize the extensive impact of childhood socioeconomic status as a distal factor and investigate "upstream" solutions to enhance childhood socioeconomic status and reduce the gap during the early years of life.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Clase Social , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Depresión/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estado de Salud , Salud Mental , China
2.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(2): e6069, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357974

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the onset of depressive symptoms has attracted considerable attention. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the association of multiple SES indicators, including "assets," with the onset of depressive symptoms. Therefore, this study examined the association of four SES indicators in old age ('years of education' 'equivalent income,' 'equivalent assets,' and 'the longest-held job') with new-onset depressive symptoms in a large Japanese dataset. METHODS: This longitudinal study used panel data of cognitively and physically independent older adults from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) conducted in 2013 and 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association of each SES indicator with new-onset depressive symptoms, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 40,257 older adults, with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 72.9 (±5.5) years. In the follow-up survey, 4292 older adults had new-onset depression symptoms (10.7%). 39.3% had 10-12 years of education. 36.9% had an equivalent income of up to JPY 1.99 million. 24.4% had equivalent assets of JPY 4-17.99 million. Most had a clerical job for the long time. Furthermore, fewer years of education (males: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.22-1.64, p-value <0.001/females: 1.26, [1.09-1.47], p = 0.002), lower income (males: 1.64, [1.34-2.01], p < 0.001/females: 1.82, [1.49-2.22], p < 0.001), and fewer assets (males: 1.40, [1.16-1.68], p < 0.001/females: 1.21, [1.02-1.42], p = 0.025) resulted in higher odds of having new-onset depressive symptoms, even when other SES indicators were entered simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: All four SES indicators have an independent association with the development of new-onset depressive symptoms among older adults, reflecting different aspects of SES. The association between the "longest-held job" and new-onset depressive symptoms can be largely explained by other SES indicators. A multifaceted and lifetime approach is required to prevent the onset of depressive symptoms in old age.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Clase Social , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Japón/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1289188, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406497

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of cataract-induced visual disability and its association with individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults in China. Methods: Using the data of 354,743 older adults (60 years and older) from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006. Cross-sectional study design was applied. The differences in visual disability prevalence of cataracts among sociodemographic subgroups were analyzed by the chi-square test, and the association between individual-level SES and cataract-induced visual disability was investigated by the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The weighted visual disability prevalence of cataracts was 4.84% in 2006. Older people with a higher household income per capita (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.81-0.85), higher education level (primary school vs. illiteracy: OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.76-0.83; ≥undergraduate college vs. illiteracy: OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.25-0.39), and occupation (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.50-0.56) were less likely to suffer from cataract-induced visual disability. Household income per capita and education level increase played a greater role in decreasing the risk of visual disability caused by cataracts in urban areas, while having occupation contributed more to reducing the risk of disability in rural areas. Conclusion: The gap in individual-level SES is closely related to the visual health inequities among older Chinese people and there are two distinct mechanisms in rural and urban areas. Strategies to promote collaborative healthcare development regionally, strengthen safeguards for disadvantaged groups, and increase public awareness of visual disability prevention are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Catarata , Personas con Discapacidad , Pueblos del Este de Asia , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Clase Social , Catarata/epidemiología
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1288848, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406501

RESUMEN

Background: There is an escalating concern about the rising levels of anxiety and depression among college students, especially during the post-pandemic era. A thorough examination of the various dimensions of social support and their impact on these negative emotions in college students is imperative. Aim: This study aimed to determine if a perceived loss of control mediates the relationship between social support and levels of anxiety and depression among college students during the post-pandemic era. Additionally, it examined whether family socioeconomic status moderates this mediated relationship. Methods: We administered an online cross-sectional survey in China, securing responses from 502 participants. The sample comprised home-isolated college students impacted by COVID-19. Established scales were employed to assess social support, anxiety, depression, perceived loss of control, and family socioeconomic status. Analytical techniques included descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and a bootstrap method to investigate mediating and moderating effects. Results: Social support was found to negatively affect anxiety and depression in college students, with perceived loss of control partially mediating this relationship. In addition, family socio-economic status was shown to moderate this moderating process. Furthermore, family socioeconomic status influenced this mediation, with higher socioeconomic families exhibiting a stronger moderating effect on perceived loss of control across different dimensions of social support. Conclusion: This study may help to develop strategies to mitigate the impact of anxiety and depression in the lives and studies of university students during unexpected public health crises, and to promote better mental health among college students.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Apoyo Social , Clase Social , Estudiantes
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4885, 2024 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418448

RESUMEN

Early diagnosis and following management are important determinants of the prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM). However, screening for MM is not routinely performed because it is rare disease. In this study, we evaluated the association of prior disease condition and socioeconomic status (SES) with MM diagnosis and developed a simple predictive model that can identify patients at high risk of developing MM who may need screening using nationwide database from South Korea. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, eight prior disease conditions and SES before diagnosis were shown to be predictors of MM development and selected for score development. Total prediction scores were categorized into four groups: patients without any risk (≤ 0) intermediate-1 (0.5-9), intermediate-2 (9-14), and high risk (> 14). The odds ratios for developing MM in the intermediate-1, intermediate-2, and high-risk groups were 1.29, 3.07, and 4.62, respectively. The association of prior disease conditions and SES with MM diagnosis were demonstrated and the simple scoring system to predict the MM risk was developed. This scoring system is also provided by web-based application and could be a useful tool to support clinicians in identifying potential candidates for MM screening.


Asunto(s)
Mieloma Múltiple , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Mieloma Múltiple/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiple/epidemiología , Clase Social , Factores de Riesgo , Medición de Riesgo
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 438, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347510

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a strong association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and periodontitis. This study utilized the Life Essentials 8 (LE8) score, a composite measure of cardiovascular health (CVH), to elucidate the relationship between CVH and periodontitis. METHODS: Data from 8,649 nationally representative participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. The independent variable in our study was the CVH score (a higher CVH score indicates better cardiovascular health), and the dependent variable was the presence or absence of periodontitis. The association between CVH and periodontitis was investigated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline (RCS). We controlled for potential confounders such as age, sex, race, education, and socioeconomic status to minimize bias. RESULTS: There was a negative association between the total CVH score and the odds of periodontitis. After adjusting for all covariates, a 10-point increase in total CVH score was associated with a 10% lower in the odds of periodontitis [0.90 (0.87, 0.93)]. Participants with a higher CVH had 40% lower odds of periodontitis compared with those with a lower CVH. Socioeconomic status (education and income) modified this association (P for interaction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that better cardiovascular health, as indicated by higher CVH scores, is associated with a reduced likelihood of periodontitis among US adults. The relationship between CVH and periodontitis appears to be influenced by socioeconomic status, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions in populations with lower socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Periodontitis , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas Nutricionales , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Clase Social , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Estado de Salud
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e240503, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411960

RESUMEN

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the delivery of cancer care, but less is known about its association with place of death and delivery of specialized palliative care (SPC) and potential disparities in these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with death at home and SPC delivery at the end of life and to examine whether disparities in socioeconomic status exist for these outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, an interrupted time series analysis was conducted using Ontario Cancer Registry data comprising adult patients aged 18 years or older who died with cancer between the pre-COVID-19 (March 16, 2015, to March 15, 2020) and COVID-19 (March 16, 2020, to March 15, 2021) periods. The data analysis was performed between March and November 2023. Exposure: COVID-19-related hospital restrictions starting March 16, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were death at home and SPC delivery at the end of life (last 30 days before death). Socioeconomic status was measured using Ontario Marginalization Index area-based material deprivation quintiles, with quintile 1 (Q1) indicating the least deprivation; Q3, intermediate deprivation; and Q5, the most deprivation. Segmented linear regression was used to estimate monthly trends in outcomes before, at the start of, and in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Of 173 915 patients in the study cohort (mean [SD] age, 72.1 [12.5] years; males, 54.1% [95% CI, 53.8%-54.3%]), 83.7% (95% CI, 83.6%-83.9%) died in the pre-COVID-19 period and 16.3% (95% CI, 16.1%-16.4%) died in the COVID-19 period, 54.5% (95% CI, 54.2%-54.7%) died at home during the entire study period, and 57.8% (95% CI, 57.5%-58.0%) received SPC at the end of life. In March 2020, home deaths increased by 8.3% (95% CI, 7.4%-9.1%); however, this increase was less marked in Q5 (6.1%; 95% CI, 4.4%-7.8%) than in Q1 (11.4%; 95% CI, 9.6%-13.2%) and Q3 (10.0%; 95% CI, 9.0%-11.1%). There was a simultaneous decrease of 5.3% (95% CI, -6.3% to -4.4%) in the rate of SPC at the end of life, with no significant difference among quintiles. Patients who received SPC at the end of life (vs no SPC) were more likely to die at home before and during the pandemic. However, there was a larger immediate increase in home deaths among those who received no SPC at the end of life vs those who received SPC (Q1, 17.5% [95% CI, 15.2%-19.8%] vs 7.6% [95% CI, 5.4%-9.7%]; Q3, 12.7% [95% CI, 10.8%-14.5%] vs 9.0% [95% CI, 7.2%-10.7%]). For Q5, the increase in home deaths was significant only for patients who did not receive SPC (13.9% [95% CI, 11.9%-15.8%] vs 1.2% [95% CI, -1.0% to 3.5%]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with amplified socioeconomic disparities in death at home and SPC delivery at the end of life. Future research should focus on the mechanisms of these disparities and on developing interventions to ensure equitable and consistent SPC access.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudios de Cohortes , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Clase Social , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Muerte
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2647, 2024 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302613

RESUMEN

This study aims to evaluate the effect of social capital (SC), social support (SS), and social network formation (SNF) on the quality of life of American adults during COVID-19. Using a probability sample of American adults aged 49+, 2370 respondents were selected from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) dataset for analysis using an integrated partial least squares based on structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)-K-fold cross-validation approach. The analysis showed that social capital assessed using civic engagement, social cohesion, socioeconomic status (SES), social support, and social network formation were significantly and positively associated with American adults' quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the results showed that using the PLS-SEM and K-fold cross-validation approach produced a medium predictive power of the overall model, confirming the importance of SC, SS, and SNF in predicting quality of life-outcomes. These findings suggest that efforts to promote the well-being of American adults, especially older adults, during the pandemic should focus on strengthening social capital, social support and social network formation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Capital Social , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Anciano , Calidad de Vida , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Apoyo Social , Clase Social , Red Social
9.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04010, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304974

RESUMEN

Background: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for poor cognitive function, while a healthy lifestyle is associated with better cognitive function. We examined the complex relationship between SES and a healthy lifestyle and cognitive function among older Chinese adults. Methods: We used a national prospective cohort of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from 2008-18, aged 65 years and older with normal cognition at baseline. Participants were categorised into the favourable group if they had four to six healthy lifestyle factors and the unfavourable group for zero to three factors. SES was classified as higher and lower by assessing the socioeconomic vulnerability index (SEVI) with six components. Cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and the standardised Z-scores. We applied the linear mixed effects and time-dependent Cox regression models to explore associations and further stratified the analysis by healthy lifestyles. Results: A total of 6851 participants were included (the mean age was 80.87, 43.44% had a favourable lifestyle, and 49.29% had higher SES). Over the 10-year follow-up period, SES status and lifestyle profiles significantly affected the decline in the standardised Z-scores (P < 0.05). The higher SES group with favourable lifestyles exhibited a slower cognitive decline than those with lower SES (by 0.031 points per year, P < 0.05). The association was not observed in those in the unfavourable group (0.010 points per year, P > 0.05). During a follow-up, 25.06% of participants developed cognitive impairment (MMSE<18). We also observed a significant interaction between SES and healthy lifestyles (P < 0.05), with the corresponding associations of SES being more pronounced among participants with unfavourable lifestyles (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.821; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.701-0.960) than those with favourable lifestyles (HR = 1.006; 95% CI = 0.844-1.200). Conclusions: A healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse impacts of lower SES on cognitive function among older adults. This study might provide important information for protecting cognitive function, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Estudios Prospectivos , Clase Social , China/epidemiología
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2354270, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300620

RESUMEN

Importance: People with low socioeconomic status (SES) experience greater burden from alcohol-attributable health conditions and mortality at equal levels of alcohol consumption compared with those with high SES. A U-shaped association has been established between alcohol use and ischemic heart disease (IHD), but no study has explored how such an association differs by SES in the US. Objective: To investigate how the association of alcohol use with ischemic heart disease mortality differs by SES in the general US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used record-linked, cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data for US adults aged 25 years and older, covering 1997 to 2018 with mortality follow-up until 2019. Data analysis was performed from March to June 2023. Exposures: SES (operationalized using education attainment) and alcohol consumption were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was time to IHD mortality or last presumed alive by December 31, 2019. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to evaluate the interaction of SES and alcohol use on IHD mortality, with age as the time scale. Sex-stratified analyses were performed, adjusting for race and ethnicity, marital status, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and survey year. Fine-Gray subdistribution models were applied to account for competing risks. Results: This cohort study of 524 035 participants (mean [SD] age at baseline, 50.3 [16.2] years; 290 492 women [51.5%]) found a statistically significantly greater protective association of drinking less than 20 g per day (vs lifetime abstinence) with IHD mortality in the high-SES group compared with the low-SES group (interaction term hazard ratio [HR], 1.22 [95% CI, 1.02-1.45] in men; HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.09-1.67] in women). In addition, the differential associations of drinking less than 20 g per day with IHD mortality by SES were observed only among people with less than monthly heavy episodic drinking (HED) (interaction term, HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.43] in men; HR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.08-1.67] in women); no difference was found in people with at least monthly HED. Among women there was a greater protective association of drinking less than 20 g per day with IHD mortality in the high-SES group than the middle-SES group (interaction term, HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.06-1.72]). Among men, the harmful association of drinking more than 60 g per day with IHD mortality in the low-SES group was largely explained by other behavioral risk factors (ie, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found a greater protective association between drinking less than 20 g per day with less than monthly HED and IHD mortality in the high-SES group compared with the low-SES group, in both sexes even after adjusting for key covariables and behavioral risk factors. The findings suggest that public health interventions on alcohol use should account for different socioeconomic backgrounds when assessing the level of risk related to alcohol exposure, bearing in mind that levels of consumption deemed safe regarding a specific outcome such as IHD may indeed be less safe or not safe across all sociodemographic groups.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Isquemia Miocárdica , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Clase Social , Fumar , Etanol
11.
Anticancer Res ; 44(2): 631-637, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with disparities in the time-to-treatment for melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an analysis of patients with melanoma from 2004 to 2019 using the National Cancer Database. Time intervals from diagnosis to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy were compared based on age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A total of 647,273 patients with melanoma were included. Overall, Hispanic patients had the longest times to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy compared to non-Hispanic patients (surgery 38.52 vs. 31.90 days, radiation 130.12 vs. 99.67 days, chemotherapy 93.66 vs. 83.72 days, all p<0.01). Similarly, black patients and those who were uninsured had the longest times-to-treatment. CONCLUSION: We identified significant disparities in time-to-treatment, related to both race and socioeconomic factors. It is increasingly imperative to conduct further investigations into the root causes of these disparities to effectively address and rectify the inequities present in breast cancer care.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Melanoma , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Humanos , Hispánicos o Latinos , Melanoma/terapia , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 128, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308219

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Food security is a function of food access and dietary diversity. Older age is a period when adequate and diverse dietary intake is a challenge. This study aimed to investigate the association between food security on the one hand and dietary diversity and socioeconomic factors on the other hand among the free-living older people in the city of Tehran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 583 older people, aged 60-80 years living in Tehran city, were selected through the systematic cluster sampling method. Food security was determined by the United States Household Food Security Survey Module (US-HFSSM (.Socioeconomic status (SES) and two 24-h recalls were obtained. Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) was calculated using the FAO 2010 guideline. Multinomial logistic regression was applied. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 67.87 ± 5.86 years. Based on US-HFSSM, 56.9% of older people were food secure; while 25.7%, 14.2% and 3.2% suffered from food insecurity (FI) without hunger, with moderate hunger, and with severe hunger, respectively. There was no association between FI and DDS, even after controlling for confounders. FI with mild hunger was associated with household income (OR = 2.744, 95% CI = 1.100-6.846), while FI with severe hunger was associated with Fars ethnicity (OR = 0.146, 95% CI = 0.051-0.424). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, socio-economic status and demographic characteristics were the predictors of FI among older people. The findings can have implication in design and targeting of interventions directed at older people.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Clase Social , Humanos , Anciano , Irán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Seguridad Alimentaria
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298068, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363727

RESUMEN

This is a retrospective cross-sectional study examining the association between unemployment, cancer type, treatment and total body fat percentage of childhood cancer survivors recruited at St. Anne's University Hospital in Brno, Czech Republic. A total of 55 survivors aged 18-49 who were in remission of cancer and fulfilled the criteria for body composition measurements by the BIA and completed questionnaires investigating their socioeconomic status, employment status, and history. There was a significant relationship between the employment status and central nervous system-directed treatment (c2(1) = 7.53, p = 0.006, Cramér's V = 0.38) and between the type of cancer and employment status (c2(3) = 7.83, p = 0.049, Cramér's V = 0.38), the highest unemployment rate was recorded for brain and spine survivors (72.7%) compared to survivors with other diagnosis (35.7%) (uLR(1) = 4.91, p = 0.027; OR = 4.80, 95% CI:1.10-20.86, p = 0.036); these survivors did not have a significantly different body fat percentage compared to survivors with other diagnoses (t(53) = 1.29, p = 0.202, Cohen's d = 0.41) Interestingly, the survivors reporting having a partner also had a significantly higher percentage of body fat (t(53) = 2.90, p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.81). A linear regression model was used to model the percentage of body fat in relation to a set of selected variables and the we observed a significant effect of sex (female vs male: b = 6.37, 95% CI: 1.82-10.93, p = 0.007), partnership status (yes vs no: b = 5.65, 95% CI: 0.67-10.62, p = 0.027) and category of diagnosis (Brain and spinal column tumors vs Other solid tumors: b = 12.40, 95% CI: 0.59-24.21, p = 0.040; Brain and spinal column tumors vs Lymphoma: b = 14.02, 95% CI: 2.06-25.97, p = 0.023). Employment status and risk of adiposity in childhood cancer survivors depends on the type of treatment and diagnosis group, which may significantly impact their lifestyle and overall quality of life after treatment. Trial registration: This study was registered on July 29, 2022, at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05481229).


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias del Sistema Nervioso Central , Neoplasias , Humanos , Masculino , Niño , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Adiposidad , Calidad de Vida , Obesidad , Clase Social
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(2): e11532023, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324829

RESUMEN

The article discusses the interface between gender, social classes, and (bio)technologies to improve body aesthetics. Dialoguing with gender studies, it investigates how these (bio)technologies act in the production of contemporary bodies and femininities in different social groups based on ethnographic research performed in circuits where these interventions occur. We analyze the uses, meanings, and moralities attributed to them, showing how they fabricate conventions simultaneously aesthetic, moral, and bodily of femininity in a process also traversed by distinctions and class belonging.


O artigo trata da interface entre gênero, classes sociais e (bio)tecnologias destinadas ao aprimoramento da estética corporal. Dialogando com os estudos de gênero, investiga como essas (bio)tecnologias atuam na produção de corpos e feminilidades contemporâneos em diferentes grupos sociais, baseando-se em pesquisas etnográficas realizadas em circuitos onde essas intervenções são realizadas. Analisa-se os usos, sentidos e moralidades atribuídos a elas, mostrando como fabricam convenções ao mesmo tempo estéticas, morais e corporais de feminilidade, num processo também atravessado por distinções e pertencimentos de classe.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Clase Social , Humanos , Femenino , Brasil , Antropología Cultural , Tecnología
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 404, 2024 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326802

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To inform the development of an online tool to be potentially used in shared decision-making about breast cancer screening, French women were questioned about participation in breast cancer screening, the health professional's role, and their perceptions of the proposed tool. METHODS: We organised focus group discussions with 55 French women. Two different strategies were used to recruit women from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. We applied both inductive and deductive approaches to conduct a thematic analysis of the discussions. We analysed the responses by using the main determinants from different health behaviour models and compared the two groups. RESULTS: Independently of socioeconomic status, the most important determinant for a woman's participation in breast cancer screening was the perceived severity of breast cancer and the perceived benefits of its early detection by screening. Cues to action reported by both groups were invitation letters; recommendations by health professionals, or group/community activities and public events were reported by women from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds, respectively. Among other positive determinants, women from high socioeconomic backgrounds reported making informed decisions and receiving peer support whereas women from low socioeconomic backgrounds reported community empowerment through group/community events. Fear of cancer was reported as a barrier in both groups. Among other barriers, language issues were reported only by women from low socioeconomic backgrounds; women from high socioeconomic backgrounds reported breast cancer screening-related risks other than overdiagnosis and/or overtreatment. Barriers to accessing the online tool to be developed were mainly reported by women from high socioeconomic backgrounds. CONCLUSION: Limitations in implementing shared decision-making for women from low socioeconomic backgrounds were highlighted. An online tool that is suitable for all women, regardless of socioeconomic status, would provide "on-demand" reliable and tailored information about breast cancer screening and improve access to health professionals and social exchanges.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Mama/prevención & control , Grupos Focales , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Investigación Cualitativa , Clase Social , Toma de Decisiones , Tamizaje Masivo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338933

RESUMEN

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, and its pathophysiology includes neuroinflammatory changes. The present therapies for glaucoma target pressure-lowering mechanisms with limited success, making neuroinflammation a target for future interventions. This review summarizes the neuroinflammatory pathways seen in glaucoma and their interplay with stress. Glucocorticoids have been shown to activate proinflammatory glial cells, contributing to the neuroinflammation in glaucoma. Glucocorticoids have also been shown to increase the IOP directly. Stress-associated autonomic dysfunction can affect the vascular homeostasis in the retina and create oxidative stress. Diabetes, hyperglycemic-mediated endothelial damage, and vascular inflammation also play important roles in the neuroinflammation in glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Psychosocial stress has been implicated in an increased IOP and glaucoma outcomes. People who experience maladaptive chronic stress suffer from a condition known as allostatic load, which describes pathologic neuroendocrine dysregulation. The effects of allostatic load and chronic stress have been studied in patients affected by a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and marginalized racial identities. A lower SES is associated with higher rates of glaucoma and also affects the access to care and screening. Additionally, people of African ancestry are disproportionately affected by glaucoma for reasons that are multifactorial. In conclusion, this review explores neuroinflammation in glaucoma, highlighting opportunities for future investigation.


Asunto(s)
Alostasis , Glaucoma , Humanos , Alostasis/fisiología , Enfermedades Neuroinflamatorias , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Clase Social , Inequidades en Salud
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(4): e030805, 2024 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348807

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Higher scores for the American Heart Association Life's Essential 8 (LE8) metrics, blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sleep, and diet, are associated with lower risk of chronic disease. Socioeconomic status (SES; employment, insurance, education, and income) is associated with LE8 scores, but there is limited understanding of potential differences by sex. This analysis quantifies the association of SES with LE8 for each sex, within Hispanic Americans, non-Hispanic Asian Americans, non-Hispanic Black Americans, and non-Hispanic White Americans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, years 2011 to 2018, LE8 scores were calculated (range, 0-100). Age-adjusted linear regression quantified the association of SES with LE8 score. The interaction of sex with SES in the association with LE8 score was assessed in each racial and ethnic group. The US population representatively weighted sample (13 529 observations) was aged ≥20 years (median, 48 years). The association of education and income with LE8 scores was higher in women compared with men for non-Hispanic Black Americans and non-Hispanic White Americans (P for all interactions <0.05). Among non-Hispanic Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans, the association of SES with LE8 was not different between men and women, and women had greater LE8 scores than men at all SES levels (eg, high school or less, some college, and college degree or more). CONCLUSIONS: The factors that explain the sex differences among non-Hispanic Black Americans and non-Hispanic White Americans, but not non-Hispanic Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans, are critical areas for further research to advance cardiovascular health equity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estudios Transversales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Clase Social
18.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077750, 2024 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367976

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the literature that studies the links between life-course socioeconomic status and weight status and characterize the life-course approach used. INTRODUCTION: Obesogenic environments are increasing rapidly in deprived environments, and cross-sectional studies have shown limitations in explaining the links between these environments and obesity. The life-course approach has been proposed recently to better understand the links between socioeconomic status and weight status. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies that identify life-course socioeconomic status and longitudinal built environment indicators and associate them with body weight indicators between January 2000 and January 2023. METHODS: Studies in French or English were searched in Medline (PubMed), Web of Science and GeoBase (Embase) according to the strategies formulated for each database. The selected studies were exported to Covidence for evaluation according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS: The main results retained are the association between longitudinal socioeconomic indicators and weight measures; longitudinal built environment indicators and the measures of weight.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Clase Social , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Entorno Construido , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
19.
Respir Med ; 223: 107561, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340905

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respiratory symptoms are a common public health issue that can partly be attributed to preventable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking and occupational exposure, which are more common in individuals with lower socioeconomic status. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the social gradient in respiratory symptoms in Nordic countries. METHODS: This study included participants aged 30-65 years from five cross-sectional population-based questionnaire surveys in 2016 in Finland and Sweden (N = 25,423) and in 2017-2019 in Norway (N = 27,107). Occupational skill levels 1 and 2 (occupations requiring compulsory education) were combined and compared to skill levels 3 and 4 (occupations requiring upper secondary and tertiary education). Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain pooled age- and sex adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of associations between occupational skill and the respiratory symptoms including recurrent wheeze, dyspnoea, and productive cough. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis, recurrent wheeze, dyspnoea, and productive cough showed a social gradient. The participants with occupational skill 1 and 2 had higher risk for recurrent wheeze (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.34-2.22) and dyspnoea (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.29-1.90) compared to occupational skill 3 and 4 in Sweden and Finland. Similarly increased risk was observed for combined assessment of dyspnoea and wheeze (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07) in Norway. In a meta-analysis including all three countries, the aOR for productive cough was 1.31 95% CI 1.07-1.56. CONCLUSIONS: Occupations with lower, compared to higher, skill levels were associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheeze, dyspnoea, and productive cough.


Asunto(s)
Disnea , Ruidos Respiratorios , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Noruega/epidemiología , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Clase Social , Tos/epidemiología , Tos/etiología
20.
Med Humanit ; 50(1): 109-115, 2024 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388185

RESUMEN

Although cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, six billion people lack access to safe, timely and affordable cardiac surgical care when needed. The burden of cardiovascular disease and disparities in access to care vary widely based on sociodemographic characteristics, including but not limited to geography, sex, gender, race, ethnicity, indigeneity, socioeconomic status and age. To date, the majority of cardiovascular, global health and global surgical research has lacked intersectionality lenses and methodologies to better understand access to care at the intersection of multiple identities and traditions. As such, global (cardiac) surgical definitions and health system interventions have been rooted in reductionism, focusing, at most, on singular sociodemographic characteristics. In this article, we evaluate barriers in global access to cardiac surgery based on existing intersectionality themes and literature. We further examine intersectionality methodologies to study access to cardiovascular care and cardiac surgery and seek to redefine the definition of 'global cardiac surgery' through an intersectionality lens.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos , Marco Interseccional , Humanos , Etnicidad , Clase Social , Salud Global
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