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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Embarazo , Clase Social
2.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 23-31, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801192

RESUMEN

Significant disparities exist in lung cancer incidence and screening. Geographic, racial, gender, and socioeconomic disparities affect lung cancer incidence. As the leading cause of lung cancer, smoking varies among different racioethnic groups, genders, and socioeconomic statuses. In addition, environmental pollutants, such as radon, industrial toxins, and air pollution, are significant risk factors for lung cancer development that is disproportionately seen in working-class communities, as well as underserved and disabled populations. Lung cancer incidence depends on diagnosis. Literature examining lung cancer incidence and screening disparities have its limitations, as most studies are methodologically limited and do not adjust for important risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar , Clase Social
3.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 33-42, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801193

RESUMEN

Social disparities in lung cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival have been studied using national databases, statewide registries, and institution-level data. Some disparities emerge consistently, such as lower adherence to treatment guidelines and worse survival by race and socioeconomic status, whereas other disparities are less well studied. A critical appraisal of current data is essential to increasing equity in lung cancer care.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Clase Social
4.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 645513, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744593

RESUMEN

Objectives: To assess time trends in the social class inequalities and in total inequality in disability and self-rated health (SRH) in two oldest old populations. Methods: The data came from the Finnish Vitality 90+ Study (2001, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2014 and 2018; n = 5,440) and from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002, 2004, 2011 and 2014; n = 1,645). Inequalities in mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) disability and SRH were examined cross-sectionally and over time using relative and absolute measures. Results: Lower social classes had greater mobility and ADL disability and worse SRH than higher social classes and the inequalities tended to increase over time. Findings were remarkably similar in both studies and with absolute and relative measures. Total inequality, referring to the variance in health outcome in the total population, remained stable or decreased. Conclusion: The study suggests that the earlier findings of improved mobility and ADL are largely driven by the positive development in higher social classes while findings of decline in SRH are related to the worsening of SRH in lower social classes.


Asunto(s)
Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Personas con Discapacidad , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Clase Social , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Finlandia , Humanos , Suecia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 11 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750264

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has had worse health, education, and labor market effects on groups with low socioeconomic status (SES) than on those with high SES. Little is known, however, about whether COVID-19 has also had differential effects on noncognitive skills that are important for life outcomes. Using panel data from before and during the pandemic, we show that COVID-19 affects one key noncognitive skill, that is, prosociality. While prosociality is already lower for low-SES students prior to the pandemic, we show that COVID-19 infections within families amplify the prosociality gap between French high school students of high and low SES by almost tripling its size in comparison to pre-COVID-19 levels.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/transmisión , Familia , SARS-CoV-2 , Conducta Social , Clase Social , Adolescente , Humanos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27506, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731134

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that obesity might be associated with chronic periodontitis (CP); however, no clear conclusions have been reached so far. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity and CP by using a large population-based dataset in Taiwan.A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010 (LHID2010) derived from the National Health Insurance Research database in Taiwan, from 2000 to 2013. Obesity and non-obesity groups were matched with sex, age, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, and the related comorbidities by using the propensity score method at a 1:2 ratio.An obese cohort (n = 4140) and a non-obese cohort (n = 8280) were included in this study, with an average age of 41.7 ±â€Š13.8 years and 42.0 ±â€Š14.0 years, respectively. The risk of CP for the patients with obesity was 1.12-fold compared with those without obesity (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25). In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the hazard ratio of CP were 1.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.22) in the subgroup of age equal to or older than 65 years. The risk of CP showed no difference between obesity and non-obesity groups in both sex.This population-based cohort study demonstrated that obesity was associated with the development of CP in Taiwan.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica/diagnóstico , Periodontitis Crónica/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedad Crónica , Periodontitis Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Clase Social , Taiwán/epidemiología
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 29.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the debate on the determinants of social class variation in health, it has been suggested that social mobility and associated factors play an important role in this variation. Social mobility describes changes or stability between social class positions. The aim of this paper was to identify studies on the association between social mobility and health. METHODS: The databases consulted were MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, CRD. The keywords used (in English), through the MeSH methodology, were: Health (MajorTerm), Class mobility, Vertical mobility, Social position, Socioeconomic factors, Social class, Social conditions, Social environment, Poverty and Social marginalisation (MeSHTerm). The search period was from January 2010 to December 2019. The STROBE statement has been used to develop the checklist. Finally, the evaluation of the studies has been carried out by means of a qualitative systematic review. RESULTS: The search identified 1,092 potentially relevant studies. After analysis, 376 studies were retained and their full texts were reviewed in depth, resulting in a final set of 42 studies. Of these, 2 studies were identified on Class Mobility and Health; 5 studies were also identified on Poverty and Health, showing evidence of effect on Health by Social Mobility; 9 studies on Social Class and Health, showing effect of Social Mobility on Health and 8 studies showing effect of Social Position on Health. CONCLUSIONS: Social mobility measures convey additional information to that of poverty indices. Using indices of social position and their impact on health inequalities could be empirically useful. More research is needed on this issue.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Movilidad Social , Humanos , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , España
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259580, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748585

RESUMEN

A lockdown implies a shift from the public to the private sphere, and from market to non-market production, thereby increasing the volume of unpaid work. Already before the pandemic, unpaid work was disproportionately borne by women. This paper studies the effect of working from home for pay (WFH), due to a lockdown, on the change in the division of housework and childcare within couple households. While previous studies on the effect of WFH on the reconciliation of work and family life and the division of labour within the household suffered from selection bias, we are able to identify this effect by drawing upon the shock of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. The corresponding legal measures left little choice over WFH. In any case, WFH is exogenous, conditional on a small set of individual and household characteristics we control for. We employ data from a survey on the gendered aspects of the lockdown. The dataset includes detailed information on time use during the lockdown and on the quality and experience of WFH. Uniquely, this survey data also includes information on the division, and not only magnitude, of unpaid work within households. Austria is an interesting case in this respect as it is characterized by very conservative gender norms. The results reveal that the probability of men taking on a larger share of housework increases if men are WFH alone or together with their female partner. By contrast, the involvement of men in childcare increased only in the event that the female partner was not able to WFH. Overall, the burden of childcare, and particularly homeschooling, was disproportionately borne by women.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Cuidado del Niño , Empleo , Cuarentena , Teletrabajo , Austria , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 248, 2021 11 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic shows the presence of health disparities, especially in terms of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) with health outcomes and access to healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrieved published evidence from late December 2019 through March 1, 2021. The target population was the population of the countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The exposures were defined as belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups and/or low SES. The primary outcomes of interest include (1) death from COVID-19, (2) COVID-19 incidence/infection, (3) COVID-19 hospitalization, (4) ICU admission, (5) need for mechanical ventilation, (6) confirmed diagnosis, and (7) access to testing. We systematically synthesized the findings from different studies and provided a narrative explanation of the results. RESULTS: After removing the duplicate results and screening for relevant titles and abstracts, 77 studies were selected for full-text review. Finally, 52 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies were from the United States (37 studies). Despite the significant incongruity among the studies, most of them showed that racial/ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, confirmed diagnosis, and death. Additionally, most of the studies cited factors such as low level of education, poverty, poor housing conditions, low household income, speaking in a language other than the national language in a country, and living in overcrowded households as risk factors of COVID-19 incidence/infection, death, and confirmed diagnosis. However, findings in terms of the association of lack of health insurance coverage and unemployment with the outcome measures as well as the association of requiring mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and access to testing for COVID-19 with race/ethnicity were limited and inconsistent. CONCLUSION: It is evident that racial/ethnic minority groups and those from low SES are more vulnerable to COVID-19; therefore, public health policymakers, practitioners, and clinicians should be aware of these inequalities and strive to narrow the gap by focusing on vulnerable populations. This systematic review also revealed a major incongruity in the definition of the racial/ethnic minority groups and SES among the studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020190105.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Clase Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134147, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762110

RESUMEN

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority groups, and race and ethnicity have been associated with disease severity. However, the association of socioeconomic determinants with racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate the association of race and ethnicity with COVID-19 outcomes and to examine the association between race, ethnicity, COVID-19 outcomes, and socioeconomic determinants. Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, medRxiv, bioRxiv, Embase, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 databases was performed for studies published from January 1, 2020, to January 6, 2021. Study Selection: Studies that reported data on associations between race and ethnicity and COVID-19 positivity, disease severity, and socioeconomic status were included and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies that did not have a satisfactory quality score were excluded. Overall, less than 1% (0.47%) of initially identified studies met selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Associations were assessed using adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), combined prevalence, and metaregression. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main measures were RRs, ORs, and combined prevalence values. Results: A total of 4 318 929 patients from 68 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, 370 933 patients (8.6%) were African American, 9082 (0.2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 101 793 (2.4%) were Asian American, 851 392 identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.7%), 7417 (0.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1 037 996 (24.0%) were White, and 269 040 (6.2%) identified as multiracial and another race or ethnicity. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, African American individuals (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.38-9.07; P = .008) and Hispanic individuals (RR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.28-17.20; P = .02) were the most likely to test positive for COVID-19. Asian American individuals had the highest risk of intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.34, P < .001). The area deprivation index was positively correlated with mortality rates in Asian American and Hispanic individuals (P < .001). Decreased access to clinical care was positively correlated with COVID-19 positivity in Hispanic individuals (P < .001) and African American individuals (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, members of racial and ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 positivity and disease severity. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants were strongly associated with COVID-19 outcomes in racial and ethnic minority populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , COVID-19/epidemiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud/métodos , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/etnología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769728

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is crucial for human flourishing and strongly influences having meaning in life. We investigated the association between local public library density as a shared resource and motivational orientation toward their occupation in Japanese adolescents. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted using data from a nationwide birth cohort survey in Japan (n = 12,184). At age 7, their caregivers answered questionnaires on children including the number of books read. Library density (low, moderate, or high) in each municipality was obtained from national statistics. At age 15, the adolescents indicated whether they had decided on an occupation and selected motivational orientations from among intrinsic (own ability and interest), extrinsic (high earnings, social class, or job stability), and altruistic (social contribution) orientations. Multilevel linear probability models were fitted, adjusting for confounders, including household socioeconomic status and city size. RESULTS: Intrinsic, extrinsic, and altruistic motivations for desired occupation were reported by 40.7%, 31.9% and 41.8% of participants, respectively. Living in a municipality with a high library density at age 7 was associated with having intrinsic motivation at age 15 than low density by 3.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 5.85). The association was more prominent for those with lower income (P for interaction = 0.026). Neither extrinsic nor altruistic motivations were associated with library density (coefficient: -0.13; 95% CI: -2.81, 2.56; coefficient: 0.08; 95% CI: -2.72, 2.88 percentage points, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Developing libraries in communities could encourage intrinsic motivation in adolescents, specifically for those in low-income households.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Clase Social , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Renta , Estudios Longitudinales , Ocupaciones
13.
Zootaxa ; 5067(2): 279-284, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810742

RESUMEN

Ebogotermes raphaeli gen. n. sp. n., is described from workers collected in Cameroon. This soil-feeding termite is the largest soldierless termite from central Africa and aligns with the Anoplotermes subgroup. The enteric valve armature is weakly armed and, as with most apicotermitine species, is uniquely diagnostic.


Asunto(s)
Isópteros , Animales , Clase Social , Suelo
14.
Zootaxa ; 5033(1): 1-230, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811105

RESUMEN

This paper provides a taxonomic revision and reviews natural history for 35 South American species of the seed-harvesting ant genus Pogonomyrmex. Species treated herein mostly comprise the P. rastratus-group; four species are revived from synonomy, three taxa are elevated from subspecies to species, five taxa are synonymized, and 20 new species are described. The following taxa are revived from synonomy: P. intermedia Menozzi, P. semistriata Emery, P. spinolae Emery, and P. weiseri Santschi. The following taxa are raised from subspecies to species: P. leonis Kusnezov, P. pulchellus Santschi, and P. sanmartini Kusnezov. The following new synonymies are proposed, with the senior synonym listed first, and the junior synonym(s) in parentheses: P. carbonarius Mayr (= P. kusnezovi Cuezzo Claver, = P. weiseri var. neuquensis Santschi, = P. variabilis Santschi); P. vermiculatus Emery (= P. vermiculatus var. chubutensis Forel, = P. vermiculatus var. jorgenseni Forel). The following new species are described: P. apterogenos, P. araucania, P. atacama, P. bolivianus, P. colca, P. cusquena, P. excelsior, P. forelii, P. granulatus, P. lagunabravensis, P. loaensis, P. mapuche, P. maulensis, P. pichachen, P. propinqua, P. santschii, P. strioligaster, P. tafi, P. varicolor, and P. wilsoni. One species treated herein has brachypterous queens (P. atacama), one species has dimorphic queens (winged and brachypterous in P. longibarbis), and two species have ergatoid (permanently wingless) queens and ergatoid males (P. apterogenos, P. laguanbravensis); the latter two are the only known ant species in which both sexual castes are only ergatoid. I also provide keys for workers and queens (in English and Spanish), diagnoses for males, photographs of known castes, distribution maps, and a summary of known biology.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Gorgojos , Animales , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Clase Social
15.
Zootaxa ; 5055(1): 1-137, 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811227

RESUMEN

This paper provides a taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel (1912) (Myrmicinae: Pogonomyrmecini). Morphological traits combined with geographical data and natural history information led to the recognition of 30 species, fourteen of them described here as new: Hylomyrma adelae sp. n., Hylomyrma dandarae sp. n., Hylomyrma jeronimae sp. n., Hylomyrma lispectorae sp. n., Hylomyrma lopesi sp. n., Hylomyrma macielae sp. n., Hylomyrma margaridae sp. n., Hylomyrma mariae sp. n., Hylomyrma marielleae sp. n., Hylomyrma mitiae sp. n., Hylomyrma peetersi sp. n., Hylomyrma primavesi sp. n., Hylomyrma virginiae sp. n. and Hylomyrma wachiperi sp. n. Lectotypes for H. speciosa (junior synonym of H. balzani) and H. reitteri are here designated from syntypes to improve nomenclatural stability. Except for the three species most recently described (H. montana, H. plumosa, and H. villemantae), the external morphology of workers is described or redescribed, as well as for the known males and queens, most described here for the first time. Of the 30 recognized species herein, 11 present intercastes; at least three of them present female specimens with queen-like traits that may be understood as ergatoids. An updated identification key for Hylomyrma workers is provided, as well as high resolution photographs of all known sexes and castes, species distribution maps, and a summary of what is known from the biology of all species.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Ortópteros , Animales , Femenino , Geografía , Masculino , Fenotipo , Clase Social
16.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604107, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819829

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study investigated the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), diet quality and overweight and obesity in adults aged 40-59 years in Inner Mongolia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the survey of Chronic Disease and Nutrition Monitoring in Adults in Inner Mongolia in 2015. Diet quality was evaluated by the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMeds). SES was measured by household annual income. Generalized estimating equations and path analysis were performed to determine the association of SES, diet quality and overweight and obesity. Results: Among participants, 63.0% had overweight and obesity. In high SES group, 66.4% had overweight and obesity. Higher SES was associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity (OR = 1.352, 95%CI: 1.020-1.793). And higher aMeds was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity (OR = 0.597, 95%CI: 0.419-0.851). There was a positive correlation between SES and the intake of red and processed meat (r = 0.132, p < 0.05). Higher intake of red and processed meat was associated with lower diet quality (ß = -0.34). And lower diet quality was associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity (ß = -0.10). Conclusion: In Inner Mongolia, during the period of economic transition, people aged 40-59 years in high SES had poor diet quality, which was related to a higher risk of overweight and obesity.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Mediterránea , Sobrepeso , Adulto , China , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684409

RESUMEN

This baseline cross-sectional analysis from data acquired in a sub-sample of the PREDIMED-Plus study participants aimed to evaluate the relation between the Composite Socioeconomic Index (CSI) and lifestyle (diet and physical activity). This study involved 1512 participants (759 (52.2%) women) between 55 and 80 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome assigned to 137 primary healthcare centers in Catalonia, Spain. CSI and lifestyle (diet and physical activity) were assessed. Multiple linear regression or multinomial regression were applied to the data. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. The multiple linear regression model showed that a high deprivation index was related to a higher consumption of refined cereals (11.98 g/d, p-value = 0.001) and potatoes (6.68 g/d, p-value = 0.001), and to a lower consumption of fruits (-17.52 g/d, p-value = 0.036), and coffee and tea (-8.03 g/d, p-value = 0.013). Two a posteriori dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis and labeled as "healthy" and "unhealthy". In addition, the multinomial regression model showed that a high deprivation index was related to an unhealthy dietary pattern and low physical activity (OR 1.42 [95% CI 1.06-1.89]; p-value < 0.05). In conclusion, a high deprivation index was related to an unhealthy lifestyle (diet and physical activity) in PREDIMED-Plus study participants.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Dieta Saludable , Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Conducta Sedentaria
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684623

RESUMEN

Eating behaviour is of particular interest for research focusing on body weight status. However, little is known about the relationships of certain factors, especially social desirability, with self-reported eating behaviour such as cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating among young adult males and females. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between eating behaviour and age, socioeconomic status (SES), physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and social desirability among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 353 university students (59.2% females). Eating behaviour was assessed using the 13-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-13). SES and PA were determined using self-reporting, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale assessed social desirability. BMI and WHtR were calculated based on measured parameters. Associations between self-reported eating behaviour and other variables were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate general linear models. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI and WHtR in both males (r = 0.174, P = 0.036 and r = 0.194, P = 0.020, respectively) and females (r = 0.239, P < 0.001 and r = 0.165, P = 0.017, respectively), and emotional eating was positively correlated with BMI among females (r = 0.184, P = 0.008). Social desirability was negatively correlated with uncontrolled eating (r = -0.287, P < 0.001) and emotional eating (r = -0.301, P < 0.001) among females. There were no significant correlations between eating behaviour and age or socioeconomic status (P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that, among males, PA had a main effect on emotional eating (ηp2 = 0.044, F = 6.276, P = 0.013). Among females, cognitive restraint was positively associated with PA (ηp2 = 0.034, F = 7.127, P = 0.008) and BMI (ηp2 = 0.038, F = 7.959, P = 0.005), and emotional eating with BMI (ηp2 = 0.032, F = 6.638, P = 0.011). Social desirability had the highest main effect on eating behaviour among females, being negatively associated with uncontrolled eating (ηp2 = 0.077, F = 16.754, P < 0.001) and emotional eating (ηp2 = 0.082, F = 18.046, P < 0.001). This study showed that PA, BMI, WHtR, and social desirability were associated with self-reported eating behaviour among university students. Social desirability bias should be considered when evaluating uncontrolled eating and emotional eating among females.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Deseabilidad Social , Estudiantes , Universidades , Factores de Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/psicología , Autoinforme , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Relación Cintura-Estatura , Adulto Joven
19.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 7196492, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691241

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has swept through the world since December 2019 and caused a large number of patients and deaths. Spatial prediction on the spread of the epidemic is greatly important for disease control and management. In this study, we predicted the cumulative confirmed cases (CCCs) from Jan 17 to Mar 1, 2020, in mainland China at the city level, using machine learning algorithms, geographically weighted regression (GWR), and partial least squares regression (PLSR) based on population flow, geolocation, meteorological, and socioeconomic variables. The validation results showed that machine learning algorithms and GWR achieved good performances. These models could not effectively predict CCCs in Wuhan, the first city that reported COVID-19 cases in China, but performed well in other cities. Random Forest (RF) outperformed other methods with a CV-R 2 of 0.84. In this model, the population flow from Wuhan to other cities (WP) was the most important feature and the other features also made considerable contributions to the prediction accuracy. Compared with RF, GWR showed a slightly worse performance (CV-R 2 = 0.81) but required fewer spatial independent variables. This study explored the spatial prediction of the epidemic based on multisource spatial independent variables, providing references for the estimation of CCCs in the regions lacking accurate and timely.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Geografía , Aprendizaje Automático , Algoritmos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Clima , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Epidemias , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Modelos Estadísticos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , SARS-CoV-2 , Clase Social , Regresión Espacial
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20987, 2021 10 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697319

RESUMEN

Acid suppressants are widely-used classes of medications linked to increased risks of aerodigestive infections. Prior studies of these medications as potentially reversible risk factors for COVID-19 have been conflicting. We aimed to determine the impact of chronic acid suppression use on COVID-19 infection risk while simultaneously evaluating the influence of social determinants of health to validate known and discover novel risk factors. We assessed the association of chronic acid suppression with incident COVID-19 in a 1:1 case-control study of 900 patients tested across three academic medical centers in California, USA. Medical comorbidities and history of chronic acid suppression use were manually extracted from health records by physicians following a pre-specified protocol. Socio-behavioral factors by geomapping publicly-available data to patient zip codes were incorporated. We identified no evidence to support an association between chronic acid suppression and COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17, P = 0.515). However, several medical and social features were positive (Latinx ethnicity, BMI ≥ 30, dementia, public transportation use, month of the pandemic) and negative (female sex, concurrent solid tumor, alcohol use disorder) predictors of new infection. These findings demonstrate the value of integrating publicly-available databases with medical data to identify critical features of communicable diseases.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/complicaciones , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Anciano , Conducta , COVID-19/psicología , California , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Biología Computacional/métodos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Gastroenterología , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/tratamiento farmacológico , Geografía , Antagonistas de los Receptores H2 de la Histamina/farmacología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/farmacología , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social
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