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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2519, 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534467

RESUMEN

Floating ice shelves buttress inland ice and curtail grounded-ice discharge. Climate warming causes melting and ultimately breakup of ice shelves, which could escalate ocean-bound ice discharge and thereby sea-level rise. Should ice shelves collapse, it is unclear whether they could recover, even if we meet the goals of the Paris Agreement. Here, we use a numerical ice-sheet model to determine if Petermann Ice Shelf in northwest Greenland can recover from a future breakup. Our experiments suggest that post-breakup recovery of confined ice shelves like Petermann's is unlikely, unless iceberg calving is greatly reduced. Ice discharge from Petermann Glacier also remains up to 40% higher than today, even if the ocean cools below present-day temperatures. If this behaviour is not unique for Petermann, continued near-future ocean warming may push the ice shelves protecting Earth's polar ice sheets into a new retreated high-discharge state which may be exceedingly difficult to recover from.


Asunto(s)
Cubierta de Hielo , Elevación del Nivel del Mar , Clima , Congelación , Temperatura
2.
J Adv Res ; 37: 133-145, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499058

RESUMEN

Introduction: Adapted reuse in old historical buildings has been a real challenge since the state of deterioration is usually found severe, and suggested retrofitting is applied with high delicacy to preserve the building originality. Additionally, on altering the potential users' activity, special considerations are required to fulfill the new needs. Daylight in historical buildings has a special significance in conceiving the massive artistic content within the interior spaces, in providing visual comfort for users, and affecting the total energy performance. Objectives: The main goal is to meet the new daylight requirements in heritage building spaces, and to rely on relaxing daylight instead of artificial light sources during the day. Methods: The research is implemented in Tosson Palace, a historical palace in Egypt, where a top-lit space's daylight performance is assessed using Rhino + Grasshopper's Diva package, then the skylight is parametrically configured to optimize daylighting conditions using Radiance, and Daysim engines in high intensity solar climate. Optimization of skylight glazing technologies and skylight size is conducted by changing optimization parameters including the number the two perpendicular mullions grid, and mullions' depth, which also acts as a shading element. These parameters are genetically optimized using a multi-objective octopus plugin and the optimized configuration is evaluated using LEED v4.1 in Spatial Daylight Autonomy (sDA), and Annual Sun Exposure (ASE) criteria that show both the daylight adequacy, and the comfortable daylight exposure percentages in the skylight covered space. Results: The outcomes offer guidance for heritage adapted reuse in hot climatic conditions with minimum design interventions to meet the original design and provide potential users' comfort conditions. Furthermore, enhancement of both visual, and thermal conditions through the skylight configurations is to be studied. Conclusion: The selected optimum case succeeded in compromising the assessing metrics such that ASE was reduced by 38% from the base-case, avoiding unpleasant direct daylight, and providing protection for interior artifacts from sunlight and achieving a moderate uniform daylight distribution on both affected floors levels.


Asunto(s)
Artículos Domésticos , Luz Solar , Clima , Egipto
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 422, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543768

RESUMEN

With the complex landform and climate in the Sichuan region, the need for practical and scientific research production by only utilising the rainfall data derived from ground stations or satellites has not been satisfied. To overcome this difficulty, rainfall data from 161 meteorological stations in 2016 are used in this study. According to the distribution of stations, 146 rainfall data from 161 meteorological stations in 2016 are used for inverse distance weighted interpolation, and then, linear regression, weighted regression, and Kalman filter fusion and optimal interpolation method data fusion are performed with TRMM 3B42 satellite rainfall data, respectively. Then, 15 meteorological stations evenly distributed in the study area are selected for the accuracy test. The results show that compared with the measurement at ground stations, linear regression shows the best merging effect on rainfall data derived from ground stations and satellite rainfall estimates across the daily scale: the correlation coefficient is the most significantly improved (0.2-0.7) and the reduction in root-mean-square error (RMSE) is the largest. The method is applicable for use in Sichuan Province when merging rainfall data. At the monthly scale, the rainfall data processed by using the Kalman filter present the highest accuracy (0.72-0.84). At this scale, the Kalman filter is more suitable.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lluvia , Clima , Modelos Lineales , Meteorología
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 420, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543773

RESUMEN

Globally, the treelines at higher elevations in mountains are reported to be advancing up-slope in response to recent climate warming. However, little is known about the treeline advancement in the Himalaya due to paucity of baseline vegetation data with which to compare, thus making their assessment and monitoring challenging. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study documented floristic and functional diversity of two treeline ecotone sites in Kashmir Himalaya. At each site, we conducted field sampling by laying five 20-m2 plots, with one at the highest limit (T0 plot), two plots below and two above the treeline and two nested subplots of 5-m2 for shrubs and five 1-m2 for herbs in each plot. We recorded 97 plant species belonging to 33 families from the two sites. We observed a considerable difference in species composition and distribution along the treeline ecotone. Majority of the species reported were perennial herbs. We observed a significant association of growth forms with the particular plots along the treeline ecotone. At both the sites, we recorded highest species richness at the T0 plot which was correlated well with the functional traits, thus indicating convergence of floristic and functional diversity at this transition zone. Interestingly, the T0 plot at both the sites showed maximum overlap of species with the plots above and below the treeline. In an era of climate warming, our study provides crucial baseline data that will facilitate assessment and monitoring of the Himalayan treelines.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Árboles , Altitud , Clima , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Árboles/fisiología
5.
F1000Res ; 11: 387, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529282

RESUMEN

Background: The European Commission has settled ambitious objectives in order to reach climate neutrality by 2050. This will imply the shift from fossil fuel to low carbon energy supply and an adaptation of the energy system according to it. Electrification and production of green hydrogen are seen as structural pillars. The objective of the study is to quantify energy infrastructure needs required in various climate neutral scenarios at the 2050 time horizon. Methods: The work was based on Artelys Crystal Super Grid, a tool developed at Artelys for modelling and simulating energy markets on a continental or national scale. In this study, we apply a multi-energy (i.e., power, hydrogen, methane) capacity expansion and dispatch optimisation methodology, featuring hourly and national granularity, covering the European Union plus major neighbouring countries. Several investments options are considered: storage assets, electrolysers, cross-border electricity, hydrogen and CH4 interconnections (including repurposing of CH4 infrastructures), and gas-to-power capacities. Results: Important needs for cross-border electricity infrastructure appear in all the considered scenarios. Cross-border hydrogen infrastructure needs strongly depend on the geographic allocation of renewable energy sources across Europe. Security of supply in Europe can be maintained without investing in additional cross-border methane pipelines. Existing methane pipelines will be repurposed or characterized by low utilisation rates at the 2050 horizon. Conclusions: The multi-energy optimization approach developed is well suited to assess electricity, methane and hydrogen infrastructure projects and their interdependencies considering various scenarios. While electricity and methane infrastructure needs are quite robust across several sensitivities on a climate neutral scenario, hydrogen infrastructure needs are more uncertain and depend on various factors such as the level of hydrogen demand, its competition with biomethane and the level of colocation between RES generation and hydrogen demand.


Asunto(s)
Electricidad , Combustibles Fósiles , Clima , Hidrógeno , Metano
6.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 9779829, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530532

RESUMEN

Generating an accurate rainfall prediction is a challenging work due to the complexity of the climate system. Numerous efforts have been conducted to generate reliable prediction such as through ensemble forecasts, the North Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME). The performance of NMME globally has been investigated in many studies. However, its performance in a specific location has not been much validated. This paper investigates the performance of NMME to forecast rainfall in Surabaya, Indonesia. Our study showed that the rainfall prediction from NMME tends to be underdispersive, which thus requires a bias correction. We proposed a new bias correction method based on gamma regression to model the asymmetric pattern of rainfall distribution and further compared the results with the average ratio method and linear regression. This study showed that the NMME performance can be improved significantly after bias correction using the gamma regression method. This can be seen from the smaller RMSE and MAE values, as well as higher R 2 values compared with the results from linear regression and average ratio methods. Gamma regression improved the R 2 value by about 30% higher than raw data, and it is about 20% higher than the linear regression approach. This research showed that NMME can be used to improve the accuracy of rainfall forecast in Surabaya.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Ciudades , Indonesia , Modelos Lineales , Análisis de Regresión
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(6): 308, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534776

RESUMEN

Fabrics serve as fomites in spreading nosocomial infections. As a patient is in close contact with bedsheets, it is important to assess the seasonal variation in bacterial diversity on these in healthcare units. The study was conducted to characterise the bacterial diversity on patients' bedsheets across 7 months in a primary healthcare unit. Polyester-cotton blend fabric was stitched on bedsheets, and temporal dynamics of bacterial communities was assessed from May to November 2019. qPCR and amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was performed for profiling of bacterial community. Results revealed the dominance of Bacillota followed by Pseudomonadota, and Actinomycetota. A seasonal variation was observed in the bacterial load, with maximum values in June. This indicates the impact of environmental conditions on bacterial abundance and composition on fabrics in healthcare unit. The presence of priority pathogens on the patient bedsheets is a human health concern reiterating the need for season-specific laundering protocol.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Clima , Bacterias/genética , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Estaciones del Año
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2112250119, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500120

RESUMEN

SignificanceBetter knowledge of dormancy (plant "hibernation") is required to understand future adaptation of woody perennial plants facing warmer climates. Typical dormancy research uses time to budbreak to define the transition from a warm temperature nonresponsive to a responsive state (long vs. short time to budbreak). Based on this phenotyping method, species diverge in dormancy transition times during winter. Here, dynamics of bud cold hardiness (lowest survival temperature) for many species are used to show convergence in their response to winter chilling. Therefore, previous studies determining chilling requirement based on budbreak may describe adaptation to an environment but do not accurately describe physiological dormancy transitions. Further, cold hardiness dynamics can be used for field predictions of bud cold hardiness and budbreak.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación , Frío , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Clima , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
9.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115177, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500492

RESUMEN

In tropical forests, several studies have explored the effects of environmental factors and tree species diversity as well as functional trait diversity and trait composition on aboveground biomass (AGB) stock. However, these abiotic and biotic effects on individual biomass variability (BioVar) are still largely unexplored, which limits our understanding of the plant-plant interactions for species coexistence. Here, we used the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Models (PLS-SEMs), and other complementary analyses, on data from 189 tropical forest plots in Sri Lanka, to test the linkages amongst climate (a latent variable of solar radiation and potential evapotranspiration), soil (pH and cation exchange capacity), plot (plot size and stand density) conditions, big-sized trees, species-functional diversity, and BioVar. The PLS-SEMs showed that climate conditions decreased BioVar directly but increased indirectly via integrative promoting direct effects on soil conditions, species-functional diversity and big-sized trees. In contrast, soil conditions increased BioVar directly but decreased indirectly via integrative suppressing direct effects on species-functional diversity and big-sized trees. Interestingly, we found that the divergent indirect effects of climate and soil conditions on BioVar via big-sized trees mattered when the direct effect of big-sized trees on species-functional diversity was considered as compared to the reverse effect in PLS-SEMs. Also, the indirect positive effect of plot properties on BioVar was nearly equal to the direct effect because plot properties affected big-sized trees as similar as or lower than species-functional diversity. The positive effect of species-functional diversity on BioVar was mediated by the structural attributes of big-sized trees, indicating increased plant species co-existence. This study suggests that individual tree biomass variability (i.e., BioVar) should be considered for managing natural tropical forests in the context of the plant-plant interactions for species coexistence.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Clima , Biomasa , Suelo , Sri Lanka , Clima Tropical
10.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 208, 2022 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577816

RESUMEN

Malaria epidemics can be triggered by fluctuations in temperature and precipitation that influence vector mosquitoes and the malaria parasite. Identifying and monitoring environmental risk factors can thus provide early warning of future outbreaks. Satellite Earth observations provide relevant measurements, but obtaining these data requires substantial expertise, computational resources, and internet bandwidth. To support malaria forecasting in Ethiopia, we developed software for Retrieving Environmental Analytics for Climate and Health (REACH). REACH is a cloud-based application for accessing data on land surface temperature, spectral indices, and precipitation using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. REACH can be implemented using the GEE code editor and JavaScript API, as a standalone web app, or as package with the Python API. Users provide a date range and data for 852 districts in Ethiopia are automatically summarized and downloaded as tables. REACH was successfully used in Ethiopia to support a pilot malaria early warning project in the Amhara region. The software can be extended to new locations and modified to access other environmental datasets through GEE.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Programas Informáticos , Animales , Clima , Nube Computacional , Planeta Tierra , Etiopía/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control
11.
Zoology (Jena) ; 152: 126014, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561437

RESUMEN

The study of insular variation has fascinated generations of biologists and has been central to evolutionary biology at least since the time of Wallace and Darwin. In this context, using 3D geometric morphometrics, I investigate whether the population of mountain hares (Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758) introduced in 1857 on the Swedish island of Hallands Väderö shows distinctive traits in cranial size and shape. I find that size divergence follows the island rule, but is very small. In contrast, shape differences, compared to the mainland population, are almost as large as interspecific differences among lineages separated by hundreds of thousands of years of a largely independent evolutionary history. Even if, contrary to what is documented in the scientific literature, mountain hares were present in HV before 1857, the evolutionary history of this population could not have start earlier than the end of the last glaciation (i.e., at least one order of magnitude more recently than the separation of L. timidus from other hare species in this study). My results, thus, suggest that the insular population is a significant evolutionary unit and a potentially important component of the diversity of Swedish mountain hares. This is interesting for evolutionary biologists, but even more relevant for conservationists trying to protect the disappearing population of southern Swedish L. timidus, threatened by changes in climate and the environment, as well as by disease and the introduced European hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778). Island populations of mountain hares, thus, represent a potential source for future reintroductions on the mainland and, as my research shows, an important component of variability to maximize the preservation of the evolutionary potential in a species facing huge environmental changes.


Asunto(s)
Liebres , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Clima , ADN Mitocondrial , Liebres/genética
12.
Zootaxa ; 5100(2): 269-279, 2022 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391076

RESUMEN

Mansonia amazonensis (Theobald, 1901) is one of 15 species of the subgenus Mansonia Blanchard, 1901. It is essentially a Neotropical species, recorded in Bolivia, Peru and Brazil. In the highly seasonal Amazon region, Mansonia species find ideal environmental conditions for reproduction, development and establishment. Considering that climate significantly influences the size and behavior of mosquitoes, and insects in general, we analyzed the influence of seasonality on wing morphological variability in populations of Ma. amazonensis. Captures were carried out near the banks of the Madeira River in Rondnia State, Brazil during the dry, rainy and transition periods between seasons during 2018 and 2019. Morphometric characters of 181 wings were analyzed using morphological methods. The results show that wing size of Ma. amazonensis increases following a relatively gradual trend, from smaller wings during the dry period to larger ones in the rainy season. This study provides the first evidence, detected using geometric morphometry, of seasonally associated phenotypic variability in the wing conformation of Ma. amazonensis.


Asunto(s)
Culicidae , Malvaceae , Animales , Clima , Culicidae/anatomía & histología , Estaciones del Año , Alas de Animales/anatomía & histología
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 375, 2022 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437645

RESUMEN

Vulnerability to land degradation in Mediterranean Europe increased substantially in the last decades because of the latent interplay of climate and land-use change, progressive soil deterioration, and rising human pressure. The present study provides a quantitative evaluation of the intrinsic change over time in the level of vulnerability to land degradation over a representative Mediterranean area (Italy) using a normative indicator, the percentage of land classified as 'critical' in total area. This indicator derives from a spatially explicit elaboration of the ESA (Environmental Sensitive Area) Index (ESAI), a standard methodology of land classification considering different levels of vulnerability to degradation at a particularly refined spatial scale (1 km2). This indicator was calculated over a relatively long time interval (1960-2010) and aggregated at the geographical scale of administrative regions in Italy, a relevant domain in the implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP) to combat desertification and the adoption of individual Regional Action Plans (RAP). A significant - but spatially heterogeneous - increase in 'critical' land was observed in Italy, leading to distinctive dynamics in northern/central regions and southern regions. Climate aridity and anthropogenic pressure leveraged the sudden vulnerability in some marginal land of Northern Italy - a region classified as unexposed to desertification risk - paralleling the levels observed in some districts of Southern Italy, an 'affected' region to desertification risk. These results suggest a re-thinking of mitigation policies proposed in the Italian NAP and a redesign of the RAPs toward place-specific adaptation measures, especially in the 'less exposed' Northern Italian region.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Clima , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Políticas , Suelo
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6716, 2022 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468915

RESUMEN

Applying the AgroClimatic Evolution web application allows inquiries being made, data being collected and variables being calculated with the data acquired from different public agrometeorological stations on a single platform. Today all these stations from Murcia and Andalusia (Spain) are included, and stations elsewhere in Spain are being incorporated. This web application also offers the possibility of including each user's own stations, which increases the number and availability of data close to each farmer's plots. The data collected from stations is employed to collect daily data about weather and times, which are used to calculate the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). All the data are saved in a cloud database to later consult them and study their evolution. The data provided by all the stations are validated by applying the filters indicated in Standard UNE 500540:2004 "Automatic weather stations networks" by eliminating mistaken data that could alter correct ETo calculations. With the filtered data, and having calculated ETo, the user is provided with a comparison made with the raw data supplied by public stations. The main objective of this tool is to optimize the use of water resources available from data acquisition. Managing these data will contribute to make agriculture more sustainable and compatible with the natural environment.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Recursos Hídricos , Agricultura , Programas Informáticos , Tiempo (Meteorología)
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6796, 2022 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474321

RESUMEN

The study of local extinction times, together with the associated environmental and human population changes in the last glacial termination, provides insights into the causes of mega- and microfauna extinctions. In East-Central (EC) Europe, groups of Palaeolithic humans were present throughout the last glacial maximum, but disappeared suddenly around 15,200 cal BP. In this study cave sediment profiles dated using radiocarbon techniques and a large set of mammal bones dated directly by AMS 14C were used to determine local extinction times. These were, in turn, compared to changes in the total megafauna population of EC Europe derived from coprophilous fungi, the Epigravettian population decline, quantitative climate models, pollen and plant macrofossil inferred climate, as well as to biome reconstructions. The results suggest that the population size of large herbivores decreased in the area after 17,700 cal BP, when temperate tree abundance and warm continental steppe cover both increased in the lowlands. Boreal forest expansion started around 16,200 cal BP. Cave sediments show the decline of narrow-headed vole and arctic lemming populations specifically associated with a tundra environment at the same time and the expansion of the common vole, an inhabitant of steppes. The last dated appearance of arctic lemming was at ~ 16,640 cal BP, while that of the narrow-headed vole at ~ 13,340, and the estimated extinction time of woolly mammoth was either at 13,830 (GRIWM) or 15,210 (PHASE), and reindeer at 11,860 (GRIWM) or 12,550 cal BP (PHASE). The population decline of the large herbivore fauna slightly preceded changes in terrestrial vegetation, and likely facilitated it via a reduction in the intensity of grazing and the concomitant accumulation of plant biomass. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that the Late Epigravettian population had high degree of quarry-fidelity; they left the basin when these mammals vanished.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Mamuts , Animales , Arvicolinae , Clima , Humanos , Mamíferos , Tundra
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266847, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476845

RESUMEN

Adolescents are the decision-makers of the future, and as educational research shows, behaviors, habits, and attitudes established at young age strongly shape behavior in adulthood. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors shape young people's climate-relevant behavior. In this study, we examine how information about peer behavior affects adolescents' perception of prevailing social norms and own decision-making. Experimentally, we manipulated whether adolescents received information about other young people's (lack of) support for climate protection, operationalized as a donation to a CO2 offsetting scheme. We find that empirical expectations shifted for all age groups when the information revealed that peers donated nothing or only small amounts. Donation behavior and the normative assessment, however, changed only in the younger age groups. Our study illustrates the caution that must be exercised when others' behavior becomes visible or is deliberatively made salient in order to induce behavioral change, especially among young individuals.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Normas Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , Clima , Humanos , Grupo Paritario
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(17): e2118696119, 2022 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452307

RESUMEN

Sedimentological records provide the only accessible archive for unraveling Earth's orbital variations in the remote geological past. These variations modulate Earth's climate system and provide essential constraints on gravitational parameters used in solar system modeling. However, geologic documentation of midlatitude response to orbital climate forcing remains poorly resolved compared to that of the low-latitude tropics, especially before 50 Mya, the limit of reliable extrapolation from the present. Here, we compare the climate response to orbital variations in a Late Triassic midlatitude temperate setting in Jameson Land, East Greenland (∼43°N paleolatitude) and the tropical low paleolatitude setting of the Newark Basin, with independent time horizons provided by common magnetostratigraphic boundaries whose timing has been corroborated by uranium-lead (U-Pb) zircon dating in correlative strata on the Colorado Plateau. An integrated cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic age model revealed long-term climate cycles with periods of 850,000 and 1,700,000 y ascribed to the Mars­Earth grand orbital cycles. This indicates a 2:1 resonance between modulation of orbital obliquity and eccentricity variations more than 200 Mya and whose periodicities are inconsistent with astronomical solutions and indicate chaotic diffusion of the solar system. Our findings also demonstrate antiphasing in climate response between low and midlatitudes that has implications for precise global correlation of geological records.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Planetas , Planeta Tierra , Evolución Planetaria , Geología , Groenlandia
18.
Mar Environ Res ; 177: 105617, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452902

RESUMEN

Marine ecosystems are subject to global and local impacts, both contributing to dramatic changes in coastal communities. Assessing such changes requires time series or the revisitation of sites first surveyed in the past. In both cases, data are not necessarily collected by the same observers, which could lead to a bias in the results. In the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Capo Carbonara (Sardinia, Italy), established in 1998, rocky reef communities were first assessed in 2000 by two diving scientists. Twenty years later, the same rocky reefs were resurveyed using the same method by two other diving scientists. In both surveys, semi-quantitative data on conspicuous species were collected at five sites in four depth zones, providing the possibility of assessing change over time. To explore the influence of climate and local pressures, existing data on sea surface temperature, resident population, tourism and diving activities were analysed. The reef communities of the Capo Carbonara MPA have distinctly changed over time, mostly under the effect of seawater warming, as highlighted by the occurrence of thermophilic species and by other climate-related indicators. On the other side, species vulnerable to local human pressures have increased over time, demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection measures undertaken by the MPA. Comparing data collected by four different observers in the two periods demonstrated that change over time was significantly greater than variability between the observers.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Ecosistema , Animales , Clima , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Arrecifes de Coral , Humanos , Italia , Agua de Mar
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410051

RESUMEN

The urban heat island (UHI) effect is the main problem regarding a city's climate. It is the main adverse effect of urbanization and negatively affects human thermal comfort levels as defined by physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the urban environment. Blue and green infrastructure (BGI) solutions may mitigate the UHI effect. First, however, it is necessary to understand the problem from the degrading side. The subject of this review is to identify the most essential geometrical, morphological, and topographical parameters of the urbanized environment (UE) and to understand the synergistic relationships between city and nature. A four-stage normative procedure was used, appropriate for systematic reviews of the UHI. First, one climate zone (temperate climate zone C) was limited to unify the design guidelines. As a result of delimitation, 313 scientific articles were obtained (546 rejected). Second, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was performed for the obtained data. Finally, our research showed the parameters of the UE facilities, which are necessary to mitigate the UHI effect. Those are building density and urban surface albedo for neighborhood cluster (NH), and distance from the city center, aspect ratio, ground surface albedo, and street orientation for street canyon (SC), as well as building height, material albedo, and building orientation for the building structure (BU). The developed guidelines can form the basis for microclimate design in a temperate climate. The data obtained from the statistical analysis will be used to create the blue-green infrastructure (BGI) dynamic modeling algorithm, which is the main focus of the future series of articles.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Calor , Ciudades , Humanos , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Urbanización
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1990, 2022 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418121

RESUMEN

The Cambrian is the most poorly dated period of the past 541 million years. This hampers analysis of profound environmental and biological changes that took place during this period. Astronomically forced climate cycles recognized in sediments and anchored to radioisotopic ages provide a powerful geochronometer that has fundamentally refined Mesozoic-Cenozoic time scales but not yet the Palaeozoic. Here we report a continuous astronomical signal detected as geochemical variations (1 mm resolution) in the late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation that is used to establish a 16-Myr-long astronomical time scale, anchored by radioisotopic dates. The resulting time scale is biostratigraphically well-constrained, allowing correlation of the late Cambrian global stage boundaries with the 405-kyr astrochronological framework. This enables a first assessment, in numerical time, of the evolution of major biotic and abiotic changes, including the end-Marjuman extinctions and the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion, that characterized the late Cambrian Earth.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Fósiles , Isótopos de Carbono , Clima , Planeta Tierra
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