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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572456

RESUMEN

An epidemiological model, which describes the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 under specific consideration of the incubation period including the population with subclinical infections and being infective is presented. The COVID-19 epidemic in Greece was explored through a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis framework, and the optimal values for the parameters that determined the transmission dynamics could be obtained before, during, and after the interventions to control the epidemic. The dynamic change of the fraction of asymptomatic individuals was shown. The analysis of the modelling results at the intra-annual climatic scale allowed for in depth investigation of the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and the significance and relative importance of the model parameters. Moreover, the analysis at this scale incorporated the exploration of the forecast horizon and its variability. Three discrete peaks were found in the transmission rates throughout the investigated period (15 February-15 December 2020). Two of them corresponded to the timing of the spring and autumn epidemic waves while the third one occurred in mid-summer, implying that relaxation of social distancing and increased mobility may have a strong effect on rekindling the epidemic dynamics offsetting positive effects from factors such as decreased household crowding and increased environmental ultraviolet radiation. In addition, the epidemiological state was found to constitute a significant indicator of the forecast reliability horizon, spanning from as low as few days to more than four weeks. Embedding the model in an ensemble framework may extend the predictability horizon. Therefore, it may contribute to the accuracy of health risk assessment and inform public health decision making of more efficient control measures.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Clima , Modelos Teóricos , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estaciones del Año , Viaje , Rayos Ultravioleta
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 889, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563999

RESUMEN

A key uncertainty in quantifying dead wood carbon (C) stocks-which comprise ~8% of total forest C pools globally-is a lack of accurate dead wood C fractions (CFs) that are employed to convert dead woody biomass into C. Most C estimation protocols utilize a default dead wood CF of 50%, but live tree studies suggest this value is an over-estimate. Here, we compile and analyze a global database of dead wood CFs in trees, showing that dead wood CFs average 48.5% across forests, deviating significantly from 50%, and varying systematically among biomes, taxonomic divisions, tissue types, and decay classes. Utilizing data-driven dead wood CFs in tropical forests alone may correct systematic overestimates in dead wood C stocks of ~3.0 Pg C: an estimate approaching nearly the entire dead wood C pool in the temperate forest biome. We provide for the first time, robust empirical dead wood CFs to inform global forest C estimation.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/análisis , Madera/química , Biodegradación Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo del Carbono , Clima , Bosques , Estructuras de las Plantas/química , Estructuras de las Plantas/clasificación , Árboles/química , Árboles/clasificación , Madera/metabolismo
3.
Nature ; 590(7846): 389, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594286

Asunto(s)
Clima , Política , Políticas
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 846, 2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558479

RESUMEN

High susceptibility has limited the role of climate in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to date. However, understanding a possible future effect of climate, as susceptibility declines and the northern-hemisphere winter approaches, is an important open question. Here we use an epidemiological model, constrained by observations, to assess the sensitivity of future SARS-CoV-2 disease trajectories to local climate conditions. We find this sensitivity depends on both the susceptibility of the population and the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in reducing transmission. Assuming high susceptibility, more stringent NPIs may be required to minimize outbreak risk in the winter months. Our results suggest that the strength of NPIs remain the greatest determinant of future pre-vaccination outbreak size. While we find a small role for meteorological forecasts in projecting outbreak severity, reducing uncertainty in epidemiological parameters will likely have a more substantial impact on generating accurate predictions.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Clima , Estaciones del Año , Algoritmos , /virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , /fisiología
5.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 294-307, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388840

RESUMEN

Exposure to fluoride concentrations above a threshold of 1.5 mg/L can cause joint pains, restricted mobility, skeletal and dental fluorosis. This study aims to determine the hydrochemical evolution of the fluoride-rich groundwater and estimate the risk of fluoride exposure to the residents of semi-arid northeastern part of Rajasthan, India. The methodology involves measurement of fluoride and other ionic concentrations in groundwater using ion chromatography, followed by an estimation of the cumulative density function and fluorosis risk. The fluoride concentration in water samples varied from 0.04 to 8.2 mg/L with 85% samples falling above the permissible limit. The empirical cumulative density function was used to estimate the percentage and degree of health risks associated with the consumption of F- contaminated water. It is found that 55% of the samples indicate risk of dental fluorosis, 42% indicate risk of deformities to knee and hip bones, and 18% indicate risk of crippling fluorosis. In addition, instances of high nitrate concentrations above the permissible limit of 45 mg/L are also found in 13% of samples. The fluoride rich groundwater is mainly associated with the Na-HCO3-Cl type water facies while low fluoride groundwater shows varied chemical facies. The saturation index values indicate a high probability of a further increase in F- concentration in groundwater of this region. The calculated fluoride exposure risk for the general public in the study area is 3-6 times higher than the allowed limit of 0.05 mg/kg/day. Based on the results of this study, a fluorosis index map was prepared for the study area. The northern and northeastern parts are less prone to fluorosis, whereas the south-central and southwestern parts are highly vulnerable to fluorosis. The inferences from this study help to prioritize the regions that need immediate attention for remediation.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Fluoruros/análisis , Agua Subterránea/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Enfermedades Óseas/epidemiología , Clima , Fluoruros/efectos adversos , Fluorosis Dental/epidemiología , Humanos , India , Nitratos/efectos adversos , Nitratos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/efectos adversos
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 519, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483481

RESUMEN

The complexity of forest structures plays a crucial role in regulating forest ecosystem functions and strongly influences biodiversity. Yet, knowledge of the global patterns and determinants of forest structural complexity remains scarce. Using a stand structural complexity index based on terrestrial laser scanning, we quantify the structural complexity of boreal, temperate, subtropical and tropical primary forests. We find that the global variation of forest structural complexity is largely explained by annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality (R² = 0.89). Using the structural complexity of primary forests as benchmark, we model the potential structural complexity across biomes and present a global map of the potential structural complexity of the earth´s forest ecoregions. Our analyses reveal distinct latitudinal patterns of forest structure and show that hotspots of high structural complexity coincide with hotspots of plant diversity. Considering the mechanistic underpinnings of forest structural complexity, our results suggest spatially contrasting changes of forest structure with climate change within and across biomes.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Clima , Ecosistema , Bosques , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Geografía , Modelos Teóricos , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año , Árboles/clasificación
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 516, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483517

RESUMEN

Understanding how biological and environmental factors interactively shape the global distribution of plant and animal genetic diversity is fundamental to biodiversity conservation. Genetic diversity measured in local populations (GDP) is correspondingly assumed representative for population fitness and eco-evolutionary dynamics. For 8356 populations across the globe, we report that plants systematically display much lower GDP than animals, and that life history traits shape GDP patterns both directly (animal longevity and size), and indirectly by mediating core-periphery patterns (animal fecundity and plant dispersal). Particularly in some plant groups, peripheral populations can sustain similar GDP as core populations, emphasizing their potential conservation value. We further find surprisingly weak support for general latitudinal GDP trends. Finally, contemporary rather than past climate contributes to the spatial distribution of GDP, suggesting that contemporary environmental changes affect global patterns of GDP. Our findings generate new perspectives for the conservation of genetic resources at worldwide and taxonomic-wide scales.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Clima , Ecosistema , Variación Genética , Plantas/genética , Algoritmos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Evolución Molecular , Genética de Población , Geografía , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Filogenia , Dispersión de las Plantas , Plantas/clasificación
8.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111892, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433368

RESUMEN

Despite the burgeoning literature on the globalization-environmental degradation nexus, this area of empirical interest is still riddled with ambiguity. Thus, based on an extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model, we re-investigate the effect of globalization on environmental degradation for 27 selected industrialized countries over the period 1991-2016. More specifically, we shed light into how overall globalization and its various components - economic, social and political globalization - affect environmental degradation. We advance existing literature by considering a measurement approach which disaggregates overall, economic, social and political globalization into their de facto and de jure aspects. Using the augmented mean group estimator, we find that overall and economic globalization reduce environmental degradation while social and political globalization do not exert any significant effect on globalization. With respect to the de facto and de jure aspects, we observe that, while only de facto economic globalization mitigates environmental degradation, de jure overall, economic and social globalization also dampen environmental degradation. We provide some policy implications in the end.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Internacionalidad , Dióxido de Carbono , Clima , Países Desarrollados , Políticas
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401757

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Assignment of pathogens to the correct genus, species, and type is vital for controlling infectious epidemics. However, the role of different enteroviruses during hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and the major contributing factors remain unknown. (2) Methods: HFMD cases from 2016 to 2018 in Guangzhou, China were collected. The relationship between HFMD cases and genotype frequency, as well as the association between genotype frequency and climate factors, were studied using general linear models. We transformed the genotype frequency to the isometric log-ratio (ILR) components included in the model. Additionally, vaccination rates were adjusted in the climate-driven models. (3) Results: We observed seasonal trends in HFMD cases, genotype frequency, and climate factors. The model regressing case numbers on genotype frequency revealed negative associations with both the ILRs of CAV16 (RR = 0.725, p < 0.001) and EV71 (RR = 0.421, p < 0.001). The model regressing genotype frequency on driven factors showed that the trends for EV71 proportions were inversely related to vaccination rate (%, ß = -0.152, p = 0.098) and temperature (°C, ß = -0.065, p = 0.004). Additionally, the trends for CVA16 proportions were inversely related to vaccination rate (%, ß = -0.461, p = 0.004) and temperature (°C, ß = -0.068, p = 0.031). The overall trends for genotype frequency showed that EV71 decreased significantly, while the trends for CVA16 increased annually. (4) Conclusions: Our findings suggest a potential pathway for climate factors, genotype frequency, and HFMD cases. Our study is practical and useful for targeted prevention and control, and provides environmental-based evidence.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Enterovirus/virología , Enterovirus/genética , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/virología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Filogenia , Vigilancia de la Población , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
10.
Oecologia ; 195(2): 525-538, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459864

RESUMEN

How environmental factors influence population dynamics in long-distance migrants is complicated by the spatiotemporal diversity of the environment the individuals experience during the annual cycle. The effects of weather on several different aspects of life history have been well studied, but a better understanding is needed on how weather affects population dynamics through the different associated traits. We utilise 77 years of data from pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), to identify the most relevant climate signals associated with population growth rate. The strongest signals on population growth were observed from climate during periods when the birds were not present in the focal location. The population decline was associated with increasing precipitation in the African non-breeding quarters in the autumn (near the arrival of migrants) and with increasing winter temperature along the migration route (before migration). The number of fledglings was associated positively with increasing winter temperature in non-breeding area and negatively with increasing winter temperature in Europe. These possible carry-over effects did not arise via timing of breeding or clutch size but the exact mechanism remains to be revealed in future studies. High population density and low fledgling production were the intrinsic factors reducing the breeding population. We conclude that weather during all seasons has the potential to affect the reproductive success or population growth rate of this species. Our results show how weather can influence the population dynamics of a migratory species through multiple pathways, even at times of the annual cycle when the birds are in a different location than the climate signal.


Asunto(s)
Migración Animal , Cambio Climático , Animales , Clima , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Dinámica Poblacional , Estaciones del Año
11.
Oecologia ; 195(2): 299-312, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459865

RESUMEN

It is unclear whether the frequently observed increase in non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants exposed to low temperatures or drought reflects a higher sensitivity of growth than photosynthesis in such conditions (i.e. sink limitation), or a prioritization of carbon (C) allocation to storage. Alpine areas in Mediterranean-type climate regions are characterized by precipitation increases and temperature decreases with elevation. Thus, alpine plants with wide elevational ranges in Mediterranean regions may be good models to examine these alternative hypotheses. We evaluated storage and growth during experimental darkness and re-illumination in individuals of the alpine plant Phacelia secunda from three elevations in the Andes of central Chile. We hypothesized that storage is prioritized regarding growth in plants of both low- and high elevations where drought and cold stress are greatest, respectively. We expected that decreases in NSC concentrations during darkness should be minimal and, more importantly, increases in NSC after re-illumination should be higher than increases in biomass. We found that darkness caused a significant decrease in NSC concentrations of both low- and high-elevation plants, but the magnitude of the decrease was lower in the latter. Re-illumination caused higher increase in NSC concentration than in biomass in both low- and high-elevation plants (1.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively). Our study shows that C allocation in Phacelia secunda reflects ecotypic differences among elevation provenances and suggests that low temperature, but not drought, favours C allocation to storage over growth after severe C limitation.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Clima , Chile , Sequías , Humanos , Plantas
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 289-298, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477237

RESUMEN

Evapotranspiration is the key element of hydrological energy cycle and climate system. It is of great significance to estimate the spatiotemporal variation of evapotranspiration and its response to climate and land use changes for understanding the effects of water cycle and ecological processes in urban basins. Based on the three-temperature model and MODIS Image, we estimated and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of evapotranspiration in Nanning City from 2001 to 2018, and examined the influence and driving mode of main climate factors and land use types on evapotranspiration. The results showed that the annual average evapotranspiration of Nanning City ranged from 495.7 to 781.1 mm during 2001-2018, with the inter annual relative variability ranging from -22.5% to 23.1%, showing an overall upward trend. The regional evapotranspiration showed a distribution pattern of high north-south and low middle, with the urban evapotranspiration being significantly lower than suburban area. The evapotranspiration had a significant multiple correlation with climate factors. The influence of temperature on the evapotranspiration was stronger than precipita-tion. Evapotranspiration was temperature driven in suburbs, but was driven by multiple factors in urban area. The average evapotranspiration of different land use types in Nanning was forests (823.4 mm) > grasslands (675.6 mm) > croplands (582.9 mm) > urban area (346.6 mm). The change of land use type was the main underlying surface factor leading to the significant change of regional evapotranspiration.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Bosques , China , Temperatura , Ciclo Hidrológico
13.
Am Nat ; 197(1): 75-92, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417520

RESUMEN

AbstractAn extension of the climate variability hypothesis is that relatively stable climate, such as that of the tropics, induces distinct thermal bands across elevation that render dispersal over tropical mountains difficult compared with temperate mountains. Yet ecosystems are not thermally static in space-time, especially at small scales, which might render some mountains greater thermal isolators than others. Here we provide an extensive investigation of temperature drivers from fine to coarse scales, and we demonstrate that the degree of similarity in temperatures at high and low elevations on mountains is driven by more than just absolute mountain height and latitude. We compiled a database of 29 mountains spanning six continents to characterize thermal overlap by vertically stratified microhabitats and biomes and owing to seasonal changes in foliage, demonstrating via mixed effects modeling that micro- and mesogeography more strongly influence thermal overlap than macrogeography. Impressively, an increase of 1 m of vertical microhabitat height generates an increase in overlap equivalent to a 5.26° change in latitude. In addition, forested mountains have reduced thermal overlap-149% lower-relative to nonforested mountains. We provide evidence in support of a climate hypothesis that emphasizes microgeography as a determinant of dispersal, demographics, and behavior, thereby refining the classical theory of macroclimate variability as a prominent driver of biogeography.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Clima , Ecosistema , Geografía , Microclima , Temperatura
14.
Nature ; 589(7843): 521-522, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505032
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142117, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254936

RESUMEN

Seagrasses are marine angiosperms that can form highly productive, and valuable underwater meadows, which are currently in regression. A reliable assessment of their status and future evolution requires studies encompassing long-term temporal scales. With the aim of understanding seagrass ecosystem dynamics over the last centuries and millennia, twelve sediment cores were studied from seagrass meadows located along the Andalusian coast and at the Cabrera Island (western Mediterranean). This study is pioneer in using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a tool to study environmental change in seagrass sediments. FTIR is a form of vibrational spectroscopy that provides information about the sediment chemical composition. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to summarise spatio-temporal data of the FTIR vibratory peaks in combination with climate and geochemical proxy data. Several PCA signals were identified: (1) one likely related to the relative changes of the main primary producers and the sedimentary environment (carbonate or siliciclastic sediments, with aromatic or aliphatic organic matter); (2) the marine community production (polysaccharides, total organic matter content and biogenic silica); and (3) the seagrass production (aromatics, carbohydrates, phenols, proteins and lipids). A decrease of seagrass production along the mainland coast was evident since AD ~1850, which may be due to combined negative impacts of seawater warming, local anthropogenic impacts, and extreme setting conditions. The legacy of these combined stressors might have influenced the current poor state of seagrass meadows in the Alboran Sea. Our results also revealed a significant long-term trade-off between the level of seagrass production and its temporal stability (calculated as the inverse of the coefficient of variation). This study provides a reliable baseline data, helping to assess the magnitude of seagrass regression and its drivers. This paleoecological information can help design more targeted management plans and identify meadows where local management could be more efficient.


Asunto(s)
Alismatales , Ecosistema , Algoritmos , Clima , Lípidos , Análisis de Componente Principal
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 154: 106994, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250446

RESUMEN

Species delimitation has advanced from a purely phenotypic exercise to a branch of science that integrates multiple sources of data to identify independently evolving lineages that can be treated as species. We here test species limits in the avian Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufesens-Sand Lark A. raytal complex, which has an intricate taxonomic history, ranging from a single to three recognised species, with different inclusiveness in different treatments. Our integrative taxonomic approach is based on a combination of DNA sequences, plumage, biometrics, songs, song-flights, geographical distributions, habitat, and bioclimatic data, and using various methods including a species delimitation program (STACEY) based on the multispecies coalescent model. We propose that four species should be recognised: Lesser Short-toed Lark A. rufescens (sensu stricto), Heine's Short-toed Lark A. heinei, Asian Short-toed Lark A. cheleensis and Sand Lark A. raytal. There is also some evidence suggesting lineage separation within A. cheleensis and A. raytal, but additional data are required to evaluate this. The species delimitation based on STACEY agrees well with the non-genetic data. Although computer-based species delimitation programs can be useful in identifying independently evolving lineages, we stress that whenever possible, species hypotheses proposed by these programs should be tested by independent, non-genetic data. Our results highlight the difficulty and subjectivity of delimiting lineages and species, especially at early stages in the speciation process.


Asunto(s)
Passeriformes/clasificación , Filogenia , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Conducta de Elección , Clima , Citocromos b/genética , Análisis Discriminante , Ecosistema , Plumas/anatomía & histología , Vuelo Animal/fisiología , Geografía , Humedad , Passeriformes/anatomía & histología , Passeriformes/fisiología , Lluvia , Especificidad de la Especie , Temperatura , Vocalización Animal/fisiología
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144432, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360124

RESUMEN

Environmental factors are well known to affect spatio-temporal patterns of infectious disease outbreaks, but whether the rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe is related to local environmental conditions is highly debated. We assessed the impact of environmental factors (temperature, humidity and air pollution) on the global patterns of COVID-19 early outbreak dynamics during January-May 2020, controlling for several key socio-economic factors and airport connections. We showed that during the earliest phase of the global outbreak (January-March), COVID-19 growth rates were non-linearly related to climate, with fastest spread in regions with a mean temperature of ca. 5 °C, and in the most polluted regions. However, environmental effects faded almost completely when considering later outbreaks, in keeping with the progressive enforcement of containment actions. Accordingly, COVID-19 growth rates consistently decreased with stringent containment actions during both early and late outbreaks. Our findings indicate that environmental drivers may have played a role in explaining the early variation among regions in disease spread. With limited policy interventions, seasonal patterns of disease spread might emerge, with temperate regions of both hemispheres being most at risk of severe outbreaks during colder months. Nevertheless, containment measures play a much stronger role and overwhelm impacts of environmental variation, highlighting the key role for policy interventions in curbing COVID-19 diffusion within a given region. If the disease will become seasonal in the next years, information on environmental drivers of COVID-19 can be integrated with epidemiological models to inform forecasting of future outbreak risks and improve management plans.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Humedad
18.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021. (WHO/HEP/ECH/CCH/21.01.01).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-339493
19.
Food Chem ; 340: 127907, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882477

RESUMEN

As a homologous material of both medicine and food, licorice is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. In the application process, different origins and different extraction methods have an impact on the intrinsic quality of licorice. In order to ensure the intrinsic quality of commercially available licorice products, and to explore the influence of origin and extraction methods on the quality of licorice, we put forward a simple and effective discriminatory method for "chemometrics analysis-based fingerprint establishment". First, fingerprints of licorice ethanol extraction (LEE) and licorice water extraction (LWE) were established. Then, similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and other chemometrics methods were used to select qualitative and quantitative markers. Besides, the quantitative determination of 7 compounds of licorice with statistical significance was carried out, which provided accurate and informative data for quality evaluation. Finally, discriminant analysis was used to trace the origin of licorice.


Asunto(s)
Glycyrrhiza/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , China , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Clima , Análisis por Conglomerados , Análisis Discriminante , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal , Suelo
20.
Food Chem ; 340: 127906, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890857

RESUMEN

Wine quality and character are defined in part by the terroir in which the grapes are grown. Metabolomic techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), are used to characterise wines and to detect wine fraud in other countries but have not been extensively trialled in Australia. This paper describes the use of ICP-MS and NMR to characterise a selection of Pinot noir wines. Wines from varying terroirs could be somewhat distinguished by their mineral content using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA was able to separate wines by their Australian states more clearly than by region. Metabolomic analysis of the wines using NMR did not find any correlations with climate/daytime temperatures, or region. An analysis of coinertia suggested that the two datasets were not redundant, and it is proposed that ICP-MS data is the most useful for determining regionality.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Vino/análisis , Australia , Clima , Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Metabolómica , Nueva Zelanda , Análisis de Componente Principal , Temperatura , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
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