Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.048
Filtrar
1.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(5): 832.e1-832.e6, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858660

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) may damage bisacrylate composite resin interim restorations, but whether they can be protected with an application of alcohol and/or the use of a glaze is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of applying a 70% alcohol solution on the physical and mechanical properties of a bisacrylate composite resin, with and without the application of a light-polymerizing glaze subjected to 0.12% CHX twice a day for 7 days. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty specimens of an autopolymerized bisacrylate composite resin were divided into 4 groups (n=10): Group C (without alcohol, without glaze), Group G (without alcohol, with glaze), Group A (with alcohol, without glaze), and Group AG (with alcohol, with glaze). All specimens were submitted to in vitro treatment with 0.12% CHX for 7 days, and tests of color alteration (ΔE00), microhardness, roughness, and surface were performed initially and after treatment. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). RESULTS: Group A had the lowest mean value of ΔE00 with a significant statistical difference from Group C. The groups with alcohol presented higher microhardness mean values compared with groups without alcohol in both periods of analysis, except for the groups with glaze in the final period. Group C showed higher mean roughness values in comparison with Group A in both periods. Group AG presented higher mean roughness values than Group G. Surface energy values did not vary significantly among groups, except between Groups C and A in the final period. CONCLUSIONS: The application of alcohol optimized the properties of the autopolymerized bisacrylate composite resin analyzed, with and without the application of glaze. Overall, the use of CHX changed the microhardness and roughness when the glaze was applied.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Compuestas , Inmersión , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013326, 2021 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471367

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Annually, infections contribute to approximately 25% of the 2.8 million neonatal deaths worldwide. Over 95% of sepsis-related neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Hand hygiene is an inexpensive and cost-effective method of preventing infection in neonates, making it an affordable and practicable intervention in low- and middle-income settings. Therefore, hand hygiene practices may hold strong prospects for reducing the occurrence of infection and infection-related neonatal death. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of different hand hygiene agents for preventing neonatal infection in community and health facility settings. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 5), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 10 May 2019); Embase (1980 to 10 May 2019); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 10 May 2019). We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. Searches were updated 1 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs, cross-over trials, and quasi-RCTs that included pregnant women, mothers, other caregivers, and healthcare workers who received interventions within the community or in health facility settings DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Primary outcomes were incidence of (study author-defined) suspected infection within the first 28 days of life, bacteriologically confirmed infection within the first 28 days of life, all-cause mortality within the first seven days of life (early neonatal death), and all-cause mortality from the 8th to the 28th day of life (late neonatal death). MAIN RESULTS: Our review included five studies: one RCT, one quasi-RCT, and three cross-over trials with a total of more than 5450 neonates (two studies included all neonates but did not report the actual number of neonates involved). Four studies involved 279 nurses working in neonatal intensive care units and all neonates on admission. The fifth study did not clearly state how many nurses were included in the study. Studies examined the effectiveness of different hand hygiene practices for the incidence of (study author-defined) suspected infection within the first 28 days of life. Two studies were rated as low risk for selection bias, another two were rated as high risk, and one study was rated as unclear risk. One study was rated as low risk for allocation bias, and four were rated as high risk. Only one of the five studies was rated as low risk for performance bias. 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) compared to plain liquid soap We are uncertain whether plain soap is better than 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) for nurses' skin based on very low-certainty evidence (mean difference (MD) -1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.31 to -0.19; 16 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). We identified no studies that reported on other outcomes for this comparison. 4% chlorhexidine gluconate compared to triclosan 1% One study compared 1% w/v triclosan with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and suggests that 1% w/v triclosan may reduce the incidence of suspected infection (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% CI 0.19 to 5.60; 1916 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). There may be fewer cases of infection in the 1% w/v triclosan group compared to the 4% chlorhexidine gluconate group (RR 6.01, 95% CI 3.56 to 10.14; 1916 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence); however, we are uncertain of the available evidence. We identified no study that reported on all-cause mortality, duration of hospital stay, and adverse events for this comparison. 2% CHG compared to alcohol hand sanitiser (61% alcohol and emollients) We are uncertain whether 2% chlorhexidine gluconate reduces the risk of all infection in neonates compared to 61% alcohol hand sanitiser with regards to the incidence of all bacteriologically confirmed infection within the first 28 days of life (RR 2.19, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.69; 2932 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence) in the 2% chlorhexidine gluconate group, but the evidence is very uncertain.   The adverse outcome was reported as mean visual scoring on the skin. There may be little to no difference between the effects of 2% CHG on nurses' skin compared to alcohol hand sanitiser based on very low-certainty evidence (MD 0.80, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.59; 118 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). We identified no study that reported on all-cause mortality and other outcomes for this comparison. None of the included studies assessed all-cause mortality within the first seven days of life nor duration of hospital stay.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain as to the superiority of one hand hygiene agent over another because this review included very few studies with very serious study limitations.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Higiene de las Manos/métodos , Factores de Edad , Antiinfecciosos Locales/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Sesgo , Clorhexidina/administración & dosificación , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Estudios Cruzados , Desinfectantes para las Manos/administración & dosificación , Desinfectantes para las Manos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Enfermería Neonatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Jabones/administración & dosificación , Triclosán/administración & dosificación
3.
Infection ; 49(2): 305-311, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315181

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: One of the key approaches to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission would be to reduce the titres of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of infected COVID-19 patients. This is particularly important in high-risk procedures like dental treatment. The present randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of three commercial mouth-rinse viz. povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients compared with water. METHODS: A total of 36 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, of which 16 patients were randomly assigned to four groups-PI group (n = 4), CHX group (n = 6), CPC group (n = 4) and water as control group (n = 2). Saliva samples were collected from all patients at baseline and at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h post-application of mouth-rinses/water. The samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Comparison of salivary Ct values of patients within each group of PI, CHX, CPC and water at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h time points did not show any significant differences. However, when the Ct value fold change of each of the mouth-rinse group patients were compared with the fold change of water group patients at the respective time points, a significant increase was observed in the CPC group patients at 5 min and 6 h and in the PI group patients at 6 h. CONCLUSION: The effect of decreasing salivary load with CPC and PI mouth-rinsing was observed to be sustained at 6 h time point. Within the limitation of the current study, as number of the samples analyzed, the use of CPC and PI formulated that commercial mouth-rinses may be useful as a pre-procedural rinse to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19. ISRCTN (ISRCTN95933274), 09/09/20, retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Saliva/virología , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , /transmisión , Cetilpiridinio/análisis , Cetilpiridinio/uso terapéutico , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorhexidina/análisis , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Antisépticos Bucales/química , Povidona Yodada/análisis , Povidona Yodada/uso terapéutico , Singapur , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 981-990, 2020 10 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215489

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To analyze in vitro new formulations with Citrox and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) regarding their antibacterial activity against planktonic bacteria and their potential to inhibit biofilm formation or to act on existing biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five oral health care products with 0.05%-0.5% CHX formulations (four rinses and one gel) were compared with Citrox preparations and additive-free CHX solutions. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against 13 oral bacteria associated with caries or periodontitis. Further, the activity on retarding biofilm formation and on existing biofilms was analyzed; both a 'cariogenic' (5 species) and a 'periodontal' (12 species) biofilm were included. RESULTS: The MIC values did not differ between the CHX mouthrinse/gel formulations and the respective additive-free CHX solutions. Citrox was active against selected periodontopathogens (e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis). The CHX formulations more effectively retarded biofilm formation than did solutions with the same concentration of CHX but without additives. The anti-biofilm activities depended on the CHX concentration in the formulations. Both CHX solutions and formulations (rinse and gel) were only slightly active on an already formed biofilm. Citrox did not exert any anti-biofilm effect. CONCLUSION: The present in vitro data support the anti-biofilm activity of the novel CHX, Citrox, poly-L-lysine and xylitol oral health-care formulations. Further studies are warranted to confirm the present findings in various clinical settings.


Asunto(s)
Clorhexidina , Salud Bucal , Biopelículas , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Antisépticos Bucales/farmacología
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Tornillos Óseos/microbiología , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Antisépticos Bucales/farmacología , Adolescente , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Índice Periodontal
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238428, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941438

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) causes significant morbidity. Candida albicans is the main pathogen associated with both sporadic and recurrent candidiasis. Due to unsatisfactory treatment effect, the impact of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole alone or in combination on C. albicans and biofilm was investigated. METHODS: Vaginal C. albicans isolates from 18 patients with recurrent candidiasis and commensals from 19 asymptomatic women were isolated by culture. Crystal violet, XTT and colony forming unit assay were used to analyze the effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole on growth of C. albicans, formation of new and already established, mature, biofilm. RESULTS: Fluconazole reduced the growth of planktonic C. albicans. However, in established biofilm, fluconazole had no effect on the candida cells and was not able to disperse and reduce the biofilm. By contrast, chlorhexidine digluconate had a direct killing effect on C. albicans grown both planktonically and in biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate also dispersed mature biofilm and inhibited formation of new biofilm. No major differences were observed between commensal isolates and candida causing recurrent vulvovaginitis with respect to biofilm or growth after chlorhexidine digluconate treatment. CONCLUSION: Biofilm is a problem in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis reducing the effect of antifungal treatment. Development of new treatment strategies are urgently needed to decrease the recurrences. In already established biofilm, chlorhexidine digluconate dispersed the biofilm and was more effective in eradicating candida compared to fluconazole. Future treatment strategy may thus be a combination of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole and prophylactic use of chlorhexidine digluconate to prevent biofilm formation and restrict infections.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Candida albicans/aislamiento & purificación , Candidiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Candidiasis Vulvovaginal/tratamiento farmacológico , Candidiasis Vulvovaginal/microbiología , Clorhexidina/metabolismo , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Femenino , Fluconazol/farmacología , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Vagina/microbiología
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/farmacología , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Antisépticos Bucales/farmacología , Staphylococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Desconsolidación Dental , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/clasificación , Staphylococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 45-49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621599

RESUMEN

The gutta-percha cones used in endodontic treatment are produced in aseptic conditions and their composition includes zinc oxide, which is responsible for antibacterial activity. However, there is the possibility of microbial contamination by manipulation, aerosol or during storage. Although several chemical agents have been tested for their decontamination, there is no consensus on the best disinfection protocol to be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decontamination of gutta-percha cones contaminated with the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, by using chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations for short exposure times. For this purpose, gutta-percha cones (size 40) were selected at random from a sealed box and immersed for 1 min in a microbial suspension. Then they were immersed in specific Petri dishes for different groups containing: CHX 2%, NaClO 1% or NaClO 2.5% for 30 s or 1 min, and subsequently placed in tubes containing BHI broth. After incubating the tubes for 48 h, it was observed that 1% and 2.5% NaClO and 2% CHX were effective for decontaminating the cones at those exposure time intervals. Microbial growth was detected in one of the replicates of the group with CHX applied for 30 s. To prevent the possibility of failures at this stage, the exposure time of gutta-percha cones to the decontaminating agent should not be reduced.


Asunto(s)
Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Descontaminación/métodos , Desinfectantes Dentales/farmacología , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Gutapercha , Irrigantes del Conducto Radicular/farmacología , Hipoclorito de Sodio/farmacología , Esterilización/métodos , Antiinfecciosos Locales , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Desinfectantes Dentales/administración & dosificación , Enterococcus faecalis/aislamiento & purificación , Contaminación de Equipos/prevención & control , Humanos , Materiales de Obturación del Conducto Radicular , Irrigantes del Conducto Radicular/administración & dosificación , Hipoclorito de Sodio/administración & dosificación
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD007462, 2020 06 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The risk of maternal mortality and morbidity is higher after caesarean section than for vaginal birth. With increasing rates of caesarean section, it is important to minimise risks to the mother as much as possible. This review focused on different skin preparations to prevent infection. This is an update of a review last published in 2018. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of different antiseptic agents, different methods of application, or different forms of antiseptic used for preoperative skin preparation for preventing postcaesarean infection. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (9 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials, evaluating any type of preoperative skin preparation (agents, methods or forms). We included studies presented only as abstracts, if there was enough information to assess risk of bias. Comparisons of interest in this review were between: different antiseptic agents (e.g. alcohol, povidone iodine), different methods of antiseptic application (e.g. scrub, paint, drape), different forms of antiseptic (e.g. powder, liquid), and also between different packages of skin preparation including a mix of agents and methods, such as a plastic incisional drape, which may or may not be impregnated with antiseptic agents. We mainly focused on the comparison between different agents, with and without the use of drapes. Only studies involving the preparation of the incision area were included. This review did not cover studies of preoperative handwashing by the surgical team or preoperative bathing. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, extracted the data and checked data for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 individually-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with a total of 6938 women who were undergoing caesarean section. Twelve trials (6916 women) contributed data to this review. The trial dates ranged from 1983 to 2016. Six trials were conducted in the USA, and the remainder in India, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, France, Denmark, and Indonesia. The included studies were broadly at low risk of bias for most domains, although high risk of detection bias raised some specific concerns in a number of studies. Length of stay was only reported in one comparison. Antiseptic agents Parachlorometaxylenol with iodine versus iodine alone We are uncertain whether parachlorometaxylenol with iodine made any difference to the incidence of surgical site infection (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 2.99; 1 trial, 50 women), or endometritis (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.38; 1 trial, 50 women) when compared with iodine alone, because the certainty of the evidence was very low. Adverse events (maternal or neonatal) were not reported. Chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone iodine Moderate-certainty evidence suggested that chlorhexidine gluconate, when compared with povidone iodine, probably slightly reduces the incidence of surgical site infection (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.91; 8 trials, 4323 women). This effect was still present in a sensitivity analysis after removing four trials at high risk of bias for outcome assessment (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.23; 4 trials, 2037 women). Low-certainty evidence indicated that chlorhexidine gluconate, when compared with povidone iodine, may make little or no difference to the incidence of endometritis (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.86; 3 trials, 2484 women). It is uncertain whether chlorhexidine gluconate reduces maternal skin irritation or allergic skin reaction (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.46; 3 trials, 1926 women; very low certainty evidence). One small study (60 women) reported reduced bacterial growth at 18 hours after caesarean section for women who had chlorhexidine gluconate preparation compared with women who had povidone iodine preparation (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.70). Methods Drape versus no drape This comparison investigated the use of drape versus no drape, following preparation of the skin with antiseptics. Low-certainty evidence suggested that using a drape before surgery compared with no drape, may make little or no difference to the incidence of surgical site infection (RR 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.71; 3 trials, 1373 women), and probably makes little or no difference to the length of stay in the hospital (mean difference (MD) 0.10 days, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.46; 1 trial, 603 women; moderate-certainty evidence). One trial compared an alcohol scrub and iodophor drape with a five-minute iodophor scrub only, and reported no surgical site infection in either group (79 women, very-low certainty evidence). We were uncertain whether the combination of a one-minute alcohol scrub and a drape reduced the incidence of metritis when compared with a five-minute scrub, because the certainty of the evidence was very low (RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 9.16; 1 trial, 79 women). The studies did not report on adverse events (maternal or neonatal). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence suggests that preparing the skin with chlorhexidine gluconate before caesarean section is probably slightly more effective at reducing the incidence of surgical site infection in comparison to povidone iodine. For other outcomes examined there was insufficient evidence available from the included RCTs. Most of the evidence in this review was deemed to be very low or low certainty. This means that for most findings, our confidence in any evidence of an intervention effect is limited, and indicates the need for more high-quality research. Therefore, it is not yet clear what sort of skin preparation may be most effective for preventing postcaesarean surgical site infection, or for reducing other undesirable outcomes for mother and baby. Well-designed RCTs, with larger sample sizes are needed. High-priority questions include comparing types of antiseptic (especially iodine versus chlorhexidine), and application methods (scrubbing, swabbing, or draping). We found two studies that are ongoing; we will incorporate the results of these studies in future updates of this review.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Endometritis/prevención & control , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Paños Quirúrgicos , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Adulto , Antiinfecciosos Locales/efectos adversos , Vendajes , Clorhexidina/efectos adversos , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Endometritis/epidemiología , Etanol/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Yodo/uso terapéutico , Yodóforos/uso terapéutico , Tiempo de Internación , Povidona Yodada/efectos adversos , Povidona Yodada/uso terapéutico , Embarazo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología , Xilenos/uso terapéutico
10.
Spine Deform ; 8(5): 931-938, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356280

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. OBJECTIVE: Can a standardized, hospital-wide care bundle decrease surgical site infection (SSI) rate in pediatric spinal deformity surgery? SSI is a major concern in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of our primary scoliosis surgeries between 1999 and 2017. In 2008, we implemented a standardized infection reduction bundle. Interventions included preoperative nares screening for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 2 weeks preoperatively, and treatment with intranasal mupirocin when positive, a bath or shower the night before surgery, a preoperative chlorohexidine scrub, timing of standardized antibiotic administration, standardized intraoperative re-dosing of antibiotics, limiting operating room traffic, and standardized postoperative wound care. In 2011, we added intrawound vancomycin powder at wound closure. Our inclusion criteria were patients 21 years of age or less with idiopathic, neuromuscular, syndromic, or congenital scoliosis who had a primary spinal fusion or a same day anterior and posterior spine fusion with segmental spinal instrumentation of six levels or more. We compared the incidence of early (within 90 days of surgery) and late (> 91 days) SSI during the first postoperative year. RESULTS: There were 804 patients who met inclusion criteria: 404 in the non-bundle group (NBG) for cases prior to protocol change and 400 in the bundle group (BG) for cases after the protocol change. Postoperatively, there were 29 infections (7.2% of total cases) in the NBG: 9 early (2.2%) and 20 late (5.0%) while in the BG there were only 10 infection (2.5%): 6 early (1.5%) and 4 late (1.0%). The reduction in overall SSIs was statistically significant (p = 0.01). There was a trend toward decreased early infections in the BG, without reaching statistical significance (p = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Standardized care bundles appear effective in reducing the incidence of postoperative pediatric spine SSIs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Paquetes de Atención al Paciente/métodos , Escoliosis/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/efectos adversos , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Administración Intranasal , Adolescente , Baños , Niño , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Mupirocina/administración & dosificación , Polvos , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/etiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/microbiología , Vancomicina/administración & dosificación
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 113.e1-113.e11, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections after cesarean delivery are a cause of maternal morbidity and are typically caused by skin microbial flora. Preadmission application of chlorhexidine gluconate using impregnated cloths may decrease surgical site infections by decreasing the abundance of microbial flora. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the application of chlorhexidine gluconate cloths the night before and the morning of scheduled cesarean delivery decreases the risk of surgical site infections by 6 weeks postoperatively compared with placebo. STUDY DESIGN: In this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either Sage 2% chlorhexidine cloths or Sage Comfort Bath fragrance-free cloths (placebo) to apply to 6 skin sites on the body (neck, shoulders and chest, armpits, arm and hands, abdomen and groin, left leg and foot, right leg and foot, back and buttocks) the night before and after a shower the morning of scheduled cesarean delivery. Routine clinical and operative procedures were followed. The primary outcome was surgical site infections (superficial or deep incisional with or without organ space endometritis) by 6 weeks after cesarean delivery. The secondary outcomes were surgical site infections by 2 weeks and other wound-related complications by 2 and 6 weeks after cesarean delivery. RESULTS: From April 2015 to August 2019, 1356 patients were enrolled: 682 were assigned to the chlorhexidine group and 674 to the placebo group. The groups were similar in demographic and medical characteristics. A total of 14 patients were lost to follow-up before cesarean delivery (10 in chlorhexidine and 4 in placebo) and 33 were lost to follow-up after cesarean delivery (10 in chlorhexidine and 23 in placebo). Among the remaining 1309 (97%), no difference was found in surgical site infections by 6 weeks between the 2 groups (2.6% in chlorhexidine vs 3.7% in placebo; P=.24). There were no differences in secondary outcomes at 2 or 6 weeks and no differences in primary outcome in a per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSION: Preadmission use of chlorhexidine gluconate cloths compared with placebo does not reduce the risk of surgical site infection after scheduled cesarean deliveries. Following the standard of care guidelines results in a low risk of surgical site infections in this group of patients.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/administración & dosificación , Cesárea , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Administración Tópica , Adulto , Clorhexidina/administración & dosificación , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Medición de Riesgo , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232062, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330165

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in hospitalized patients reduces healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms. Achieving compliance with bathing protocols is challenging. This non-intensive care unit multicenter project evaluated the impact of organizational context on implementation of CHG and assessed compliance with and healthcare workers' perceptions of the intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multiple case study based on the SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety. The four sites included an adult cardiovascular unit in a community hospital, a medical-surgical unit in an academic teaching pediatric hospital, an adult medical-surgical acute care unit and an adult neuroscience acute care unit in another academic teaching hospital. Complementary data collection methods included focus groups and interviews with healthcare workers (HCWs) and leaders, and direct observations of the CHG treatment process and skin swabs. RESULTS: We collected 389 bathing observations and 110 skin swabs, conducted four focus groups with frontline workers and interviewed leaders. We found variation across cases in CHG compliance, skin swab data and implementation practices. Mean compliance with the bathing process ranged from 64% to 83%. Low detectable CHG on the skin was related to immediate rinsing of CHG from the skin. Variation in the implementation of CHG treatments was related to differences in organizational education and training practices, feedback and monitoring practices, patient education or information about CHG treatments, patient preferences and general unit patient population differences. CONCLUSION: Organizations planning to implement CHG treatments in non-ICU settings should ensure organizational readiness and buy-in and consider delivering systematic and ongoing training. Clear and systematic implementation policies across patients and units may help reduce potential confusion about treatment practices and variation across HCWs. Patient populations and unit factors need to be carefully considered and procedures developed to manage unique challenges.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/administración & dosificación , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Adulto , Baños/métodos , Clorhexidina/administración & dosificación , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitales Comunitarios , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino
13.
J Oral Sci ; 62(2): 206-211, 2020 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161231

RESUMEN

Mouth rinses are a useful supplementary tool for the prevention of oral infectious diseases. Although the antimicrobial effects of mouth rinses have been investigated, there are few studies focusing on the comparison of the effects among various oral bacterial species. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of a commercial mouth rinse, "ConCoolF," and each of its major components, chlorhexidine gluconate, ethanol, and green tea extract, on multiple species of oral bacteria were investigated. Inhibition of bacterial growth was observed in all cariogenic streptococcal species with different genera, serotypes, and strains isolated from different countries when either the complete mouth rinse or chlorhexidine gluconate were used. However, no growth inhibition was observed when the bacteria were exposed to ethanol or green tea extract. Interestingly, growth inhibition was greatly reduced in non-cariogenic streptococci compared with cariogenic streptococci. In addition, both the mouth rinse and chlorhexidine gluconate inhibited the biofilms formed by both Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), among which the inhibitory effect against S. mutans was higher than that against P. gingivalis. These results suggest that a mouth rinse containing chlorhexidine gluconate, ethanol, and green tea extract, or chlorhexidine gluconate alone, exhibits antimicrobial activity against several oral bacteria species, having greater activity against pathogenic bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales , Antisépticos Bucales , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Etanol , Boca , Extractos Vegetales , Streptococcus mutans ,
14.
Biofouling ; 36(2): 146-158, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182151

RESUMEN

Following antimicrobial administrations in oral environments, bacteria become exposed to a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC), which can induce in vitro single-species biofilms. This study explored the effects of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) at a sub-MIC on in vitro multi-species biofilms comprising Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii. CHG at a sub-MIC was found to induce in vitro biofilm growth, although the bacterial growth was not significantly different from that in the control. The gene transcription related to S. mutans multi-species biofilm formation with CHG at a sub-MIC was significantly higher than that of the control, but this was not found in S. mutans single-species biofilms. The bio-volume of extracellular polysaccharides with CHG at a sub-MIC was significantly higher than that of the control. This suggests that CHG at a sub-MIC may promote the development of multi-species biofilms by affecting the gene transcription related to S. mutans biofilm formation.


Asunto(s)
Actinomyces/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus oralis/efectos de los fármacos , Actinomyces/genética , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus oralis/genética , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Spine Deform ; 8(4): 677-684, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162198

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to analyze the effect of care bundle protocol on SSI in our institution. Postoperative surgical site infections (SSI) pose significant health burden. In spite of the use of prophylactic antibiotics, surgical advances and postoperative care, wound infection continues to affect patient outcomes after spine surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 9607 consecutive patients who underwent spine procedures from 2014 to 2018 was performed. Preventive care bundle was implemented from January 2017 consisting of (a) preoperative bundle-glycemic control, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bath, (b) intra-operative bundle-time specified antibiotic prophylaxis, CHG+ alcohol-based skin preparation (c) postoperative bundle-five moments of hand hygiene, early mobilization and bundle auditing. Patients operated from January 2017 were included in the post-implementation cohort and prior to that the pre-implementation cohort was formed. Data were drawn from weekly and yearly spine audits from the hospital infection committee software. Infection data were collected based on CDC criteria, further sub classification was done based on procedure, spinal disorders and spine level. Variables were analyzed and level of significance was set as < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 7333 patients met the criteria. The overall SSI rate decreased from 3.42% (131/3829) in pre-implementation cohort to 1.22% (43/3504, p = 0.0001) in post-implementation cohort (RR = 2.73, OR = 2.79). Statistically significant reduction was seen in all the groups (a) superficial and deep, (b) early and late and (c) instrumented and uninstrumented groups but was more pronounced in early (p = 0.0001), superficial (p = 0.0001) and instrumented groups (p = 0.0001). On subgroup analysis based on spine level and spinal disorders, significant reduction was seen in lumbar (p = 0.0001) and degenerative group (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed significant reduction of SSI secondary to strict bundle adherence and monitored compliance compared to patients who did not receive these interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Asunto(s)
Paquetes de Atención al Paciente/métodos , Enfermedades de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Baños , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
16.
Vet Surg ; 49(5): 971-976, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196706

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) (resistance genes, qac A/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ, in clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and methicillin-resistant S pseudintermedius (MRSP) from dogs and the impact on in vitro chlorhexidine susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Seventy isolates from dogs colonized or infected with MRSP (n = 50) or MSSP (n = 20). METHODS: Agar dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorhexidine digluconate. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of QAC resistance genes, qacA/B, smr, qacG, and qacJ genes. RESULTS: One or more qac genes were identified in 52 of 70 (74%) isolates. Overall, there was no association between chlorhexidine MIC and the presence of one or more qac genes (P = .85) or the presence of qacA/B (P = .31), smr (P = .72) or qacJ (P = .93) individually. There was an association between qacG and MIC (P = .012), with a median MIC of 1.5 µg/mL for isolates possessing this gene and 1 µg/mL for those not possessing it. CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes were present in MRSP and MSSP isolates. With the exception of qacG, the presence of these genes was not associated with increased MIC. All isolates exhibited MIC 5000 to 80 000 times lower than the concentration recommended for use. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of QAC genes, chlorhexidine digluconate should be effective against MRSP and MSSP if used correctly.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Resistencia a la Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Perros , Meticilina/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria
17.
Biocontrol Sci ; 25(1): 41-44, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173666

RESUMEN

Chlorhexidine digluconate inhibits oral bacteria and the formation of dental plaque. Protamine sulfate, a polycationic protein, exerts antibacterial activity by altering the cell wall of bacteria. Extracts of Laminaria japonica and Rosmarinus officinalis display antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and protamine sulfate on the inhibitory activity of L. japonica and R. officinalis extracts against Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent for dental caries. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chlorhexidine digluconate, protamine sulfate, and L. japonica and R. officinalis extracts were determined by broth dilution method. Synergistic effect of chlorhexidine digluconate or protamine sulfate and extracts of L. japonica or R. officinalis was determined by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC). FIC demonstrated the synergistic effects of the different combinations of antibacterial agents. In this study, the use of sub-MIC of chlorhexidine digluconate or protamine sulfate with sub-MIC of L. japonica and R. officinalis extracts resulted in synergistic inhibitory effects of these antibacterial agents except for chlorhexidine digluconate and L. japonica combination.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Laminaria/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Protaminas/farmacología , Rosmarinus/química , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Caries Dental/microbiología , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
18.
J Surg Res ; 250: 161-171, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065967

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This secondary analysis compared antimicrobial utilization among surgical intensive care unit patients randomized to every other day chlorhexidine bathing (chlorhexidine) versus daily soap and water bathing (soap-and-water) using data from the CHlorhexidine Gluconate BATHing trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial utilization was quantified using defined daily dose (DDD)/100 patient-days and agent-days/100 patient-days for systemic antimicrobials. Antivirals (except oseltamivir), antiparasitics, and prophylaxis agents were excluded. The 2018 anatomic therapeutic chemical/DDD index was used to calculate DDD. Agent-days were calculated as the sum of calendar days where antimicrobials were administered. Patient-days were defined as time patients were at risk for health care-acquired infections plus up to 14 d. Primary analyses were conducted using linear regression adjusted for baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. RESULTS: Of 325 CHlorhexidine Gluconate BATHing trial patients, 312 (157 in soap-and-water and 155 in chlorhexidine) were included. The median (interquartile range) of total antimicrobial DDD/100 patient-days was 135.4 (75.2-231.8) for soap-and-water and 129.9 (49.2-215.3) for chlorhexidine. The median (interquartile range) of total antimicrobial agent-days/100 patient-days was 155.6 (83.3-243.2) for soap-and-water and 146.7 (66.7-217.4) for chlorhexidine. After adjusting for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, chlorhexidine bathing was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in total antimicrobial DDD/100 patient-days (-3.9; 95% confidence interval, -33.9 to 26.1; P = 0.80) and total antimicrobial agent-days/100 patient-days (-10.3; 95% confidence interval, -34.7 to 14.1; P = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with daily soap and water bathing, every other day chlorhexidine bathing did not significantly reduce total antimicrobial utilization in surgical intensive care unit patients.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinfecciosos Locales/administración & dosificación , Baños/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Clorhexidina/administración & dosificación , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Jabones/administración & dosificación
19.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(4): 382-386, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105297

RESUMEN

Importance: Alcohol-based surgical scrub is recommended for presurgical antisepsis by leading health organizations. Despite this recommendation, water-based scrub techniques remain common practice at many institutions. Objective: To calculate the potential financial savings that a large, subspecialty ophthalmic surgical center can achieve with a conversion to waterless surgical hand preparation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A review of accounting records associated with the purchase of scrubbing materials and water company invoices was conducted to assess direct costs attributable to water consumption and scrub materials for brushless, alcohol-based surgical scrub and water-based presurgical scrub. The flow rate of scrub sinks to estimate water consumption per year was tested. Savings associated with operating room (OR) and personnel time were calculated based on the prescribed scrub times for waterless techniques vs traditional running-water techniques. The study was conducted from January 5 to March 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes for this study were the quantity of water consumed by aqueous scrubbing procedures as well as the cost differences between alcohol-based surgical scrub and water-based scrub procedures per OR per year. Results: Scrub sinks consumed 15.9 L of water in a 2-minute period, projecting a savings of 61 631 L and $277 in water and sewer cost per operating room per year. Alcohol-based surgical scrub cost $1083 less than aqueous soap applied from wall-mounted soap dispensers and $271 less than preimpregnated scrub brushes per OR per year in supply costs. The decrease in scrub time from adopting waterless scrub technique could save between approximately $280 000 and $348 000 per OR per year. Conclusions and Relevance: Adopting waterless scrub techniques has the potential for economic savings attributable to water. Savings may be larger for surgical facilities performing more personnel-intensive procedures.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/administración & dosificación , Antisepsia/métodos , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Etanol/administración & dosificación , Desinfección de las Manos/economía , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Agua , Antiinfecciosos Locales/economía , Clorhexidina/administración & dosificación , Clorhexidina/economía , Desinfectantes , Etanol/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Quirófanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/economía , Cuidados Preoperatorios
20.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 71-76, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051973

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of preapplication of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on the immediate microtensile bond strength of a universal adhesive system on dentine subjected to different bonding protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty human molars were used in this study, and the tooth surface was abraded to expose the dentine. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups according to the surface treatment (n = 5): SBU group: Single Bond Universal without acid etching; SBUPA group: 37% phosphoric acid + Single Bond Universal; SBUCG group: 2% chlorhexidine gluconate + Single Bond Universal; and SBUPACG group: 37% phosphoric acid + 2% chlorhexidine gluconate + Single Bond Universal. The microtensile bond strengths were measured using a microtensile tester 24 h after bonding. The bond strength data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Sheffé's least statistically significant difference test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between the analysed groups were observed (p > 0.05). However, conditioning with phosphoric acid without the action of the chlorhexidine gluconate group resulted in higher numerical values of bond strengths than that for the chlorhexidine gluconate without the acid conditioning group. CONCLUSION: The preapplication of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate did not reduce the immediate bond strength of the Single Bond Universal adhesive system under different bonding protocols.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Grabado Ácido Dental , Clorhexidina/análogos & derivados , Resinas Compuestas , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Proyectos Piloto , Propiedades de Superficie , Resistencia a la Tracción
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...