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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 142840, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757250

RESUMEN

Protists in aquaculture ponds are key components associated with primary productivity, nutrient cycling, and fish healthy. However, the protist metacommunity diversity, as well as the ecological and environmental factors that structure protist metacommunity in aquaculture ponds remain poorly understood. This study examined protist metacommunities in water and sediment of larval, small juvenile and large juvenile grass carp ponds. The results indicated sediment resuspension became stronger with the increased fish size, which led to high levels of total suspended solids and nitrogen but low levels of phosphate, chlorophyll a and transparency in water. Moreover, sediment resuspension subsequently increased the alpha diversity indexes (i.e., OTU number, Shannon index and Simpson index) of protist communities in water and sediment. Meanwhile, sediment resuspension increased the relative abundance of heterotrophic Ciliophora and Cercozoa, but decreased the relative abundance of autotrophic Chlorophyta, Stramenopiles X, and Ochrophyta. Besides, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic protists showed competitive advantages in the turbidity water, which led to the increase of negative interactions in the protist co-occurrence networks. Based on the null model, sediment resuspension strengthened homogeneous selection (deterministic process) and weakened dispersal limitation (stochastic process) processes of protist community assembly. Indeed, protist community dissimilarity within each local community and each habitat (water or sediment) both decreased while the community dissimilarity between habitats increased with the increase of fish size. Therefore, sediment resuspension did not enhance the dispersal path between water and sediment, but decreased the dispersal limitation within sediment and water coupled with the strengthening of environmental selection. These results indicated that grass carp could restructure the protist metacommunity in aquaculture ponds through bottom up way of sediment resuspension. This study advances our understanding of the relationship between fish and protist metacommunity assembly in aquaculture systems.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Estanques , Animales , Acuicultura , Clorofila A , Sedimentos Geológicos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 201, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742298

RESUMEN

The influence of microphytobenthic community on the composition of sedimentary organic matter was evaluated in two Bahía Blanca estuary microhabitats contrasting in vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions; namely, S1 located in a Sarcocornia perennis saltmarsh with macroscopic microbial mats and S2 in a mudflat without macroscopic microbial mats or vegetation. Moisture, organic matter, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, carbohydrates (CH), proteins (PRT), and abundance and structure of microphytobenthic community were evaluated in surface sediments. Higher moisture was observed at S2 and was related to the proximity of this site to the subtidal zone and the effect of the environmental variables temperature and rain. No significant differences were found in organic matter content between sites; however, at S1, a higher concentration was registered during winter and early spring associated to the period of higher microphytobenthic biomass. Chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were higher at S1, attributed to the higher microphytobenthos abundance at this site. Differences in microphytobenthos were observed not only in quantity but also in community structure since at S1 filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the community, whereas at S2, higher abundance of centric diatoms and the absence of cyanobacteria were observed during most of the study. S1 showed higher concentration of proteins and carbohydrates which could be attributed to the higher production of fresh organic matter by microphytobenthos. The total protein and carbohydrate concentrations allowed us to classify both microhabitats into the meso-oligotrophic category, contrasting with the classification made by other authors using water column proxies.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Diatomeas , Clorofila A , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112059, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677415

RESUMEN

Chlorophyll a fluorescence is increasingly being used as a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and convenient indicator of photosynthetic performance in marine autotrophs. This review presents the methodology, applications and limitations of chlorophyll fluorescence in marine studies. The various chlorophyll fluorescence tools such as Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated (PAM) and Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometry used in marine scientific studies are discussed. Various commonly employed chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are elaborated. The application of chlorophyll fluorescence in measuring natural variations, stress, stress tolerance and acclimation/adaptation to changing environment in primary producers such as microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses and mangroves, and marine symbiotic invertebrates, namely symbiotic sponges, hard corals and sea anemones, kleptoplastic sea slugs and giant clams is critically assessed. Stressors include environmental, biological, physical and chemical ones. The strengths, limitations and future perspectives of the use of chlorophyll fluorescence technique as an assessment tool in symbiotic marine organisms and seaplants are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos , Clorofila , Animales , Clorofila A , Fluorescencia , Fluorometría , Fotosíntesis
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124995, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744090

RESUMEN

Chlorella vulgaris was grown using mixed sources of nitrogen (nitrate and nitrite). Starting from B3N as basal medium, nitrate was substituted by nitrite keeping total nitrogen constant over 7 conditions: 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100% NO2-. Growth rate, nitrogen uptake, photosynthetic apparatus status and pigment contents were monitored. Nitrite addition triggered a growth rate inhibition from early introduction (20% NO2-, 81 mgNO2-/l). Nitrate uptake rate increased with nitrate content in the culture medium (maximum at 5.87 mg/l/Nd, 100% NO3-), while nitrite uptake remained constant around 2.93 mgN/l/d. Photosynthetic apparatus was not impacted by the nitrogen source substitution. Pigments profiles (chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoids) were not statistically different for all the tested conditions. From a biotechnological perspective, this finding rules out the use of nitrite substitution as a pigment manipulating stress strategy.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella vulgaris , Nitratos , Clorofila A , Nitritos , Nitrógeno
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145488, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736263

RESUMEN

With the rapid expansion of maritime traffic, increases in air emissions from shipping have exacerbated numerous environmental issues, including air pollution and climate change. However, the effects of such emissions on marine biogeochemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we collected ship-emitted particles (SEPs) from the stack of a heavy-oil-powered vessel using an onboard emission test system and investigated the impact of SEPs on phytoplankton growth over the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO). In SEP microcosm experiments conducted in oceanic zones with different trophic statuses, the phytoplankton response, as indicated by chlorophyll a (Chl a), has been shown to increase with the proportion of SEP-derived nitrogen (N) relative to N stocks (PSN) in baseline seawater, suggesting that SEPs generally promote phytoplankton growth via N fertilisation. Simulations using an air quality model combined with a ship emission inventory further showed that oxidised N (NOx) emissions from shipping contributed ~43% of the atmospheric N deposition flux in the NWPO. Air emissions from shipping (e.g. NOx and sulphur dioxide) also indirectly enhanced the deposition of reduced N that existed in the atmosphere, constituting ~15% of the atmospheric N deposition flux. These results suggest that the impact of airborne ship emissions on atmospheric N deposition is comparable to that of land-based emissions in the NWPO. Based on the ship-induced PSN in surface seawater calculated by modeling results and World Ocean Atlas 2013 nutrient dataset, and the well-established quantitative relationship between Chl a and PSN obtained from microcosm experiments, we found a noticeable change in surface Chl a concentrations due to N deposition derived from marine traffic in the NWPO, particularly in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and open oceans. This work attempts to establish a direct link between marine productivity and air emissions from shipping.


Asunto(s)
Fitoplancton , Navíos , Clorofila A , Océanos y Mares , Océano Pacífico
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 145471, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736330

RESUMEN

In this research investigation, three microalgal species were screened (Pleurosigma sp., Amphora sp., and Amphiprora sp.) for lipid content before choosing the potential microalgae for biodiesel production. It was found that the lipid content of Amphiprora sp. was 41.48 ± 0.18%, which was higher than the Pleurosigma sp. (27.3 ± 0.8%) and Amphora sp. (22.49 ± 0.21%). The diatom microalga, Amphiprora sp. was isolated and exposed to a controlled environment. Two different media were prepared, and the main research was on the SiO2-NP medium as the cell wall of diatom was made up of silica. Essential growth parameters were studied such as dry cell weight and chlorophyll a content. The results revealed that Amphiprora sp. cultured in the modified medium showed a higher biomass yield and growth rate in all the analyses. In Soxhlet extraction method, biodiesel yield of Amphiprora sp. in modified medium under 24 µmol m-2 s-1 of light intensity was 81.47 ± 1.59% when using 2% of catalyst amount with 1.5:1 volume ratio of methanol/oil in 3 h reaction time at 65 °C. Results reveled that Amphiprora sp. diatom has a higher yield of oil 52.94 ± 0.42% and can be efficiently optimized with further studies with modified nanomaterial culture medium. The present research revealed the series of experiments on microalgal lipid transesterification and in future investigation different types of nanomaterials should be used in culture medium to identify the lipid production in microalgal cells.


Asunto(s)
Diatomeas , Microalgas , Biocombustibles/análisis , Biomasa , Clorofila A , Lípidos , Nutrientes , Dióxido de Silicio
7.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129887, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592517

RESUMEN

In this work, the organic solvent effect on the photoconversion of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) under the simulated sunlight, as well as the mechanism and influence factor were studied. Eight organic solvents were selected to demonstrate the solvent effect on the photoconversion by the theoretical calculation method. It was found that the photoconversion rates of 1-chloronaphthalene (CN-1) in different organic solvents were in the order of dimethyl sulfoxide > methanol > acetonitrile > ethanol > dichloromethane > toluene > n-hexane > acetone. The result, obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) computation and the polarized continuum model (PCM) analysis in the framework of self-consistent reaction field (SCRF), indicated that the photoconversion was affected by the hydrogen-donating ability and electron-withdrawing potential of the solvents, as well as non-specific solute-solvent interactions. The photoconversion in acetonitrile for the five PCNs (1-chloronaphthalene, 2-chloronaphthalene, 2,3-dichloronaphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachloronaphthalene, and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8- octachloronaphthalene) all fitted well with the first-order kinetic equation; and the reaction rate decreased with the increasing of number of chlorine atoms of the PCNs. Products analysis proved that the photoconversion process of PCNs went through two stages, namely the initial stage of dechlorination and the later stage of oxidative ring opening. It was found that inorganic ions (NO3-, Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+) promoted or inhibited the photoconversion by generating or quenching of the reactive oxygen species, and chlorophyll a promoted the photoconversion through the generation of singlet oxygen.


Asunto(s)
Naftalenos , Luz Solar , Clorofila A , Metanol , Solventes
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112081, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524833

RESUMEN

Short term stress experiments with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and tripolyphosphate (TPP) have been carried out on the staghorn coral Acropora intermedia, collected from Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef, at low and elevated seawater temperatures. Zooxanthellae, chlorophyll a, intracellular and tissue dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and extracellular DMSP production were measured to assess the level of stress on A. intermedia at different winter and summer seasons from 2001 to 2003. Whilst no significant changes were measured in these stress indicators in 2001 and 2003, significant changes occurred in winter 2002, reflecting natural stresses on A. intermedia in the field, and stress from added DIP and TPP at high seawater temperatures. These stresses caused corals to bleach, whilst extracellular DMSP, intracellular and tissue DMSP concentrations increased, reflecting the antioxidant role of DMSP in the coral zooxanthellae and coral host to combat stress. These results have important implications for future research in the GBR.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Clorofila A , Arrecifes de Coral , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Compuestos de Sulfonio
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 172: 104754, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518047

RESUMEN

Fungicides are widely used to control diseases in soybean crops. We hypothesized that fungicides applied to healthy soybean plants compromise the plant's physiology, affect the reproductive process and reduce crop productivity. We aimed to evaluate the photosynthetic process, pollen grain viability and yield components of soybean plants exposed to three commercial fungicides. The experiment was performed twice using soybean cultivar SYN 1378C, disease-free plants, with four treatments: i) control treatment (without any fungicide application); ii) cyproconazole 150 g L-1 + difenoconazole 250 g L-1 (CPZ + DFZ; 250 mL ha-1; without adjuvant); iii) azoxystrobin 300 g Kg-1 + benzovindiflupyr 150 g Kg-1 (AZB + BZP; 200 g ha-1; Nimbus® adjuvant (Syngenta)); and iv) propiconazole 250 g L-1 + difenoconazole 250 g L-1 (PPZ + DFZ; 150 mL ha-1; without adjuvant) in both soybean pre-bloom (V8) and bloom (R1) developmental stages. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates. Phytotoxicity, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence traits, pollen grain viability, pollen grain germination, flower abortion and soybean production components were evaluated. The fungicides did not affect the physiological traits, pollen grain germination and crop yield.


Asunto(s)
Fungicidas Industriales , Clorofila A , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Fotosíntesis , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Soja
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 118, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564962

RESUMEN

Hilo Bay estuary, located on the northeastern side of Hawai'i Island, experiences variability in water quality parameters due to its numerous water inputs. This estuary experiences influxes of water from three sources: groundwater to the east, marine water from the north, and surface water from the Wailuku River to the west. High rainfall and river flow impacts Hilo Bay's water quality including salinity, turbidity, and chlorophyll a concentration. Here, maps of Hilo Bay water quality were examined to assess spatial patterns of these important parameters. Exploring the patterns of these water quality parameters by creating inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation surfaces of survey points and clusters based on hot spot analyses during low- and high-flow conditions showed statistically significant differences in spatial water quality in Hilo Bay. Water quality maps after a storm show (1) an overall decrease in salinity, (2) a river plume from the Wailuku River associated with a turbidity hot spot, and (3) a chlorophyll a hot spot offset from the river plume in the center of the bay. Using spatial analysis to analyze water quality throughout the entirety of Hilo Bay before and after storm events can lead to a better understanding of how this ecosystem is affected during these types of events, and furthermore, adopting this method of sampling and analysis allows for a greater representation of water quality all over the bay and can improve the monitoring of water quality in this important ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Bahías , Calidad del Agua , Clorofila A , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hawaii , Ríos , Análisis Espacial
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 402-413, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534037

RESUMEN

In this study, we assessed the effects of 11-day exposure of sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamethazine (SM2), norfloxacin (NOR), and enrofloxacin (ENR) on the growth, chlorophyll a (Chl. a) content, phycobiliproteins (PBPs) content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Chrysosporum ovalisporum, examined the removal rate of these antibiotics by C. ovalisporum, and performed acute toxicology test with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria on aquatic animals. The results showed that the stress of SD and SM2 increased extracellular ALP activity and weakly inhibited the algal growth and the contents of Chl. a and PBPs compared with that noted in the control. ENR and NOR treatment groups exerted significant inhibition on algal growth as well as Chl. a and PBPs contents and ALP activity, although the cyanobacterium could degrade these two antibiotics more than SD and SM2. The results also revealed that the interaction between antibiotics and cyanobacteria could inhibit D. magna feeding.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cianobacterias/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Animales , Clorofila A , Daphnia/efectos de los fármacos , Agua
12.
J Environ Radioact ; 229-230: 106544, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556790

RESUMEN

Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring metal; its environmental levels can be increased due to processes in the nuclear industry and fertilizer production. The transfer of U in the food chain from plants is associated with deleterious chemical and radiation effects. To date, limited information is available about U toxicity on plant physiology. This study investigates the responses of metal-accumulating plants to different concentrations of U. The plants Noccaea caerulescens and Noccaea goesingense are known as metal hyperaccumulators and therefore could serve as candidates for the phytoremediation of radioactive hotspots; Plantago major is a widely used pharmaceutical plant that pioneers polluted grounds and therefore should not contain high concentrations of toxic elements. The experimental plants were grown hydroponically at U concentrations between 1 µM and 10 mM. The content of U and essential elements was analyzed in roots and leaves by ICP-MS. The amount of accumulated U was influenced by its concentration in the hydroponics. Roots contained most of the metal, whereas less was transported up to the leaves, with the exception of N. goesingense in a medium concentration of U. U also influenced the nutrient profile of the plants. We localized the U in plant tissues using EDX in the SEM. U was evenly distributed in roots and leaves of Noccaea species, with one exception in the roots of N. goesingense, where the central cylinder contained more U than the cortex. The toxicity of U was assessed by measuring growth and photosynthetic parameters. While root biomass of N. caerulescens was not affected by U, root biomass of N. goesingense decreased significantly at high U concentrations of 0.1 and 10 mM and root biomass of P. major decreased at 10 mM U. Dry weight of leaves was decreased at different U concentrations in the three plant species; a promotive effect was observed in N. caerulescens at lowest concentration offered. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was not affected or negatively affected by U in both Noccaea species, whereas in Plantago also positive effects were observed. Our results show that the impact of U on Plantago and Noccaea relates to its external concentration and to the plant species. When growing in contaminated areas, P. major should not be used for medicinal purpose. Noccaea species and P. major could immobilize U in their rhizosphere in hotspots contaminated by U, and they could extract limited amounts of U into their leaves.


Asunto(s)
Brassicaceae , Plantago , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes del Suelo , Uranio , Clorofila A , Raíces de Plantas , Uranio/toxicidad
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145267, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517016

RESUMEN

As the main primary producer in stream ecosystems, periphyton is the fundamental of stream ecosystems and plays an essential role in maintaining stream biodiversity. The central Hengduan Mountains is one of the famous global biodiversity hotspots. However, for stream biodiversity conservations, the fundamental information about the spatial pattern of stream periphyton and the determining factors in this region remains largely unknown. To fill this gap, we investigated the spatial pattern of periphyton biomass (measured by chlorophyll a) in four typical streams in the central Hengduan Mountains and analyzed the driving factors, with the perspective of watershed land use and instream water quality. The results of our study found that farmland area, instream dissolved silicate (DSi), and water temperature (WT) had significant negative relationships with the stream periphyton biomass in the central Hengduan Mountains. However, the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) had non-significant effects on the periphyton biomass in our study. Further analysis showed that the correlation between the ratio of farmland in the catchment and the DSi is non-significant (r = 0.028, P = 0.698), suggesting that the changes in farmland area will not affect the concentration of dissolved silicate in the stream. This reveals that the stream periphyton biomass was co-determined by the watershed farmland area and instream DSi and WT, but not nitrogen or phosphorus. These results highlight the importance of farmland management and instream DSi for stream ecosystems in the central Hengduan Mountains. Our study investigated the spatial pattern of the stream primary producer in the central Hengduan Mountains region and identified the main determining factors, which could improve our understanding of the high mountain stream ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Calidad del Agua , China , Clorofila A , Ecosistema , Granjas
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(12): 14233-14252, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517530

RESUMEN

Lake eutrophication and water quality deterioration have become a major environmental problem in urban areas and fertilized basins in developing countries across the world. This paper reviews the characterization, driving factors, and impacts of lake eutrophication as well as the mechanism of preventing and recovering lake eutrophication with case studies of eutrophic lakes across the world including Lake Tana, Ethiopia. In most waterbodies including lakes and reservoirs, total phosphorus concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, and Secchi disk visibility in association with species composition are the common criteria to classify lakes and reservoir as oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic. Nutrient-rich runoff from cultivated land and industrialized and urbanized cities concentrated in phosphorus are the critical factors that drove eutrophication in water bodies. Among others, controlling external loading of nutrient, ecological, and mechanical methods were found to be common mechanisms to prevent and recover lake eutrophication. Avoiding the factors that are under human control, i.e., a reduction of external loading of nutrients especially targeted on phosphorus reduction into the water basins, relocates sewage, industrial and domestic waste discharges to be lined out of the catchment of the lake. Furthermore, motivating the community to use less phosphorus-containing fertilizers and promoting phosphorus-free detergents are suggested solutions to sustainably prevent and reduce eutrophication in the long run. These could be some possible measures to safeguard endangered Lake Tana of Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lagos , China , Clorofila A , Ciudades , Etiopía , Eutrofización , Humanos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144631, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434804

RESUMEN

Coral bacteria are highly dynamic and acutely affected by host health and environmental conditions. However, there is limited knowledge of how the dynamics of coral-associated bacterial communities and interactions among bacterial members change in response to dissolved inorganic nutrient stressors. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to examine dynamic changes in coral-associated bacterial communities under elevated ammonium stress. Short-term exposure to high levels of ammonium does not significantly harm coral holobiont. Physiological parameters such as carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, and lipid content of coral holobiont were not affected. After three weeks of elevated ammonium stress, however, the coral-associated bacterial community changed significantly. The abundance of certain bacterial populations increased significantly, with enrichment of pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria and a decrease in defensive and core bacteria. Keystone bacterial species in the co-occurrence network changed considerably. Under elevated ammonium stress, the abundance of keystone species associated with corals was lower and the complexity of keystone bacterial relationships decreased significantly. Our results indicate that bacteria respond to elevated ammonium stress through changes in abundance and co-occurrence among bacterial members. This precedes visual symptoms of changes in coral physiological conditions and could be used as an early warning indicator of elevated ammonium stress in coastal coral reef management.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Antozoos , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Clorofila A , Arrecifes de Coral , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 764: 143636, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401043

RESUMEN

During the past decades, on-line monitoring of freshwater lakes has developed rapidly. To use high frequency time-series in lake management, novel models are needed that are simple and provide insight into the complexity of phytoplankton dynamics. Chlorophyll a (Chl), a proxy for phytoplankton biomass and environmental drivers were monitored on-line in large, shallow Lake Balaton during the vegetation periods between 2001 and 2018. Growth and non-growth (G and non-G) states of algae were deduced from daily change in Chl. Random forests (RF) were used to find stochastic response rules of phytoplankton to growth-supporting environmental habitat templates. The stochastic G/non-G state was translated into long-term daily biomass dynamics by a deterministic biomass model to assess uncertainty and to distinguish between inevitable and unpredictable blooms. A biomass peak was qualified as inevitable or unpredictable if the lower 95% confidence limit of simulations exceeded or remained at the baseline Chl level, respectively. Compared to a stochastic null model based on monthly Markovian transition probabilities, RF-based models captured wax and wane of biomass realistically. Timing of peaks could be better simulated than their magnitude, likely because habitat templates were primarily determined by light whereas peak sizes might depend on unmeasured processes, such as phosphorus availability. In general, algal growth was favored by wind-induced sediment resuspension that decreased light availability but simultaneously enhanced the P supply. Seasonal temperature and an integral of departures from the "normal" seasonal temperature over 2 to 3 generations were important drivers of phytoplankton growth, whereas short-term (diel and day to day) changes in water temperature appeared to be irrelevant. Four types of years could be distinguished during the study period with respect to algal growth conditions. The present modeling approach can reasonably be used even in highly variable aquatic environments when 3 to 4 years of daily data are available.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Fitoplancton , Biomasa , China , Clorofila A , Eutrofización , Fósforo/análisis
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 231-240, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477231

RESUMEN

Strawberry variety 'Benihoppe' was used as the experimental material. The temperature treatments were set at 32 ℃/22 ℃, 35 ℃/25 ℃, 38 ℃/28 ℃ and 41 ℃/31 ℃ (daily maximum temperature/daily minimum temperature), and the stress days lasted for 2, 5, 8 and 11 d, with 28 ℃/18 ℃ as the control. We measured the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species, protective enzyme activity and membrane lipid peroxidation of strawberry under different high temperature treatments. The key indices were extracted by principal component analysis. The high temperature stress index (Z) was defined to divide the high temperature stress grade. The results showed that 1) with the aggravation of high temperature stress and the extension of stress time, chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), light saturation point (LSP), maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax), apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) and maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) decreased, while light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (Rd) increased. 2) High temperature hindered the energy transfer of thylakoid in PSⅡ center (ΔWOK>0), and accelerated the reduction rate of PSⅠ terminal electron receptor pool. On the 11th day of the stress, except that under 32 ℃, all other oxygen evolution complexes (OEC) were inactivated. 3) The content of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 Content and O2-· production rate) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the stress days under different high temperature treatments. 4) The protective enzyme activities and soluble protein content increased first and then decreased with stress duration. 5) Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and combined with the difficulty of index acquisition, Chl a, Pmax, Fv/Fm and MDA were extracted as the key indices, and Z value was calculated. Five high temperature stress grades were divided which were normal (0

Asunto(s)
Fragaria , Plantones , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta , Estrés Fisiológico , Temperatura
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 317-325, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477240

RESUMEN

In order to evaluate the effects of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on the growth, physiology, and biochemical characteristics of submerged plants, we exposed a typical submerged plant, Hydrilla verticillata, to a series of concentrations (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 mg·L-1) of 3 µm polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) and measured parameters including height, biomass, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, photosynthetic fluorescence. The results showed that the height of H. Verticillata significantly decreased at the high PS-MP concentrations (50 to 100 mg·L-1), while the fresh weight significantly increased at the low PS-MP concentration (5 mg·L-1). The fresh weight of H. verticillata gradually decreased with the increasing PS-MP concentration but the dry weight did not change. The total amount of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll a/b significantly decreased with the increases of the PS-MP concentrations, while the chlorophyll b did not change. PS-MPs affected the antioxidant enzyme activities of H. verticillata. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were first increased and then decreased with the increasing PS-MP concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm) decreased with the increasing concentration of PS-MP and the 1-Qp-Lss value (reflective of the closing of PSⅡ reaction center) was increased under the stable state, probably due to the inhibited PSⅡ reaction center. The overall intensity of fluorescence imaging of H. verticillata decreased with the increasing concentration of PS-MPs. When the PS-MP concentration was lower than 10 mg·L-1, the photosynthetic activity of the leaves was normal. In contrast, when the PS-MP concentration was higher than 30 mg·L-1, it caused significant adverse effects on leaves, including weaker photosynthetic intensity and the presence of yellow or withered leaves. Our results suggested that H. verticillata could tolerate PS-MP pollution but its growth and photosynthesis would be inhibited at high concentrations (>30 mg·L-1). Our results provided basic information to better understand the eco-physiological effects of PS-MPs in the freshwater environment.


Asunto(s)
Hydrocharitaceae , Microplásticos , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidad
19.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116294, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412452

RESUMEN

The abnormal elevation of cyanobacterial density and total phosphorus concentration after the reduction of exogenous pollutants in Lake Taihu is still an open question. An in-situ light-dark bottle method was used to investigate the spatiotemporal differences of phosphorus release potential of bloom-forming cyanobacteria (BFC) in Lake Taihu. Generalized additive model analysis (GAM) of field data revealed that the phosphorus release potential of BFC increased with the upregulation of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content per cell, which was further validated by the laboratory experiment results. We deduced that the accumulation of Chl-a content per cell might be an essential index of high phosphorus release potential of BFC. The phosphorus release potential of BFC was much higher in summer and autumn than that in spring and winter, while the phosphorus absorption potential increased with the rising of temperature. The distinct physiological status of BFC at different seasons brought about their variation in phosphorus release potential. Additionally, high phosphorus release potential of BFC region mainly concentrated in the eastern and the central, northwest, western, and the south of Lake Taihu in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Further studies showed that the spatial differences in phosphorus release potential of BFC were most probably due to the horizontal drift of BFC driven by the prevailing wind. Collectively, the synergism of BFC's physiological status and horizontal drift determined the spatiotemporal differences of phosphorus release potential of BFC in Lake Taihu. Moreover, apparent spatiotemporal differences in phosphorus release potential of BFC were essential factors that induced the distinct distribution of total phosphorus in Lake Taihu. This study provides insight for exploring the reason for the constant increase of total dissolved phosphorus concentration and cyanobacterial density in Lake Taihu for the past 5 years.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Lagos , China , Clorofila A , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Fósforo/análisis
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111769, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396087

RESUMEN

Soils contaminated with heavy metals such as Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) severely impede plant growth. Several rhizospheric microorganisms support plant growth under heavy metal stress. In this study, Cr and Cd stress was applied to in vitro germinating seedlings of a Legume plant species, Sesbania sesban, and investigated the plant growth potential in presence and absence of Bacillus anthracis PM21 bacterial strain under heavy metal stress. The seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of Cr (25-75 mg/L) and Cd (100-200 mg/L) in Petri plates. Growth curve analysis of B. anthracis PM21 revealed its potential to adapt Cr and Cd stress. The bacteria supported plant growth by exhibiting ACC-deaminase activity (1.57-1.75 µM of α-ketobutyrate/h/mg protein), producing Indole-3-acetic acid (99-119 µM/mL) and exopolysaccharides (2.74-2.98 mg/mL), under heavy metal stress condition. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in growth parameters between the seedlings with and without bacterial inoculation in metal stress condition. The combined Cr+Cd stress (75 + 200 mg/L) significantly reduced root length (70%), shoot length (24%), dry weight (54%) and fresh weight (57%) as compared to control. Conversely, B. anthracis PM21 inoculation to seedlings significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) seed germination percentage (5%), root length (31%), shoot length (23%) and photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a: 20%; Chlorophyll b: 16% and total chlorophyll: 18%), as compared to control seedlings without B. anthracis PM21 inoculation. The B. anthracis PM21 inoculation also enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (52%), peroxidase (66%), and catalase (21%), and decreased proline content (56%), electrolyte leakage (50%), and malondialdehyde concentration (46%) in seedlings. The B. anthracis PM21 inoculated seedlings of S. sesban exhibited significantly high (p ≤ 0.05) tissue deposition of Cr (17%) and Cd (16%) as compared to their control counterparts. Findings of the study suggested that B. anthracis PM21 endured metal stress through homeostasis of antioxidant activities, and positively impacted S. sesban growth and biomass. Further experiments in controlled conditions are necessary for investigating phytoremediation potential of S. sesban in metal-contaminated soils in presence of B. anthracis PM21 bacterial strain.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus anthracis/fisiología , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Sesbania/fisiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Bacillus anthracis/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Clorofila , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Cromo/análisis , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Plantones/metabolismo , Sesbania/metabolismo , Sesbania/microbiología , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
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