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1.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 121-133, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580461

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Morocco is carrying out several actions to generalize basic compulsory health insurance (CHI). Managing this project requires coordination, information sharing, and the commitment of all actors to the goal of covering an additional 22 million people. One of the key factors for achieving this objective is the implementation of a unified registration system. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: The aim is to analyze the existing situation and the feasibility of implementing a unified registration system, and to describe the potential positive impact of the latter on the extension of CHI. RESULTS: This work is based on a diagnosis of the current situation. It draws on the legal framework, all available documents and figures, and on an analytical reading supported by existing literature. It reveals that due to the inadequacy or even the absence of an appropriate legal basis, each managing body has its own registration system. The lack of a unified system has given rise to a number of constraints. These concern, among other things: (i) mobility between or within schemes, which does not operate smoothly because it leads to re-registration (ii) inadequate monitoring of double benefit claims, which is the case for more than one scheme, due to insufficient and hesitant anti-fraud action (iii) the sharing and use of reliable data, which hinders decision making, evaluation, and monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to adopt legal texts that will provide the basis for a unified system with regulations enabling the participation of all stakeholders, with the aim of steering the roll-out of CHI effectively and efficiently.


Introduction: Le Maroc mène, depuis quelques années, plusieurs actions permettant de généraliser l'assurance maladie obligatoire (AMO). Le pilotage de ce chantier nécessite la coordination, le partage d'informations et l'engagement de tous les acteurs afin de couvrir 22 millions de personnes supplémentaires. L'un des éléments clés pour optimiser la réalisation de cet objectif consiste à mettre en place un système unifié d'immatriculation. But de l'étude: Analyser l'existant et la faisabilité de la mise en place d'un système unifié d'immatriculation, tout en précisant ses retombées positives sur l'extension de l'AMO. Résultats: Ce travail, fondé sur un diagnostic, appuyé par l'arsenal juridique, des documents et des chiffres disponibles ainsi qu'une lecture analytique renforcée par la littérature existante, a permis de constater que, du fait de l'insuffisance voire l'absence d'un soubassement juridique adapté, chaque organisme gestionnaire a son propre système d'immatriculation. L'absence d'un système unifié gêne notamment : 1) la mobilité entre régimes ou intra-régimes, étant donné qu'elle ne se fait pas de manière fluide car elle génère la ré-immatriculation ; 2) le contrôle du double bénéfice d'un régime insuffisamment organisé et incapable de lutter contre la fraude ; 3) le partage et l'exploitation de données fiables empêchant d'assurer de manière appropriée le suivi, l'évaluation et la prise de décision. Conclusion: Il est indispensable d'adopter des textes juridiques pour fonder un système unifié qui permettra l'encadrement et l'engagement de toutes les parties prenantes dans l'objectif de piloter la généralisation de l'AMO avec efficacité et efficience.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Marruecos
2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 40, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566224

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vietnam's primary mechanism of achieving sustainable funding for universal health coverage (UHC) and financial protection has been through its social health insurance (SHI) scheme. Steady progress towards access has been made and by 2020, over 90% of the population were enrolled in SHI. In 2022, as part of a larger transition towards the increased domestic financing of healthcare, tuberculosis (TB) services were integrated into SHI. This change required people with TB to use SHI for treatment at district-level facilities or to pay out of pocket for services. This study was conducted in preparation for this transition. It aimed to understand more about uninsured people with TB, assess the feasibility of enrolling them into SHI, and identify the barriers they faced in this process. METHODS: A mixed-method case study was conducted using a convergent parallel design between November 2018 and January 2022 in ten districts of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Quantitative data were collected through a pilot intervention that aimed to facilitate SHI enrollment for uninsured individuals with TB. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 participants, who were purposively sampled for maximum variation. Qualitative data were analyzed through an inductive approach and themes were identified through framework analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data sources were triangulated. RESULTS: We attempted to enroll 115 uninsured people with TB into SHI; 76.5% were able to enroll. On average, it took 34.5 days to obtain a SHI card and it cost USD 66 per household. The themes indicated that a lack of knowledge, high costs for annual premiums, and the household-based registration requirement were barriers to SHI enrollment. Participants indicated that alternative enrolment mechanisms and greater procedural flexibility, particularly for undocumented people, is required to achieve full population coverage with SHI in urban centers. CONCLUSIONS: Significant addressable barriers to SHI enrolment for people affected by TB were identified. A quarter of individuals remained unable to enroll after receiving enhanced support due to lack of required documentation. The experience gained during this health financing transition is relevant for other middle-income countries as they address the provision of financial protection for the treatment of infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Vietnam , Seguro de Salud , Atención a la Salud , Tuberculosis/terapia
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 15: 21501319241237044, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571364

RESUMEN

The South African government is moving toward universal health coverage (UHC) with the passing of the National Health Insurance (NHI) Bill. Access to quality primary healthcare (PHC) is the cornerstone of UHC principles. The South African governmental health department have begun focusing efforts on improving the efficiency and functionality of this system; that includes the involvement of private healthcare professionals and medical insurance companies. This study sought to explore perceptions of medical insurance company personnel on PHC re-engineering as part of NHI restructuring. A qualitative research design was adopted in this study. Semi-structured interviewed were conducted on 10 participants. Their responses were audio recorded and transcribed utilizing Microsoft Word® documents. Nvivo® was used to facilitate the analysis of data. A thematical approach was used to categories codes into themes. Although participants were in agreement with the current healthcare reform in South Africa. The findings of this study have highlighted several gaps in the NHI Bill at the current point in time. In order to achieve standardized quality of care at a primary level; it is imperative that reimbursement frameworks with clearly detailed service provision and accountability guidelines are developed.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Investigación Cualitativa , Atención Primaria de Salud , Seguro de Salud
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(3): 381-390, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437614

RESUMEN

The quality of care experienced by members of racial and ethnic minority groups in Medicare Advantage, which is an increasingly important source of Medicare coverage for these groups, has critical implications for health equity. Comparing gaps in Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare for three quality-of-care outcomes, measured by adverse health events, between minority and non-Hispanic White populations, we found that the relative magnitude of the gaps varied both by racial and ethnic minority group and by quality measure. Hispanic versus non-Hispanic White gaps were smaller in Medicare Advantage than in traditional Medicare for all outcomes: avoidable emergency department use, preventable hospitalizations, and thirty-day hospital readmissions. The gap between non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White populations was larger in Medicare Advantage than in traditional Medicare for avoidable emergency department use but was no different for hospital readmissions and was smaller for preventable hospitalizations. The Asian versus non-Hispanic White gap was similar in Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare for avoidable emergency department use and preventable hospitalizations but was larger in Medicare Advantage for hospital readmissions. As Medicare Advantage enrollment expands, monitoring the quality of care for enrollees who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups will remain important.


Asunto(s)
Etnicidad , Medicare Part C , Anciano , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Medicina Estatal , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Calidad de la Atención de Salud
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1301421, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550326

RESUMEN

Introduction: The Indonesian government introduced universal health insurance through the National Social Security System (JKN) in 2014 to enhance overall healthcare. This study compares maternal health care (MHC) service utilization before and after JKN implementation in Indonesia. Method: Using 2012 and 2017 data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), we conducted a two-period cross-sectional design study following the Anderson model. We assessed how the JKN policy and population characteristics influenced healthcare utilization for women aged 15-49 who had given birth in the last 5 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of the JKN policy and related factors. Result: In two waves of Indonesia DHS with 14,782 and 15,021 subjects, this study observed a significant increase in maternal healthcare service utilization post-JKN implementation. Women were more likely to have at least four antenatal care visits (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.17), receive skilled antenatal care (AOR = 1.49), obtain skilled birth assistance (AOR = 1.96), and access facility-based delivery (AOR = 2.45) compared with pre-JKN implementation. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant positive impact of JKN on enhancing MHS utilization. The introduction of universal health insurance coverage likely reduced financial barriers for specific demographics, resulting in increased service utilization. Our study may offer valuable insights for Asian countries with similar demographics and health insurance implementations.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Indonesia , Estudios Transversales , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(11): e37488, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489736

RESUMEN

Surgical access remains a pressing public health concern in African nations, with a substantial portion of the population facing challenges in obtaining safe, timely, and affordable surgical care. This paper delves into the impact of health insurance schemes on surgical accessibility in Africa, exploring the barriers, challenges, and future directions. It highlights how high out-of-pocket costs, reliance on traditional healing practices, and inadequate surgical infrastructure hinder surgical utilization. Financing mechanisms often need to be more effective, and health insurance programs face resistance within the informal sector. Additionally, coverage of the poor remains a fundamental challenge, with geographical and accessibility barriers compounding the issue. Government policies, often marked by inconsistency and insufficient allocation of resources, create further obstacles. However, strategic purchasing and fund integration offer avenues for improving the efficiency of health insurance programs. The paper concludes by offering policy recommendations, emphasizing the importance of inclusive policies, streamlined financing mechanisms, coverage expansion, and enhanced strategic purchasing to bridge the surgical access gap in Africa. Decoupling entitlement from the payment of contributions, broadening the scope of coverage for outpatient medicines and related expenses, and enhancing safeguards against overall costs and charges, especially for individuals with lower incomes. Ultimately, by addressing these challenges and harnessing the potential of health insurance schemes, the continent can move closer to achieving universal surgical care and improving the well-being of its people.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , África , Renta , Gobierno
8.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241235759, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456456

RESUMEN

To estimate the technical efficiency of health systems toward achieving universal health coverage (UHC) in 191 countries. We applied an output-oriented data envelopment analysis approach to estimate the technical efficiency of the health systems, including the UHC index (a summary measure that captures both service coverage and financial protection) as the output variable and per capita health expenditure, doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density as input variables. We used a Tobit simple-censored regression with bootstrap analysis to observe the socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with efficiency estimates. The global UHC index improved from the 2019 estimates, ranged from 48.4 (Somalia) to 94.8 (Canada), with a mean of 76.9 (std. dev.: ±12.0). Approximately 78.5% (150 of 191) of the studied countries were inefficient (ϕ < 1.0) with respect to using health system resources toward achieving UHC. By improving health system efficiency, low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries can improve their UHC indices by 4.6%, 5.5%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively, by using their current resource levels. The percentage of health expenditure spent on primary health care (PHC), governance quality, and the passage of UHC legislation significantly influenced efficiency estimates. Our findings suggests health systems inefficiency toward achieving UHC persists across countries, regardless of their income classifications and WHO regions, as well as indicating that using current level of resources, most countries could boost their progress toward UHC by improving their health system efficiency by increasing investments in PHC, improving health system governance, and where applicable, enacting/implementing UHC legislation.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Salud Global , Recursos en Salud , Programas de Gobierno
9.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299249, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478543

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The concept of universal health coverage (UHC) encompasses both access to essential health services and freedom from financial harm. The World Health Organization's Maternal Newborn Child and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Policy Survey collects data on policies that have the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. The indicator, "Are the following health services provided free of charge at point-of-use in the public sector for women of reproductive age?", captures the free provision of 13 key categories of maternal health-related services, to measure the success of UHC implementation with respect to maternal health. However, it is unknown whether it provides a valid measure of the provision of free care. Therefore, this study compared free maternal healthcare laws and policies against actual practice in three countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in four districts/provinces in Argentina, Ghana, and India. We performed desk reviews to identify free care laws and policies at the country level and compared those with reports at the global level. We conducted exit interviews with women aged 15-49 years who used a component service or their accompanying persons, as well as with facility chief financial officers or billing administrators, to determine if women had out-of-pocket expenditures associated with accessing services. For designated free services, prevalence of expenditures at the service level for women and reports by financial officers of women ever having expenditures associated with services designated as free were computed. These three sources of data (desk review, surveys of women and administrators) were triangulated, and chi-square analysis was conducted to determine if charges were levied differentially by standard equity stratifiers. Designation of services as free matched what was reported in the MNCAH Policy Survey for Argentina and Ghana. In India, insecticide-treated bed nets and testing and treatment for syphilis were only designated as free for selected populations, differing from the WHO MNCAH Policy Survey. Among 1046, 923, and 1102 women and accompanying persons who were interviewed in Argentina, Ghana, and India, respectively, the highest prevalence of associated expenditures among women who received a component service in each setting was for cesarean section in Argentina (26%, 24/92); family planning in Ghana (78.4%, 69/88); and postnatal maternal care in India (94.4%, 85/90). The highest prevalence of women ever having out of pocket expenditures associated with accessing any free service reported by financial officers was 9.1% (2/22) in Argentina, 64.1% (93/145) in Ghana, and 29.7% (47/158) in India. Across the three countries, self-reports of out of pocket expenditures were significantly associated with district/province and educational status of women. Additionally, wealth quintile in Argentina and age in India were significantly associated with women reporting out of pocket expenditures. CONCLUSIONS: Free care laws were largely accurately reported in the global MNCAH policy database. Notably, we found that women absorbed both direct and indirect costs and made both formal and informal payments for services designated as free. Therefore, the policy indicator does not provide a valid reflection of UHC in the three settings.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Adolescente , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Cesárea , Salud Materna
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1293278, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532967

RESUMEN

Introduction and aim: Pakistan has a mixed-health system where up to 60% of health expenditures are out of pocket. Almost 80% of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities are in the private sector, which is deeply embedded within the country's health system and may account for the unaffordability of healthcare. Since 2016, the existing national health insurance program or Sehat Sahulat Program (SSP), has provided invaluable coverage and financial protection to the millions of low-income families living in Pakistan by providing inpatient services at secondary and tertiary levels. However, a key gap is the non-inclusion of outpatient services at the PHC in the insurance scheme. This study aims to engage a private provider network of general practitioners in select union councils of Islamabad Capital Authority (ICT) of Pakistan to improve access, uptake, and satisfaction and reduce out-of-pocket expenditure on quality outpatient services at the PHC level, including family planning and reproductive health services. Methods and analysis: A 24-month research study is proposed with a 12-month intervention period using a mixed method, two-arm, prospective, quasi-experimental controlled before and after design with a sample of 863 beneficiary families from each study arm, i.e., intervention and control groups (N = 1726) will be selected through randomization at the selected beneficiary family/household level from four peri-urban Union Councils of ICT where no public sector PHC-level facility exists. All ethical considerations will be assured, along with quality assurance strategies. Quantitative pre/post surveys and third-party monitoring are proposed to measure the intervention outcomes. Qualitative inquiry with beneficiaries, general practitioners and policymakers will assess their knowledge and practices. Conclusion and knowledge contribution: PHC should be the first point of contact for accessing health services and appears to serve as a programmatic engine for universal health coverage (UHC). The research aims to study a service delivery model which harnesses the private sector to deliver an essential package of health services as outpatient services under SSP, ultimately facilitating UHC. Findings will provide a blueprint referral system to reduce unnecessary hospital admissions and improve timely access to healthcare. A robust PHC system can improve population health, lower healthcare expenditure, strengthen the healthcare system, and ultimately make UHC a reality.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Instituciones de Salud , Pakistán , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e080559, 2024 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503421

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Countries with universal health coverage (UHC) strive for equal access for equal needs without users getting into financial distress. However, differences in healthcare utilisation (HCU) between socioeconomic groups have been reported in countries with UHC. This systematic review provides an overview individual-level, community-level, and system-level factors contributing to socioeconomic status-related differences in HCU (SES differences in HCU). DESIGN: Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The review protocol was published in advance. DATA SOURCES: Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Econlit, and PsycInfo were searched on 9 March 2021 and 9 November 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies that quantified the contribution of one or more factors to SES difference in HCU in OECD countries with UHC. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Studies were screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted using a predeveloped data-extraction form. Risk of bias (ROB) was assessed using a tailored version of Hoy's ROB-tool. Findings were categorised according to level and a framework describing the pathway of HCU. RESULTS: Of the 7172 articles screened, 314 were included in the review. 64% of the studies adjusted for differences in health needs between socioeconomic groups. The contribution of sex (53%), age (48%), financial situation (25%), and education (22%) to SES differences in HCU were studied most frequently. For most factors, mixed results were found regarding the direction of the contribution to SES differences in HCU. CONCLUSIONS: SES differences in HCU extensively correlated to factors besides health needs, suggesting that equal access for equal needs is not consistently accomplished. The contribution of factors seemed highly context dependent as no unequivocal patterns were found of how they contributed to SES differences in HCU. Most studies examined the contribution of individual-level factors to SES differences in HCU, leaving the influence of healthcare system-level characteristics relatively unexplored.


Asunto(s)
Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Atención a la Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud
14.
Global Health ; 20(1): 27, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The persistently high out-of-pocket health spending (OOPHE) in Africa raise significant concern about the prospect of reaching SDG health targets and UHC. The study examines the convergence hypothesis of OOPHE in 40 African countries from 2000 to 2019. METHODS: We exploit the log t , club clustering, and merging methods on a panel of dataset obtained from the World Development Indicators, the World Governance Indicators, and the World Health Organization. Then, we employ the multilevel linear mixed effect model to examine whether countries' macro-level characteristics affect the disparities in OOPHE in the African regional economic communities (RECs). RESULTS: The results show evidence of full panel divergence, indicating persistent disparities in OOPHE over time. However, we found three convergence clubs and a divergent group for the OOPHE per capita and as a share of the total health expenditure. The results also show that convergence does not only occur among countries affiliated with the same regional economic grouping, suggesting disparities within the regional groupings. The findings reveal that countries' improved access to sanitation and quality of governance, increased childhood DPT immunization coverage, increased share of the elderly population, life expectancy at birth, external health expenditure per capita, and ICT (information and communication technology) significantly affect within-regional groupings' disparities in OOPHE per capita. The results also show that an increasing countries' share of elderly and younger populations, access to basic sanitation, ICT, trade GDP per capita, life expectancy at birth, childhood DPT immunization coverage, and antiretroviral therapy coverage have significant impacts on the share of OOPHE to total health expenditure within the regional groupings. CONCLUSION: Therefore, there is a need to develop policies that vary across the convergence clubs. These countries should increase their health services coverage, adopt planned urbanization, and coordinate trade and ICT access policies. Policymakers should consider hidden costs associated with access to childhood immunization services that may lead to catastrophic health spending.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Gastos en Salud , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Anciano , Niño , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Políticas
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2320505, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414114

RESUMEN

There is a growing political interest in health reforms in Africa, and many countries are choosing national health insurance as their main financing mechanism for universal health coverage. Although vaccination is an essential health service that can influence progress toward universal health coverage, it is not often prioritized by these national health insurance systems. This paper highlights the potential gains of integrating vaccination into the package of health services that is provided through national health insurance and recommends practical policy actions that can enable countries to harness these benefits at population level.


Asunto(s)
Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Programas Nacionales de Salud , África , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Seguro de Salud
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 36(1)2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421029

RESUMEN

Primary healthcare facilities are the bedrock for achieving universal health coverage (UHC) because of their closeness to the grassroots and provision of healthcare at low cost. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, the access and quality of health services in public primary healthcare centres (PHCs) are suboptimal, linked with persistent occurrence of absenteeism of health workers. We used a UHC framework developed by the World Health Organization-African Region to examine the link between absenteeism and the possible achievement of UHC in Nigeria. We undertook a qualitative study to elicit lived experiences of healthcare providers, service users, chairpersons of committees of the health facilities, and policymakers across six PHCs from six local government areas in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. One hundred and fifty participants sourced from the four groups were either interviewed or participated in group discussions. The World Health Organization-African Region UHC framework and phenomenological approach were used to frame data analysis. Absenteeism was very prevalent in the PHCs, where it constrained the possible contribution of PHCs to the achievement of UHC. The four indicators toward achievement of UHC, which are demand, access, quality, and resilience of health services, were all grossly affected by absenteeism. Absenteeism also weakened public trust in PHCs, resulting in an increase in patronage of both informal and private health providers, with negative effects on quality and cost of care. It is important that great attention is paid to both availability and productivity of human resources for health at the PHC level. These factors would help in reversing the dangers of absenteeism in primary healthcare and strengthening Nigeria's aspirations of achieving UHC.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Nigeria , Atención Primaria de Salud , Personal de Salud
18.
Sante Publique ; 35(HS2): 21-25, 2024.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360768

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mali has implemented social protection initiatives in the context of universal health coverage, including the RAMED (medical assistance plan). PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: This article describes the participatory process involving researchers and national technical staff as part of an action-research program linked to this policy. RESULTS: The process allowed the interests of the target public, those living in poverty, to take priority over individual and institutional interests, without, however, allowing for their active participation. Despite this positive outcome, the recommendations were not taken on board. CONCLUSION: The main failure of this process was its political component, but there is still time to address this.


Asunto(s)
Política Pública , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Malí , Pobreza , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud
20.
J Public Health Policy ; 45(1): 164-174, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326551

RESUMEN

Health systems are complex entities. The Mexican health system includes the private and public sectors, and subsystems that target different populations based on corporatist criteria. Lack of unity and its consequences can be better understood using two concepts, segmentation and fragmentation. These reveal mechanisms and strategies that impede progress toward universality and equity in Mexico and other low- and middle-income countries. Segmentation refers to separation of the population by position in the labour market. Fragmentation refers to institutions, and to financial aspects, health care levels, states' systems of care, and organizational models. These elements explain inequitable allocation of resources and packages of health services offered by each institution to its population. Overcoming segmentation will require a shift from employment to citizenship as the basis for eligibility for public health care. Shortcomings of fragmentation can be avoided by establishing a common package of guaranteed benefits. Mexico illustrates how these two concepts characterize a common reality in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , México , Programas de Gobierno , Instituciones de Salud
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