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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 197, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603578

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world in so many ways since 2019 when the first case was recorded. COVID-19 pandemic has impacted negatively on economy, health, education and infrastructure globally. COVID-19 vaccine was developed with the aim of stopping the pandemic and allowing the rebuilding of our societies and economies. The vaccine was rolled out in December 2020 and the distribution plan appears to be skewed in favour of high income countries. This paper highlights the need for consideration of the principles of equity and universal health coverage in the distribution plan of the vaccine. It emphasizes the need to ensure that the interests of citizens of developing and low income countries are well protected. The paper concludes that issues of disparity in economic status of countries entering agreement with the vaccine manufacturing companies, absence of logistic support among others should not be a barrier to ensuring equitable access to vaccine for all consistent with the sustainable development goal 3.7.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/provisión & distribución , COVID-19/prevención & control , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/economía , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/economía , Países en Desarrollo , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Salud Global , Equidad en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3781-3786, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468671

RESUMEN

Since 2017, the Brazilian health system is facing a wave of counter-reforms in policies that have expanded coverage and access and intended to change the care model. Primary Health Care (PHC) has been substantially modified by synergistic and complementary federal official acts. The creation of federal autonomous social service for the provision of doctors; public consultation to institute basket of consumption in healthcare; the flexibility of the weekly workload of doctors and nurses, who may integrate more than one team; the non-setting of a minimum number of community health workers per team form the context in which the Previne Brasil Program was launched to be in force by 2020. The government's argument is to increase: flexibility and local autonomy to organize services, greater efficiency and valorization. of performance. Criticism from sanitarians, some state councils of municipal authorities and the National Health Council points to the privatizing, marketing, selective and focused character of the proposal that is moving towards universal health coverage. This paper analyzes the Previne Brazil Program which, among other things, alters funding and suggests increasing resources for PHC in a context of freezing social spending. Contradictions and alternatives are identified to minimize potential damage to existing policies.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 194, 2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: South Africa is committed to advancing universal health coverage (UHC). The usefulness and potential of using routine health facility data for monitoring progress towards UHC, in the form of the 16-tracer WHO service coverage index (SCI), was assessed. METHODS: Alternative approaches to calculating the WHO SCI from routine data, allowing for disaggregation to district level, were explored. Data extraction, coding, transformation and modelling processes were applied to generate time series for these alternatives. Equity was assessed using socio-economic quintiles by district. RESULTS: The UHC SCI at a national level was 46.1 in 2007-2008 and 56.9 in 2016-2017. Only for the latter period, could the index be calculated for all indicators at a district level. Alternative indicators were formulated for 9 of 16 tracers in the index. Routine or repeated survey data could be used for 14 tracers. Apart from the NCD indicators, a gradient of poorer performance in the most deprived districts was evident in 2016-2017. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to construct the UHC SCI for South Africa from predominantly routine data sources. Overall, there is evidence from district level data of a trend towards reduced inequity in relation to specific categories (notably RMNCH). Progress towards UHC has the potential to overcome fragmentation and enable harmonisation and interoperability of information systems. Private sector reporting of data into routine information systems should be encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Sector Privado , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 743-744, 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486709

RESUMEN

Strengthening Primary Health Care (PHC) through family practice-based model of care is an essential bedrock in achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC), as called for in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, target 3.8. However, the shortage of family practitioners worldwide and in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a daunting challenge. The current production rate of family physicians in the EMR is around 700 annually, against the needed estimate of 21 000 physicians per year based on one family physician/1300 population and the current EMR population growth rate, which reflects the huge shortage of family physicians in the Region.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Región Mediterránea , Médicos de Familia , Atención Primaria de Salud , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 806-817, 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486717

RESUMEN

Background: To measure progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) in the context of ageing, it is necessary to develop suitable monitoring frameworks. The global UHC monitoring framework is focused on priorities for younger populations and does not adequately address issues relevant to ageing populations. Aims: This study aims to propose a framework to measure UHC in a way that is relevant to health systems responding to population ageing. Methods: Based on a search strategy focusing on measures of UHC in relation to older people's care, we searched electronic databases and screened the records to qualitatively analyse the data. We also conducted 2 rounds of expert panel consultations to discuss the findings and examine the feasibility of the recommended indicators using the case of the Islamic Republic of Iran as an example. Results: We identified main themes and classified core indicators under each theme. Besides 25 indicators for quality of care, there were 22 indicators for financial protection. Ten indicators were retrieved measuring coverage and access to long-term care. Some indicators were excluded owing to limited data availability or absence of related programmes and some alternate indicators were proposed. Conclusions: We identified several indicators which could be used to measure progress toward UHC in the context of population ageing. However, not all of these indicators are feasible in context of low- and middle-income countries. This study could offer useful general guidance on how to define the exact set of measures in a specific country context.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Anciano , Salud Global , Humanos , Irán
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 99, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466201

RESUMEN

Introduction: the provision of basic diagnostic imaging services is pivotal to achieving universal health coverage. An estimated two-thirds of the world's population have no access to basic diagnostic imaging. Accurate data on current imaging equipment resources are required to inform health delivery strategy and policy at national level. This is an audit of Zimbabwean public sector diagnostic ultrasound resources and services. Methods: utilising the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MHCC) database, sequential interviews were conducted with provincial health authorities and local facility managers. Ultrasound equipment, personnel and services in all hospitals and clinics, nationally were recorded, collated, and analysed for the whole country, and by province. Results: of the 1798 Zimbabwean public sector healthcare facilities, sixty-six (n=66, 3.67%) have ultrasound equipment. Ninety-nine (n=99) ultrasound units are distributed across the sonar facilities, representing a national average of 8 units per million people. More than half the equipment units (n=53, 54%) are in secondary-level healthcare facilities (district and mission hospitals), and approximately one-fifth (n=22, 22%) in the central hospitals (quaternary level). The best-resourced province has twice the resources of the least resourced. One-hundred and forty-two (n=142) healthcare workers, from six different professional groups, provide the public sector ultrasound service. Most facilities with sonar equipment (n=64/66, 97%) provide obstetrics and gynaecology services, while general abdominal scanning is available at one third (n=22, 33%). Two facilities with ultrasound equipment have no capacity to offer a sonography service. Conclusion: in order to reach the WHO recommendation of 20 sonar units per million people, an estimated 140 additional sonar units are required nationally. The need is greatest in Masvingo, Midlands and Mashonaland East Provinces. Task-shifting plays a key role in the provision of Zimbabwean sonar services. Consideration should be given to formal training and accreditation of all healthcare workers involved in sonar service delivery.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Ultrasonografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Sector Público , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Zimbabwe
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045807, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475146

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Achieving universal health coverage goal by ensuring access to quality health service without financial hardship is a policy target in many countries. Thus, routine assessments of financial risk protection, and equity in financing and service delivery are required in order to track country progress towards realising this universal coverage target. This study aims to undertake a system-wide assessment of equity in health financing and benefits distribution as well as catastrophic and impoverishing health spending by using the recent national survey data in Tanzania. We aim for updated analyses and compare with previous assessments for trend analyses. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use cross-sectional data from the national Household Budget Survey 2017/2018 covering 9463 households and 45 935 individuals cross all 26 regions of mainland Tanzania. These data include information on service utilisation, healthcare payments and consumption expenditure. To assess the distribution of healthcare benefits (and in relation to healthcare need) across population subgroups, we will employ a benefit incidence analysis across public and private health providers. The distributions of healthcare benefits across population subgroups will be summarised by concentration indices. The distribution of healthcare financing burdens in relation to household ability-to-pay across population subgroups will be assessed through a financing incidence analysis. Financing incidence analysis will focus on domestic sources (tax revenues, insurance contributions and out-of-pocket payments). Kakwani indices will be used to summarise the distributions of financing burdens according to households' ability to pay. We will further estimate two measures of financial risk protection (ie, catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishing effect of healthcare payments). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will involve secondary data analysis that does not require ethical approval. The results of this study will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, peer-reviewed journal articles, policy briefs, local and international conferences and through social media platforms.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Tanzanía , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 966, 2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This research analyzed the Sixth Five-Year Economic, Social, and Cultural Development Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran (6NPD) to shed light on how the plan addresses the Universal Health Coverage (UHC). METHODS: This research was a qualitative study. We systematically analyzed 'Secs. 14 -Health, Insurance, Health & Women, and Family' in the 6NPD. Through a content analysis, we converted this section into meaning units and coded them. Coding was guided through the conceptual framework 'Six Building Blocks of Health System' and the key principles of UHC. RESULTS: Six themes and twenty-one subthemes were identified. The subthemes of financing include a fair and secured process of resource pooling, payment methods, revenue generation for the health sector, and a definition of a basic benefits package. The subthemes of governance and leadership consist of social insurance policies' integration, compliance of providers, a designation of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) as the regulator and the steward of health resources, a payer-provider split, and stakeholders' participation. The subthemes of health workforce emphasizes balancing the quality and quantity of the health workforce with populations' health needs and the health system's requirements. The subthemes of health information systems consist of the electronic health records for Iranians, information systems for organization and delivery functions, and information systems for the financing function. The subthemes of the organization and delivery consider improving effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare delivery, strengthening the family physician program and referral system, and extending the pre-hospital emergency system. Lastly, access to medicine focuses on the design and implementation of an essential drug list and drug systems for approving the coverage and provision of generic medicine. CONCLUSIONS: The 6NPD introduced policies for strengthening the 6 building blocks of the health system. It introduced policies to improve financing particularly resource pooling and the sustainability of financial resources. As mandated by 6NPD, centering the health system's governance/leadership in MoHME may exacerbate the existing conflict of interests and provoke various arguments, which impede the enforcement of rules and regulation. The 6NPD is a step forward in terms of improving financial protection, yet several other policies need to be made to adequately meet the requirement of UHC regarding equity and effective coverage.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Seguro de Salud , Irán , Planificación Social
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 969, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The South African government is implementing National Health Insurance (NHI) as a monopsony health care financing mechanism to drive the country towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Strategic purchasing, with separation of funder, purchaser and provider, underpins this initiative. The NHI plans Contracting Units for Primary healthcare (PHC) Services (CUPS) to function as either independent sub-district purchasers or public providers and District Health Management Offices (DHMOs) to support and monitor these CUPS. This decentralised operational unit of PHC, the heartbeat of NHI, is critical to the success of NHI. The views of district-level managers, who are responsible for these units, are fundamental to this NHI implementation. This qualitative study aimed to explore district and sub-district managerial views on NHI and their role in its implementation. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to identify key respondents from a major urban district in Gauteng, South Africa, for participation in in-depth interviews. This study used framework analysis methodology within MaxQDA software. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: managerial engagement in NHI policy development (with two sub-themes), managerial views on NHI (with three sub-themes) and perceptions of current NHI implementation (with six sub-themes). The managers viewed NHI as a social and moral imperative but lacked clarity and insight into the NHI Bill as well as the associated implementation strategies. The majority of respondents had not had the opportunity to engage in NHI policy formulation. Managers cited several pitfalls in current organisational operations. The respondents felt that national and provincial governments continue to function in a detached and rigid top-down hierarchy. Managers highlighted the need for their inclusion in NHI policy formulation and training and development for them to oversee the implementation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that strategic purchasing is not being operationalised in PHC. NHI policy implementation appears to function in a rigid top-down hierarchy that excludes key stakeholders in the NHI implementation strategy. The findings of this study suggest an inadequate decentralisation of healthcare governance within the public sector necessary to attain UHC. District managers need to be engaged and capacitated to operationalise the planned decentralised purchasing-provision function of the DHS within the NHI Bill.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444113

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Korea operates its national health insurance (NHI) system as a form of public health insurance, and is commonly regarded as having achieved universal health coverage (UHC). However, many Korean households register for additional private health insurance (PHI) programs. Typically, registration rates for PHI are higher for individuals with a higher socioeconomic status (SES). A difference in mortality between those with and without additional PHI would indicate that there are health inequalities within the Korean NHI system under UHC. Therefore, this study aimed to confirm whether additional PHI affects mortality under the Korean NHI system. (2) Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging data from the first to the sixth wave. The analysis included 8743 participants, who were divided into two groups: those who only had NHI and those who had both NHI and PHI. Differences in mortality between the two groups were compared using the Cox proportional hazard regression. (3) Results: The group with both NHI and PHI had lower mortality than the group with only NHI (hazard ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.9). (4) Conclusions: The results of this study reveal that there are health disparities according to SES and PHI within the Korean NHI system under UHC. Therefore, relevant government institutions and experts should further improve the NHI system to reduce health disparities.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Programas Nacionales de Salud , República de Corea/epidemiología
12.
Health Syst Reform ; 7(2): e1929796, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402407

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has shocked all countries' economic and health systems. The combined direct health impact and the current macro-fiscal picture present real and present risks to health financing that facilitate progress toward universal health coverage (UHC). This paper lays out the health financing mechanisms through which the UHC objectives of service coverage and financial protection may be impacted. Macroeconomic, fiscal capacity, and poverty indicators and trends are analyzed in conjunction with health financing indicators to present spending scenarios. The analysis shows that falling or reduced economic growth, combined with rising poverty, is likely to lead to a fall in service use and coverage, while any observed reductions in out-of-pocket spending have to be analyzed carefully to make sure they reflect improved financial protection and not just decreased utilization of services. Potential decreases in out-of-pocket spending will likely be drive by households' financial constraints that lead to less service use. In this way, it is critical to measure and monitor both the service coverage and financial protection indicators of UHC to have a complete picture of downstream effects. The analysis of historical data, including available evidence since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, lay the foundation for health financing-related policy options that can effectively safeguard UHC progress particularly for the poor and most vulnerable. These targeted policy options are based on documented evidence of effective country responses to previous crises as well as the overall evidence base around health financing for UHC.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Composición Familiar , Política de Salud , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Pandemias , Pobreza , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Desarrollo Económico , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1956752, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402420

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is international consensus on the need for countries to work towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC) whereby the population is given access to all appropriate promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services at affordable cost. The World Health Organisation (2013) urges all countries to undertake research to customise UHC within national development agendas. OBJECTIVE: To describe the process used to prioritise UHC within the health systems research and development agenda in Uganda. METHODS: Two national consultative workshops were convened in May and August 2015 to develop a UHC research agenda in Uganda. The participants included multisector representatives from local, national, and international organisations. A participatory approach with structured deliberations and multi-voting techniques was used. Stakeholders' views were analysed thematically according to health systems building blocks, and multi-voting was used to assign priorities across themes and sub-themes. The priorities were further validated and disseminated at national health sector meetings. RESULTS: Of the 80 invited stakeholders, 57 (71.3%) attended. The expressed priorities were: 1) health workforce; 2) governance; 3) financing; 4) service delivery, and 5) community health. The participants also recommended crosscutting research themes to address the social determinants of health, multisectoral collaboration, and health system resilience to protect against external shocks and disease epidemics. CONCLUSION: Discussions that capture the diverse perspectives of stakeholders provide a way of exploring UHC within health policy and systems development. In Uganda, attention should be paid to the principal challenges of mobilising financial and technical capabilities for research and strengthening the link between evidence generation and policy actions to achieve UHC.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Uganda
15.
J Urban Health ; 98(Suppl 1): 41-50, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409557

RESUMEN

Depression accounts for a large share of the global disease burden, with an estimated 264 million people globally suffering from depression. Despite being one of the most common kinds of mental health (MH) disorders, much about depression remains unknown. There are limited data about depression, in terms of its occurrence, distribution, and wider social determinants. This work examined the use of novel data sources for assessing the scope and social determinants of depression, with a view to informing the reduction of the global burden of depression.This study focused on new and traditional sources of data on depression and its social determinants in two middle-income countries (LMICs), namely, Brazil and India. We identified data sources using a combination of a targeted PubMed search, Google search, expert consultations, and snowball sampling of the relevant literature published between October 2010 and September 2020. Our search focused on data sources on the following HEALTHY subset of determinants: healthcare (H), education (E), access to healthy choices (A), labor/employment (L), transportation (T), housing (H), and income (Y).Despite the emergence of a variety of data sources, their use in the study of depression and its HEALTHY determinants in India and Brazil are still limited. Survey-based data are still the most widely used source. In instances where new data sources are used, the most commonly used data sources include social media (twitter data in particular), geographic information systems/global positioning systems (GIS/GPS), mobile phone, and satellite imagery. Often, the new data sources are used in conjunction with traditional sources of data. In Brazil, the limited use of new data sources to study depression and its HEALTHY determinants may be linked to (a) the government's outsized role in coordinating healthcare delivery and controlling the data system, thus limiting innovation that may be expected from the private sector; (b) the government routinely collecting data on depression and other MH disorders (and therefore, does not see the need for other data sources); and (c) insufficient prioritization of MH as a whole. In India, the limited use of new data sources to study depression and its HEALTHY determinants could be a function of (a) the lack of appropriate regulation and incentives to encourage data sharing by and within the private sector, (b) absence of purposeful data collection at subnational levels, and (c) inadequate prioritization of MH. There is a continuing gap in the collection and analysis of data on depression, possibly reflecting the limited priority accorded to mental health as a whole. The relatively limited use of data to inform our understanding of the HEALTHY determinants of depression suggests a substantial need for support of independent research using new data sources. Finally, there is a need to revisit the universal health coverage (UHC) frameworks, as these frameworks currently do not include depression and other mental health-related indicators so as to enable tracking of progress (or lack thereof) on such indicators.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Renta , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
16.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 2): 48, 2021 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380496

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For evidence-based decision-making, there is a need for quality, timely, relevant and accessible information at each level of the health system. Limited use of local data at each level of the health system is reported to be a main challenge for evidence-based decision-making in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is available on the timeliness and quality of local data, we know little about how it is used for decision-making at different levels of the health system. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level of data use and its effect on data quality and shared accountability at different levels of the health system. METHODS: An implementation science study was conducted using key informants and document reviews between January and September 2017. A total of 21 key informants were selected from community representatives, data producers, data users and decision-makers from the community to the regional level. Reviewed documents include facility reports, district reports, zonal reports and feedback in supervision from the district. Thematic content analysis was performed for the qualitative data. RESULTS: Respondents reported that routine data use for routine decision-making was low. All health facilities and health offices have a performance monitoring team, but these were not always functional. Awareness gaps, lack of motivating incentives, irregularity of supportive supervision, lack of community engagement in health report verification as well as poor technical capacity of health professionals were found to be the major barriers to data use. The study also revealed that there are no institutional or national-level regulations or policies on the accountability mechanisms related to health data. The community-level Health Development Army programme was found to be a strong community engagement approach that can be leveraged for data verification at the source of community data. CONCLUSION: The culture of using routine data for decision-making at the local level was found to be low. Strengthening the capacity of health workers and performance monitoring teams, introducing incentive mechanisms for data use, engaging the community in data verification and introducing accountability mechanisms for health data are essential to improve data use and quality.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Etiopía , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Inmunización
17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(3)2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is a core element of ensuring healthy lives, marking the third Sustainable Development Goal. It requires providing quality primary health-care (PHC) services. Assessment of quality of care considering a wide variety of contexts is a challenge. This study lists practical indicators to enhance the quality of PHC. OBJECTIVES: Demonstrating quality indicators for PHC that are feasible, comprehensive and adaptable to wide array of health systems and resource settings. METHODS: We applied the research framework: Exploration, Preparation, Implementation and Sustainment. Exploration included a scoping review to identify quality indicators. Preparation included an eDelphi to refine the primary indicators' list. A panel of 27 experts reviewed the list that was later pilot tested in PHC facilities. The outcomes were presented to two further expert consultations, to refine indicators and plan for broader testing. Implementation included testing the indicators through a five-step process in 40 facilities. A regional consultation in May 2016 discussed the testing outcomes. RESULTS: Initial efforts identified 83 quality indicators at the PHC level that were then refined to a 34-indicator list covering the six domains of quality. A toolkit was also developed to test the feasibility of each indicator measurement, data availability, challenges and gaps. Pilot testing provided insight into modifying and adding some indicators. Wide variability was encountered within and in between facilities, and timely initiation of antenatal care, for example, ranged 31-90% in Oman and 11-98% in Tunisia. Indicators were highly feasible, and 29 out of 34 were measured in 75% of facilities or more. While challenges included gaps in capacity for data collection, the tool showed high adaptability to the local context and was adopted by countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) including Libya, Oman, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan and Palestine. Stakeholders agreed on the high relevance and applicability of the proposed indicators that have been used to inform improvement. CONCLUSION: A cross-regional set of 34 quality indicators of PHC in the EMR was developed and adopted by a diverse group of countries. The toolkit showed high feasibility in pilot testing reflecting the practicality needed to encourage local uptake and sustainability. The core quality indicators are highly adaptable to different local and regional contexts regardless of current PHC strength or available resources. Continuous evaluation and sharing lessons of implementation and use are needed to ascertain the indicators' effectiveness in driving improvements in PHC and to refine and strengthen the evidence supporting the set of indicators for wider adoption.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Omán , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 676160, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368051

RESUMEN

Purpose: Nursing development is considered as one of the most important ways to achieve the universal health coverage and sustainable development goals in different countries. Nursing in Iran has the potential to provide services at all levels of universal health coverage. Therefore, planning for nursing in Iran needs to recognize the future challenges. This study aims to explore the future challenges of nursing in the health system of Iran from the perspective of nursing experts. Methods: In this qualitative study, 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with nursing experts by purposive sampling in 2017-2018. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and framework analysis method was used to analysis the data. Results: The results showed that a favorable future requires planning in three areas of nursing "governance challenges" including centralized nursing stewardship, policy-making and legislation, monitoring and evaluation, and cooperation and communication with other institutions, "inadequacy of professional development with social demands" including community-based nursing, nursing upgrades with disease patterns, expanding home care, expanding care centers, and use of technology, "human resource challenges "including nursing education tailored to the needs of the community, empowering nursing managers, recruiting and retaining nurses, and specialized nursing. Conclusions: A favorable future requires a coherent nursing government, professional development of nursing based on social demands, and enhancing human resources in line with the emerging needs of the future.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería , Enfermeras Administradoras , Humanos , Irán , Investigación Cualitativa , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(8)2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344664

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Countries are recommended to progressively work towards universal health coverage (UHC), and to make explicit choices regarding the expansion of priority services. However, there is little guidance on how to manage the inclusion of vertical programmes, funded by external partners, in health benefits packages (HBP) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVE: We conducted a scoping review to map the inclusion of six vertical programmes (HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, maternal and child health, contraceptives, immunisation) in 26 LMICs. METHODS: We identified 26 LMICs with an HBP that was not aspirational (eg, with evidence of implementation or funding). For each HBP, we collected information on the corresponding UHC scheme, health financing at the time of establishment, revisions since inception and entitlements. For each vertical programme, we developed a list of tracer interventions based on the Disease Control Priorities 3 and the 100 Core Health Indicators List. We then used this list of tracer interventions to map the coverage of the six vertical programmes. RESULTS: The review shows that there is no common starting point for countries embarking into UHC. Some HBPs were almost three decades old. Whole package revisions are rare. The inclusion of vertical programme does not follow a given pattern based on health financing indicators or country's income group. Maternal child health services are the most often included and family planning the least. Six countries in our sample covered all vertical programmes, while one covered only one of six. CONCLUSIONS: This review has shown that there has been a long history of countries facing this question and we have provided the first mapping of inclusion of vertical programmes in UHC. The results of the mapping can inform decisions in countries embarking in UHC.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Niño , Humanos , Pobreza
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 864, 2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inequities in the distribution of and access to maternal and child health care services is pervasive in Ghana. Understanding the drivers of inequity in maternal and child health (MCH) is important to achieving the universal health coverage component of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and poverty reduction in developing countries. However, there is increasing disparities in MCH services, especially in rural -urban, and income quintiles. The study aimed to examine the disparities in maternal and child health care services in Ghana for policy intervention. METHODS: Data for this study was extracted from the nationally representative Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) round 4, 2011. Respondents of this survey were women of reproductive age 15-49 years with a sample size of 10,627 households. The models were estimated using multivariate regression analysis together with concentration index (CI) and risk ratio (RR) to assess the distribution of MCH indicator groups across the household wealth index. RESULTS: The results show that women with secondary school level and above were more likely to receive family planning, prenatal care, and delivery by a skilled health professional than those without formal education. Mothers with low level of educational attainment were 87% more likely to have their first pregnancy before the age of 20 years, and 78% were more likely to have children with under-five mortality, and 45% more likely to have children who had diarrhoea. teenage pregnancy (CI = - 0.133, RR =0.679), prenatal care by skilled health worker (CI = - 0.124, RR =0.713) under five mortality, child underweight, reported diarrhoea, and suspected pneumonia, though not statistically significant, were more concentrated in the poorer than in the richer households, The RR between the top and bottom quintiles ranged from 0.77 for child underweight to 0.82 for child wasting. CONCLUSION: Geographic location, income status and formal education are key drivers of maternal and child health inequities in Ghana. Government can partner the private sector to implement health policies to address inequalities in MCH services through primary health care, and resource allocation skewed towards rural areas and the lower wealth quintile to bridge the inequality gaps and improve MCH outcomes. The government and the private sectors should prioritize female education, as that can improve maternal and child health.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Adulto Joven
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