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BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1390, 2022 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419062


BACKGROUND: Framing affects how issues are understood and portrayed. This profoundly shapes the construction of social problems and how policy options are considered. While access to essential medicines (ATM) in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region is often framed as a societal problem, there is dominance of medical and technically oriented approaches to analyze and remedy the situation. Hence, the systematic application of social science approaches, such as framing theory, remains under-explored. Through a framing analysis of National Strategic Plans (NSPs) from eight countries, this study explores the applicability and potential usefulness of framing theory to analyze essential medicines policies. METHODS: We inductively coded the relevant NSP textual fragments using the qualitative content analysis software ATLAS.ti.22. Benford and Snow's conceptualization of framing was used to organize the coded data into three frames: diagnostic (problems), prognostic (solutions) and motivational (values and ideological). RESULTS: The following five diagnostic frames were dominant or in-frame: medicine unavailability, ineffective regulation, weak supply chain management, proliferation of counterfeit (substandard or falsified) medicines and use of poor quality medicines. Diagnostic frames related to financing, affordability, efficiency and corruption were given limited coverage or out of frame. Prognostic frames corresponded with how these problems were framed. Whilst Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and its guiding principles was the dominant motivational frame, we identified some frame discordance between the global discourse and national level policies. CONCLUSIONS: Social science approaches such as framing analysis are applicable and useful to systematically analyze essential medicine aspects. By applying framing theory, we revealed that ATM aspects in the eight countries we analyzed are more often characterized in relation to availability at the expense of affordability which undermines UHC. We conclude that whilst UHC is a strong motivational frame to guide ATM aspects, it is insufficient to inform a comprehensive approach to address the problems related to ATM at country level. To effectively advance ATM, concerned actors need to realize such limitation and endeavor to gain a deeper understanding of how problems are framed and agendas are set at country level, the processes through which ideas and knowledge become policies, including the political demands, incentives and trade-offs facing decision-makers in selecting policy priorities.

Medicamentos Esenciales , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Política de Salud , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Planificación en Salud
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277896, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399479


BACKGROUND: Physicians' dual practice (simultaneous practice in both public and private sectors) may be challenging for achieving universal health coverage. The purpose of this review is to identify the types of available evidence in physicians' dual practice in Iran and define the research agenda for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of the literature using Arksey and O'Malley's approach. We searched Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science core collection, as well as internal databases including the National Magazine Database (Magiran) and the Scientific Information Database (SID) until August 3, 2020. Studies published in Persian or English and investigating physicians' dual practice in the health system of Iran were included. Each step of the study was performed by two of the present researchers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) recommendations were used to conduct this study and report the findings. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in the current review. The findings were categorized and synthesized into five themes including the forms of dual practice, the extent of dual practice, the motivators and factors affecting dual practice, the policy options, and the consequences of dual practice. There were limited evidence on the nature, types, and prevalence of this phenomenon for different provinces and medical specialties and on health policy options in Iran. There seems to be a methodological gap (a gap in the type of study and its method) in the subject area. Most studies have only used quantitative or qualitative study methods and based on the self-report of research samples in most of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: More research is required at national level on the nature, types, and prevalence of this phenomenon, focusing on clarifying the root causes of this phenomenon and on the effects of dual practice on the indicators of accessibility to health services, especially for vulnerable populations, the quality of care provided, and equity, and on complex policy research on health policy options in Iran. The research questions proposed in the present study can help to bridge the knowledge gap in this area. Additional studies should address issues related to the quality of data collection in physicians' dual practice.

Médicos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Política de Salud , Irán , Sector Privado
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(11)2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410785


In 2008, Benin government launched a national health insurance scheme, but this had been suspended in 2017. We aim to understand how existing ideas and institutions, stakeholders' behaviour and their interests shaped policy-making process and policy content, from its launch to its suspension. METHODS: We used a case study design, framed by the policy triangle of Walt and Gilson. We collected data through document review, quantitative data extraction from routine information, and interviews with 20 key informants. We performed a content analysis using both complementarily deductive and inductive analysis. RESULTS: This study confirms the keen interest for national health insurance scheme in Benin among various stakeholders. Compared with user fee exemption policies, it is considered as more sustainable, with a more reliable financing, and a greater likelihood to facilitate population's access to quality healthcare without financial hardships.Exempting the poor from paying health insurance premiums was however considered as an equitable mean to facilitate the extension of the health insurance to informal sector workers.The whole arrangements failed to deliver appropriate skills, tools, coordination and incentives to drive the policy implementers to make individual and organisational changes necessary to adjust to the objectives and values of the reform. These deficiencies compromised the implementation fidelity with unintended effects such as low subscription rate, low services utilisation and sustainability threats. CONCLUSION: Supporting countries in documenting policy processes will ease learning across their tries for progressing towards Universal Health Coverage, as more than one try will be necessary.

Política de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Humanos , Benin , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Formulación de Políticas
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 53(1): e2065115, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415598


Aim: We analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on oncology service demand in a middle-income country with universal health coverage. Methods: We collected data from January 1st-2017 to December 31th-2021 at a reference center in Bogotá-Colombia regarding first-time consultations of cross-cutting services (clinical oncology, hematology, palliative care, radiation oncology); specialized multidisciplinary units (breast, prostate, lung, stomach); inpatient and outpatient systemic therapy; radiotherapy; oncology surgery; and bone marrow transplant. A descriptive time series analysis was performed, estimating monthly percent change and endemic channels. Results: Starting the confinement (April 2020), a general decrease in service demand was observed (R: -14.9% to -90.0%), with an additional but lower decrease in August 2020 coinciding with the first pandemic wave (R: -11.3% to -70.0%). Follow-up visits and ambulatory treatment showed no consistent reductions. New patients' consultations for cross-cutting services had a speedy recovery (1 month), but clinical oncology, specialized units, and in-hospital treatment resumed more slowly. Only breast and stomach cancer showed a sustained reduction in early-stage disease. Women and older patients had a more significant reductionin service demand. Conclusion: Despite no changes in service supply, the confinement induced a significant reduction in service demand. Variations by cancer type, service type, and population demographics deserve careful consideration for a suitable response to the emergency. The speedy recovery and the absence of a significant decrease during subsequent waves of the pandemic suggest patient resiliency and a lower impact than expected in middle-income settings in the presence of universal health insurance.

Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 sobre la demanda de servicios oncológicos. Metodos: Se recolectaron datos de enero 1/2017 hasta diciembre 31/2021 de consulta de primera vez en servicios transversales (oncología clinica, hematología, cuidados paliativos, oncología radioterápica) y servicios especializados multidisciplinarios (mama, próstata, pulmón, estómago), así como de suministro de tratamiento (terapia sistémica ambulatoria y hospitalaria, radioterapia, cirugía oncológica, trasplante de médula ósea), en un centro de referencia en Bogotá-Colombia. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de series de tiempo estimando el cambio porcentual mensual y los canales endémicos. Resultados: Al inicio del confinamiento obligatorio (abril/2020) hubo una disminución general en la demanda de servicios transversales (R: -14.9% a -90.0%), con nuevo descenso de menor grado en agosto/2020 durante la primera ola de infecciones (R: -11.3% a -70.0%). Las consultas de seguimiento y tratamientos ambulatorios no mostraron reducciones consistentes. Exceptuando oncología clínica, las consultas de primera vez para servicios transversales tuvieron rápida recuperación hasta cifras basales (1 mes), pero las unidades especializadas y los tratamientos intrahospitalarios tuvieron recuperación mas lenta. Únicamente los cánceres de mama y estómago mostraron una reduccion sostenida de estadios tempranos de la enfermedad. La reducción de la demanda fue mas marcada en mujeres y adultos mayores. Conclusión: A pesar de no tener cambios en la oferta, el confinamiento indujo una reducción significativa en la demanda de servicios oncológicos con variación diferencial por tipo de cáncer, servicio y características demográficas de la población. Esto merece consideración especial para generar respuestas adecuadas a las emergencias sanitarias. La rápida recuperación de la demanda y la ausencia de caídas en olas de infección subsiguientes sugieren resiliencia de los pacientes e impacto menor del esperado en países con cobertura de salud universal.

COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuidados Paliativos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31603, 2022 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397420


We conducted a cross-sectional study of patient safety culture aimed at examining the factors that influence patient safety culture in university hospitals under a universal health insurance system. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was used. The survey was distributed to 1066 hospital employees, and 864 responded. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of the results to the 12-composites model. The highest positive response rates were for "(1) Teamwork within units" (81%) and "(2) Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety" (80%), and the lowest was for "(10) Staffing" (36%). Hayashi's quantification theory type 2 revealed that working hours per week had the greatest negative impact on patient safety culture. Under a universal health insurance system, workload and human resources might have a significant impact on the patient safety culture.

Cultura Organizacional , Seguridad del Paciente , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Hospitales Universitarios , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Japón , Administración de la Seguridad
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221135957, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346007


This study estimates the financial burden of healthcare in Korea using the National Survey of Tax and Benefit panel data from 2009 to 2019. The sum of a household's premium and out-of-pocket medical expenses defines the household financial burden of healthcare. We find that the household financial burden is regressive to income. We also find that the high burden household whose financial burden is over 10% of their household income accounts for about 30% of total household. This result suggests that equity in contribution to healthcare finance does not work well in Korea, which chose the universal health system that emphasizes the progressive contribution by income to medical finance.

Estrés Financiero , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Gastos en Salud , Atención a la Salud , República de Corea
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 168, 2022 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435794


BACKGROUND: Despite many countries working hard to attain Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the Health-related Sustainable Development Goals, access to healthcare services has remained a challenge for communities residing along national borders in the East Africa Community (EAC). Unlike the communities in the interior, those along national borders are more likely to face access barriers and exclusion due to low health investments and inter-state rules for non-citizens. This study explored the legal and institutional frameworks that facilitate or constrain access to healthcare services for communities residing along the national borders in EAC. METHODS: This study is part of a broader research implemented in East Africa (2018-2020), employing mixed methods. For this paper, we report data from a literature review, key informant interviews and sub-national dialogues with officials involved in planning and implementing health and migration services in EAC. The documents reviewed included regional and national treaties, conventions, policies and access rules, regulations and guidelines that affect border crossing and access to healthcare services. These were retrieved from official online and physical libraries and archives. RESULTS: Overall, the existing laws, policies and guidelines at all levels do not explicitly deal with cross border healthcare access especially for border residents, but address citizen rights and entitlements including health within national frameworks. There is no clarity on whether these rights can be enjoyed beyond one's country of citizenship. The review found examples of investments in shared health infrastructure to benefit all EAC member countries - a signal of closer cooperation for specialized health care, this had not been accompanied by access rule for citizens outside the host country. The focus on specialized care is unlikely to contribute to the every-day health care needs of border resident communities in remote areas of EAC. Nevertheless, the establishment of the EAC entail opportunities for increased collaboration and integration beyond the trade and customs union to included health care and other social services. The study established active cooperation aimed at disease surveillance and epidemic control among sub-national officials responsible for health and migration services across borders. Health insurance cards, national identification cards and official travel documents were found to constrain access to health services across the borders in EAC. CONCLUSION: In the era of UHC, there is need to take advantage of the EAC integration to revise legal and policy frameworks to leverage existing investments and facilitate cross-border access to healthcare services for communities residing along EAC borders.

Atención a la Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Instituciones de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Cooperación Internacional
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429734


BACKGROUND: National Health Insurance (NHI) in Indonesia requires an appropriate cost-sharing policy, particularly for diseases that require the largest financing. This study examined factors that influence willingness to pay (WTP) for cost-sharing under the universal health coverage scheme among patients with catastrophic illnesses in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires through direct interviews. The factors related to the WTP for cost-sharing under the NHI scheme in Indonesia were identified by a bivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Two out of every five (41.2%) participants had willingness to pay for cost-sharing. Sex [AOR = 0.69 (0.51, 0.92)], education [AOR = 1.54 (0.67, 3.55)], family size [AOR = 1.71 (1.07, 2.73)], occupation [AOR = 1.35 (0.88, 2.07)], individual income [AOR = 1.50 (0.87, 2.61)], household income [AOR = 1.47 (0.90, 2.39)], place of treatment [AOR = 2.54 (1.44, 4.45)], a health insurance plan [AOR = 1.22 (0.87, 1.71)], and whether someone receives an inpatient or outpatient service [AOR = 0.23 (0.10, 0.51)] were found to affect the WTP for a cost-sharing scheme with p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Healthcare (place of treatment, health insurance plan, and whether someone receives an inpatient or outpatient service) and individual socioeconomic (sex, educational, family size, occupational, income) factors were significantly related to the WTP for cost-sharing.

Seguro de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Indonesia , Seguro de Costos Compartidos
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 6)2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379588


BACKGROUND: Colombia's universal health coverage programme has enrolled 98% of the population, thereby improving financial protection and health outcomes. The right to participate in the organisation of healthcare is enshrined in the 1991 Colombian Constitution. One participatory mechanism is the legal and regulatory provision that citizens can form user associations. This study examines the functionality of health insurance user associations and their influence on citizen empowerment and health insurance responsiveness. METHODS: The mixed methods study includes document review (n=72), a survey of beneficiaries (n=1311), a survey of user associations members (n=27), as well as interviews (n=19), focus group discussions (n=6) and stakeholder consultations (n=6) with user association members, government officials, and representatives from insurers, the pharmaceutical industry, and patient associations. Analysis used a content-process-context framework to understand how user associations are designed to work according to policy content, how they actually work in terms of coverage, public awareness, membership, and effectiveness, and contextual influences. FINDINGS: Colombia's user associations have a mandate to represent citizens' interests, enable participation in insurer decision-making, 'defend users' and oversee quality services. Insurers are mandated to ensure their enrollees create user associations, but are not required to provide resources to support their work. Thus, we found that user associations had been formed throughout the country, but the public was widely unaware of their existence. Many associations were weak, passive or entirely inactive. Limited market competition and toothless policies about user associations made insurers indifferent to community involvement. CONCLUSION: Currently, the initiative suffers from low awareness and low participation levels that can hardly lead to empowered enrollees and more responsive health insurance programmes. Yet, most stakeholders value the space to participate and still see potential in the initiative. This warrants a range of policy recommendations to strengthen user associations and truly enable them to effect change.

Aseguradoras , Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Colombia , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Participación de la Comunidad
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 6)2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379589


INTRODUCTION: India's efforts towards universal health coverage include a national health insurance scheme that aims to protect the most vulnerable from catastrophic health expenditure. However, emerging evidence on publicly funded health insurance, as well as experience from community-based schemes, indicates that women face specific barriers to access and utilisation. Community engagement interventions have been shown to improve equitable utilisation of public health services, but there is limited research specific to health insurance. We examined how existing community-based resource centres implemented by a women's organisation could improve women's access to, and utilisation of, health insurance. METHODS: We conducted an implementation research study in Gujarat, India to examine how SEWA Shakti Kendras, established by the Self-Employed Women's Association, worked to improve community engagement in health insurance. SEWA organises women in the informal sector and provides social protection through health, insurance and childcare services. We examined administrative data, programme reports and conducted 30 in-depth qualitative interviews with users and staff. Data were analysed thematically to examine intervention content, context, and implementation processes and to identify enablers and barriers to improving women's access to health insurance through SEWA's community engagement approach. RESULTS: The centres worked through multiple channels-doorstep services, centre-based support and health system navigation-to strengthen women's capability to access health insurance. Each centre's approach varied by contextual factors, such as women's digital literacy levels and rural-urban settings. Effective community engagement required local leadership, strong government partnerships and the flexibility to address a range of public services, with implementation by trusted local health workers. CONCLUSION: SEWA Shakti Kendras demonstrate how a local, flexible and community-based model can serve as a bridge to improve utilisation of health insurance, by engaging women and their households through multiple channels. Scaling up this approach will require investing in partnerships with community-based organisations as part of strategies towards universal health coverage.

Seguro de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Estados Unidos , Femenino , Humanos , Gastos en Salud , Servicios de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 6)2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379590


BACKGROUND: Indonesia introduced a universal National Health Insurance (NHI) programme Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN) in 2014. However, challenges in timely consultation and access to health services resulted in the introduction of formal and informal patient navigation initiatives which facilitates access for patients. Informal patient navigation may emerge from the gaps in the services of the formal patient navigation. This study assesses how three informal non-government patient navigation initiatives emerged, are organised, operate and interact with JKN authorities to enhance patient empowerment and JKN responsiveness. METHODS: This was a qualitative study comprising of document review, semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and direct observations at JKN-contracted health facilities. Data was analysed deductively and inductively using Molyneux et al's accountability assessment framework to assess context, content, and process of the informal patient navigation initiatives. RESULTS: Our study found that informal patient navigation initiatives bridge a gap left by formal navigation initiatives. The navigators help spread awareness among patients of their benefits and entitlements and assist patients to communicate with health providers and authorities. However, we find limited effects on people's ability to navigate the system themselves, on systemic change, or on JKN responsiveness. CONCLUSION: We may know that when access to health services is challenged then formal or informal patient navigation initiatives to facilitate access for patients may emerge. What this study adds is how informal patient navigation bridge a gap left by formal navigation initiatives, from how they are organized, operate and interact with the NHI authorities. We demonstrate that in the absence of well-functioning formal navigation initiatives, the informal initiatives may fill a critical gap. However, their efforts are time intensive and do not translate across the population. What is implied here is that more is required from JKN authorities to enhance interaction with informal patient navigation to advance systemic change toward equitable access to NHI.

Navegación de Pacientes , Participación del Paciente , Humanos , Indonesia , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
Front Public Health ; 10: 985079, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339208


Background: Delivering essential health services through non-governmental organizations (NGOs) could facilitate moving toward universal health coverage (UHC), especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates the viewpoints of Iranian health system experts and executive stakeholders on the role of NGOs in moving toward UHC. Method: We conducted 33 semi-structured interviews with health policymakers, NGO representatives at the national and provincial level, and other key informants and analyzed using content analyses methods, using MAXQDA 12. The inductive-deductive approach was used for qualitative data analyses. Result: Based on the thematic analysis of interviews and document reviews, nine main themes and one hundred and five sub-themes were identified. Each theme was categorized based on NGO-, society-, and government-related factors. Conclusion: Recognizing the critical role of NGOs and their contribution in moving toward UHC is essential, particularly in the local context. Collaboration between NGO stakeholders and the government could facilitate moving toward UHC.

Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Irán , Investigación Cualitativa , Renta
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 155, 2022 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335332


The WHO constitution calls for 'health for all' and Universal Health Coverage has been called "the ultimate expression of fairness", however it is not always clear how health systems can move towards equity. Should we prioritise the needs of the worst off? And if so, should we direct resources to these marginalised groups or marginalised individuals? This article provides an overview of the philosophical underpinnings of health equity and proportionate universalism, highlighting the trade-offs involved in operationalising a core tenant of global health practice.

Equidad en Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Salud Global
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 130, 2022 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437476


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted lives across all countries and communities. It significantly reduced the global economic output and dealt health systems across the world a serious blow. There is growing evidence showing the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact it has on health systems, which should help to draw lessons for further consolidating and realizing universal health coverage (UHC) in all countries, complemented by more substantial government commitment and good governance, and continued full implementation of crucial policies and plans to avert COVID-19 and similar pandemic threats in the future. Therefore, the objective of the study was to assess the impact of good governance, economic growth and UHC on the COVID-19 infection rate and case fatality rate (CFR) among African countries. METHODS: We employed an analytical ecological study design to assess the association between COVID-19 CFR and infection rate as dependent variables, and governance, economic development and UHC as independent variables. We extracted data from publicly available databases (i.e., Worldometer, Worldwide Governance Indicators, Our World in Data and WHO Global Health Observatory Repository). We employed a multivariable linear regression model to examine the association between the dependent variables and the set of explanatory variables. STATA version 14 software was used for data analysis. RESULTS: All 54 African countries were covered by this study. The median observed COVID-19 CFR and infection rate were 1.65% and 233.46%, respectively. Results of multiple regression analysis for predicting COVID-19 infection rate indicated that COVID-19 government response stringency index (ß = 0.038; 95% CI 0.001, 0.076; P = 0.046), per capita gross domestic product (GDP) (ß = 0.514; 95% CI 0.158, 0.87; P = 0.006) and infectious disease components of UHC (ß = 0.025; 95% CI 0.005, 0.045; P = 0.016) were associated with COVID-19 infection rates, while noncommunicable disease components of UHC (ß = -0.064; 95% CI -0.114; -0.015; P = 0.012), prevalence of obesity among adults (ß = 0.112; 95% CI 0.044; 0.18; P = 0.002) and per capita GDP (ß = -0.918; 95% CI -1.583; -0.254; P = 0.008) were associated with COVID-19 CFR. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that good governance practices, favourable economic indicators and UHC have a bearing on COVID-19 infection rate and CFR. Effective health system response through a primary healthcare approach and progressively taking measures to grow their economy and increase funding to the health sector to mitigate the risk of similar future pandemics would require African countries to move towards UHC, improve governance practices and ensure economic growth in order to reduce the impact of pandemics on populations.

COVID-19 , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Desarrollo Económico , Pandemias , Producto Interno Bruto
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(11): 709-716, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324546


Rehabilitative care is often overlooked and underfunded despite being a key component of universal health coverage, and now faces further neglect due to indirect impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Policy-makers can leverage strategic purchasing approaches to make the most of available funds and maximize health gains. To implement more strategic purchasing of rehabilitation, health planners must: (i) develop and prioritize evidence-based rehabilitation service packages; (ii) use fit-for-purpose contracting and provider payment mechanisms to incentivize quality and efficient service delivery; and (iii) strengthen stewardship. This paper examines these three policy priorities by analysing their associated processes, actors and resources based on country experiences. Policy-makers will likely face several obstacles in operationalizing these policy priorities, including: inadequate accountability and coordination among sectors; limited data and research; undefined and non-standardized rehabilitation services, costs and outcomes; and inadequate availability of rehabilitative care. To overcome challenges and institute optimal strategic purchasing practices for rehabilitation, we recommend that policy-makers strengthen health sector stewardship and establish a framework for multisectoral collaboration, invest in data and research and make use of available experience from high-income settings, while creating a body of evidence from low- and middle-income settings.

Les soins de réadaptation sont souvent négligés et sous-financés malgré la place essentielle qu'ils occupent dans la couverture sanitaire universelle. Aujourd'hui, ils risquent même d'être relégués au second plan à la suite des conséquences indirectes de la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019. Les responsables politiques peuvent néanmoins adopter des méthodes d'achat stratégiques afin de tirer le meilleur parti des fonds disponibles et de maximiser les bénéfices pour la santé. Pour ce faire, les planificateurs sanitaires doivent: (i) développer et privilégier les programmes de réadaptation étayés par des faits; (ii) utiliser des contrats adéquats et des mécanismes de paiement des fournisseurs qui mettent en valeur la qualité et l'efficacité des prestations de services; et enfin, (iii) renforcer les activités de gestion. Le présent document se penche sur ces trois priorités politiques en analysant les processus, acteurs et ressources qui y sont associés dans différents pays. Les décideurs seront probablement confrontés à de nombreux obstacles lors de la mise en œuvre de telles politiques: un manque de responsabilisation et de coordination entre secteurs; des recherches et données limitées; une absence de normalisation et de définition claire des services, coûts et résultats; et des soins de réadaptation en pénurie. Pour relever ces défis et instaurer des pratiques d'achat stratégiques optimales en matière de réadaptation, nous leur conseillons de renforcer la gestion du secteur de la santé et d'établir un cadre de collaboration multisectorielle, d'investir dans la recherche et la collecte de données, et de s'inspirer des expériences vécues dans les régions à revenu élevé tout en récoltant un ensemble de preuves dans les régions à revenu faible et intermédiaire.

La atención de rehabilitación suele pasar desapercibida y carecer de fondos a pesar de ser un componente clave de la cobertura sanitaria universal, y ahora se enfrenta a una mayor desatención debido a las repercusiones indirectas de la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019. Los responsables de formular las políticas pueden aprovechar los enfoques de adquisición estratégica para sacar el máximo provecho de los fondos disponibles y maximizar los beneficios para la salud. Para aplicar una adquisición más estratégica en materia de rehabilitación, los planificadores sanitarios deben (i) desarrollar y priorizar paquetes de servicios de rehabilitación a partir de la evidencia; (ii) utilizar mecanismos de contratación y pago a proveedores adecuados para incentivar la calidad y la prestación eficiente de los servicios; y (iii) fortalecer la administración. El presente documento estudia estas tres prioridades políticas mediante el análisis de sus procesos, actores y recursos asociados, basándose en las experiencias de los países. Es probable que los responsables de formular las políticas se enfrenten a varios obstáculos a la hora de poner en práctica estas prioridades políticas, entre los que se incluyen: una responsabilidad y coordinación inadecuadas entre sectores; la limitación de los datos y la investigación; la falta de definición y estandarización de los servicios, los costes y los resultados de la rehabilitación; y la insuficiente disponibilidad de la atención de rehabilitación. Para superar los desafíos e instituir prácticas estratégicas óptimas de adquisición en materia de rehabilitación, se recomienda que los responsables de formular las políticas fortalezcan la administración del sector sanitario y establezcan un marco de colaboración multisectorial, inviertan en datos e investigación y aprovechen la experiencia disponible en entornos de ingresos altos, al tiempo que crean un conjunto de evidencias procedentes de entornos de ingresos bajos y medios.

Administración Financiera , Planificación en Salud , Departamento de Compras en Hospital , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Atención a la Salud , Responsabilidad Social , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(11): 689-698, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324545


The World Health Organization recognizes rehabilitation as an essential component of universal health coverage (UHC). In many countries, UHC builds on a standard benefits package of services that is informed by the country's essential medicines list, standard treatment guidelines and primary health care essential laboratory list. In South Africa, primary health care is largely provided and managed by primary health-care nurses and medical officers in accordance with primary health care standard treatment guidelines. However, rehabilitation is mostly excluded from these guidelines. This paper describes the 10-year process that led to rehabilitation referral recommendations being considered for inclusion in South Africa's primary health care standard treatment guidelines. There were five key events: (i) a breakthrough moment; (ii) producing a scientific evidence synthesis and formulating recommendations; (iii) presenting recommendations to the national essential medicines list committee; (iv) mapping rehabilitation recommendations onto relevant treatment guideline sections; and (v) submitting revised recommendations to the committee for final consideration. The main lesson learnt is that, by working together, rehabilitation professionals can be of sufficient number to make a difference, improve service delivery and increase referrals to rehabilitation from primary health care. A remaining challenge is the lack of a rehabilitation representative on the national essential medicines list committee, which could hamper understanding of rehabilitation and of the complexities of the supporting evidence.

L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé considère la réadaptation comme un élément indispensable de la couverture sanitaire universelle (CSU). Dans de nombreux pays, la CSU repose sur un modèle de prestations de services qui tient compte de la liste nationale de médicaments essentiels, des directives thérapeutiques normalisées et d'une liste des analyses en laboratoire essentielles dans le cadre des soins primaires. En Afrique du Sud, les soins primaires sont majoritairement assurés et gérés par du personnel infirmier et médical, conformément aux directives thérapeutiques normalisées en la matière. En revanche, la réadaptation n'y figure généralement pas. Le présent document décrit les dix années de processus qui ont permis d'émettre des recommandations de référence relatives à la réadaptation, que l'Afrique du Sud envisage d'inscrire dans ses directives thérapeutiques normalisées de soins primaires. Cinq événements clés ont été retenus: (i) un moment charnière; (ii) la réalisation d'une synthèse des preuves scientifiques et la formulation de recommandations; (iii) la présentation de ces recommandations au comité responsable de la liste nationale de médicaments essentiels; (iv) l'intégration des recommandations en matière de réadaptation dans les rubriques correspondantes des directives thérapeutiques; et enfin, (v) la soumission des recommandations révisées au comité pour examen final. Le principal enseignement tiré est qu'en collaborant, les professionnels de la réadaptation peuvent être suffisamment nombreux pour faire la différence, améliorer la qualité des services et augmenter les transferts depuis les soins primaires vers les structures de réadaptation. Un défi subsiste: l'absence de représentants du secteur au sein du comité responsable de la liste nationale de médicaments essentiels, ce qui pourrait nuire à la compréhension de la réadaptation et du degré de complexité des faits qui l'étayent.

La Organización Mundial de la Salud reconoce que la rehabilitación es un componente esencial de la cobertura sanitaria universal (CSU). En muchos países, la cobertura sanitaria universal depende de un paquete estándar de servicios que se basa en la lista de medicamentos esenciales del país, las directrices de tratamiento estándar y la lista de laboratorios esenciales de atención primaria. En Sudáfrica, la atención primaria la prestan y gestionan en gran medida el personal de enfermería y los médicos de atención primaria, de conformidad con las directrices de tratamiento estándar de la atención primaria. Sin embargo, la rehabilitación queda excluida en su mayor parte de estas directrices. Este artículo describe el proceso de 10 años que llevó a que se contemplara la posibilidad de incluir las recomendaciones de derivación a rehabilitación en las directrices de tratamiento estándar de la atención primaria en Sudáfrica. Hubo cinco acontecimientos clave: (i) un momento decisivo; (ii) la elaboración de una síntesis de datos científicos y la formulación de recomendaciones; (iii) la presentación de las recomendaciones al comité de la lista nacional de medicamentos esenciales; (iv) la adaptación de las recomendaciones de rehabilitación a las secciones pertinentes de las directrices de tratamiento; y (v) la presentación de las recomendaciones revisadas al comité para su estudio final. La principal lección aprendida es que, trabajando juntos, los profesionales de la rehabilitación pueden ser lo bastante numerosos como para marcar la diferencia, mejorar la prestación de servicios y aumentar las derivaciones a la rehabilitación desde la atención primaria. Un desafío que aún persiste es que no hay un representante de la rehabilitación en el comité de la lista nacional de medicamentos esenciales, lo que podría dificultar la comprensión de la rehabilitación y de las complejidades de las pruebas que la sustentan.

Medicamentos Esenciales , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Sudáfrica , Atención a la Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 281-287, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308256


The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) faced several inherent and systemic drawbacks towards achieving universal health coverage for all Nigerians, and this has led to the signing of the new National Health Insurance Authority Act (NHIA), 2022. This article highlights the benefits of NHIA, discusses the possible challenges and the way forward in its implementation. A narrative review of past literature searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, African Journal Online, and Goggle was conducted. A total of 76 publications were initially retrieved and following data triangulation, 55 were finally used. The authors also included their experiences. The NHIA addressed some of the shortcomings of the previous NHIS, however, it would still face several challenges in its implementation such as low government funding priority to health, shortage of healthcare workers and poor healthcare coverage, as well as problems with enforcement as it mandates all Nigerians to enroll. These and other impending constraints must be surmounted and all stakeholders must be involved to ensure the Act accomplishes its aim.

Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Nigeria , Personal de Salud