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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 494, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599391

RESUMEN

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and genistein on performance and meat fatty acid profiles in quail exposed to heat stress. A total of 360 Japanese quail were divided into 12 groups in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design; each group comprised 30 quail with five replicates and were kept either at 22 ± 2 °C for 24 h/day (Thermoneutral, TN) or 34 ± 2 °C for 8 h/day (08:00 to 17:00 h) followed by 22 °C for 16 h (heat stress, HS) conditions. The diet contained either two levels of PUFA at 15 or 45% of total fat or three levels of genistein at 0, 400, or 800 mg/kg. Bodyweight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were lower (p ≥ 0.01) for quail reared under heat stress and fed low PUFA. Increasing dietary genistein in a linear manner improved the productive performance (p < 0.001). Heat stress caused increases in serum and thigh meat malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and decreases in genistein and vitamin E and A concentrations in serum and thigh meat (p < 0.001). High PUFA (PUFA45) in the diet of quail caused greater 18:2, 18:3 ALA, EPA, DHA, n-6, and n-3 PUFA as well as total PUFA and total USFA percentages (p < 0.001) in the thigh muscle, some of which decreased with heat stress (p ≥ 0.006) with no regard to genistein supplementation. This study revealed that genistein with greater doses along with greater PUFA inclusion to the diet of quail reared under heat stress is recommended for alleviating adverse effects of heat stress and for yielding healthier meat for human consumption.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Codorniz , Animales , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados , Genisteína , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Peroxidación de Lípido , Carne
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101277, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198089

RESUMEN

The study of adipogenesis is one of the most important areas for not only regulating meat quality, but production efficiency associated with fat accretion in the poultry species. Current in vitro models for avian adipogenesis require adipogenic inducers including dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), fatty acids, or insulin. However, problems still remain in these models for testing/screening potential nutritional, hormonal, and pharmaceutical factors because of interfering/overriding effects of the inducing factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple in vitro method for avian adipogenesis. In this study, chicken serum (CS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared for adipogenic potential using chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). Oil-red O staining at 4 d in culture of CEF under CS revealed that lipid droplet formation was increased by CS in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 10%). On the contrary, all concentrations of FBS (0 to 10%) alone did not show lipid droplet formation. In accordance with the morphological data of CEF, mRNA expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation/determination, fatty acid uptake, and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, were most significantly up-regulated by 10% CS at d 4 compared to 1 or 5% CS. In addition, embryonic cells isolated from quail (QEF) at E5, duck (DEF) at E6, and turkey (TEF) at E6, were tested for adipogenic differentiation by media containing the same concentrations of CS. Similar to the morphological data from CEF, quantitative data of the Oil-red O staining showed that lipid droplet formation in QEF, DEF, and TEF was increased by CS in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 10%). The current study demonstrates that CS alone can induce adipogenesis on embryonic fibroblasts of various poultry species. By providing a new simple in vitro method of avian adipogenesis, diverse nutritional, hormonal, and pharmaceutical factors can be broadly and easily tested for scientific and industrial purposes.


Asunto(s)
Adipogénesis , Pollos , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Células Cultivadas , Embrión de Pollo , Patos , Fibroblastos , Codorniz
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202741

RESUMEN

We investigated the effects of different types of heat treatments on hen's egg white (HEw) and quail egg white (QEw) proteins and their cross-reactivity in young children. Crude extracts of raw and water-boiled HEw and QEw and commercially developed stone-baked HEw were prepared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was then performed. Patients diagnosed with HEw allergy were enrolled, and pooled sera were tested with each extract in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-inhibition test. A skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge (OFC) were also performed. The median age of 12 patients was 2.5 years. SDS-PAGE results revealed strongly stained bands for the ovomucoid of boiled HEw and QEw, while stone-baked HEw displayed remarkable changes for all protein fractions. In the ELISA-inhibition test, pre-incubation of the sera led to a profound decrease, moderate decrease, and minimal decrease in the amount of IgE binding to boiled and raw HEw, boiled and raw QEw, and stone-baked HEw proteins, respectively. SPTs and OFC demonstrated cross-reactivity values of 41.7% (5/12) and 16.7% (2/12) for boiled QEw and stone-baked HEw, respectively. We observed moderate cross-reactivity between QEw and HEw. Boiling had a limited effect on altering egg allergenicity. Commercially developed, stone-baked HEw can be an alternative food for children with HE allergy.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/inmunología , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad al Huevo/inmunología , Proteínas del Huevo/inmunología , Calor , Animales , Pollos , Preescolar , Culinaria , Electroforesis en Gel de Gradiente Desnaturalizante/métodos , Huevos/análisis , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovomucina/inmunología , Estudios Prospectivos , Codorniz , Pruebas Cutáneas
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101266, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225203

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the impacts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on the growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal microbiota, liver and kidney functions, immunity, oxidative status, and lipid profile of Japanese quails. A total of 200 one-week-old unsexed Japanese quails with an average initial body weight of 26.24 ± 0.2 g were randomly distributed into 5 equal groups of 40 birds and further subdivided into 5 replicates. The first (control) group was fed a diet without any licorice, while licorice powder was added at levels of 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg per kg diet in the second, third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively. At the age of 3 wk, the group of quail fed on a diet supplemented with 750 and 1000 mg licorice/kg of diet gained the highest body weight (BW) and daily body weight (DBW), while attaining the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to other groups. Meanwhile, groups fed diets with licorice at levels of 0 and 250 mg/kg showed the highest feed intake. After the 5-wk feeding trial, the highest BW and DBW values, and the lowest FCR were recorded in the group fed with 750 mg licorice/kg diet. The different treatments produced no significant differences (P > 0.05) in quail carcass characteristics, including percentages of carcass, liver, gizzard, heart, giblets, and dressing. The blood of the group fed a 750 mg licorice diet had higher contents of total protein and GLOB, while its contents of A/G%, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were lower. Apart from the high level of licorice (1000 mg/kg), the MDA level was linearly and quadratically (P = 0.0413 and 0.001) decreased with different licorice groups, while superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and M (IgM) were quadratically increased when compared to the control group. Licorice supplementation resulted in marked reductions in the number of total bacteria, coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella, compared to those in the control. In conclusion, the inclusion of licorice at levels of 750 and 1000 mg/kg into the diet of Japanese quail enhances the animal's performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, and maintains a healthy gut microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glycyrrhiza , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Escherichia coli , Codorniz
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101235, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214746

RESUMEN

Comparative studies designed to investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity on the enzyme catalyzed trapping of aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO) with glutathione, and the relationship with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) resistance have not been conducted in poultry. Hepatic cytosolic fractions of chickens, quail, turkeys and ducks were used to measure in vitro the enzymatic parameters maximal velocity (Vmax), Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and intrinsic clearance (CLint) for GST activity. AFB1 used ranged from 2.0 to 157.5 µM and the AFB1-GSH produced was identified and quantitated by HPLC. Significant differences were found in GST Vmax values, being the highest in chickens, followed by quail, ducks and turkeys. The Km values were also significantly different, with chickens < ducks < turkeys < quail. Chickens had the higher CLint value in contrast to ducks. Differences by sex showed that duck females had a higher CLint value than the turkey and quail, whereas duck males had a CLint close to that of turkey. The ratio "AFBO production /AFB1-GSH production" follows the order duck>turkey>quail>chicken, in agreement with the known poultry sensitivity. The extremely high "AFB1 epoxidation activity/ GST activity" ratio observed in ducks might be the explanation for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in this species.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina B1 , Glutatión Transferasa , Animales , Pollos , Patos , Femenino , Hígado , Masculino , Aves de Corral , Codorniz , Pavos
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 321(2): H294-H305, 2021 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142884

RESUMEN

The etiology of ethanol-related congenital heart defects has been the focus of much study, but most research has concentrated on cellular and molecular mechanisms. We have shown with optical coherence tomography (OCT) that ethanol exposure led to increased retrograde flow and smaller atrioventricular (AV) cushions compared with controls. Since AV cushions play a role in patterning the conduction delay at the atrioventricular junction (AVJ), this study aims to investigate whether ethanol exposure alters the AVJ conduction in early looping hearts and whether this alteration is related to the decreased cushion size. Quail embryos were exposed to a single dose of ethanol at gastrulation, and Hamburger-Hamilton stage 19-20 hearts were dissected for imaging. Cardiac conduction was measured using an optical mapping microscope and we imaged the endocardial cushions using OCT. Our results showed that, compared with controls, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited abnormally fast AVJ conduction and reduced cushion size. However, this increased conduction velocity (CV) did not strictly correlate with decreased cushion volume and thickness. By matching the CV map to the cushion-size map along the inflow heart tube, we found that the slowest conduction location was consistently at the atrial side of the AVJ, which had the thinner cushions, not at the thickest cushion location at the ventricular side as expected. Our findings reveal regional differences in the AVJ myocardium even at this early stage in heart development. These findings reveal the early steps leading to the heterogeneity and complexity of conduction at the mature AVJ, a site where arrhythmias can be initiated.NEW & NOTEWORTHY To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of ethanol exposure on the early cardiac conduction system. Our results showed that ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited abnormally fast atrioventricular conduction. In addition, our findings, in CV measurements and endocardial cushion thickness, reveal regional differences in the AVJ myocardium even at this early stage in heart development, suggesting that the differentiation and maturation at this site are complex and warrant further studies.


Asunto(s)
Depresores del Sistema Nervioso Central/farmacología , Cojinetes Endocárdicos/efectos de los fármacos , Etanol/farmacología , Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Embrión no Mamífero , Cojinetes Endocárdicos/diagnóstico por imagen , Cojinetes Endocárdicos/embriología , Gastrulación , Corazón/diagnóstico por imagen , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Corazón/embriología , Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco/embriología , Codorniz , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Imagen de Colorante Sensible al Voltaje
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101265, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182218

RESUMEN

Ranging area use by domestic poultry is not always optimal and differences in it exist on the levels of breed, flock and individual bird. Outdoor shelters are usually not protective for all weather parameters and may not fulfil a protective role to all birds within the flock all time, if individuals are sensitive to different weather conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between different weather parameters and the use of the range by individual Green-legged Partridge and Sasso C44 chickens. In August 2018, 60 birds per genetic strain were housed in groups of 10 from wks 5 to 10, under conditions exceeding minimal EU requirements of organic meat chicken production. Birds in each pen had access to an outdoor range that was video-recorded during the experiment to obtain frequencies of individual birds' use of the ranges. Weather data were collected each minute throughout the whole experiment by an automatic weather station. In each pen, birds tagged individually with a laminated color tag, had access to an outdoor range that was video-recorded during the experiment. Frequencies of individual birds' use of the ranges were manually obtained from the recordings. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between the variables. The results showed significant associations between weather parameters and range use for one third of Green-legged Partridge and Sasso chickens (n = 21 in both breeds). Between breeds, range use associations with different weather parameters were identified. Negative associations with relative humidity occurred most frequently in Green-legged Partridges (n = 8; R2 from 0.1 to 0.17), while positive associations with atmospheric pressure (n = 7; R2 from 0.09 to 0.17) were most common in Sasso chickens. Further investigations into the reasons behind individual sensitivity of meat-purpose chickens to specific weather conditions would increase the understanding of their preferences and needs, which over time will improve animal welfare.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Pollos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Codorniz , Tiempo (Meteorología)
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 358, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114112

RESUMEN

The current experiment was designed to study the response of two strains of laying Japanese quail to diet containing different levels (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) of pomegranate peel (PP) powder for a period of 6 weeks, on egg production, blood chemistry, carcass traits, expression of FSHR and LH-ß genes, and economic efficiency. A total of 576 6-week-old Japanese quails were made up of two strains: white quails (n=288) and brown quails (n=288). Four treatment groups were randomly distributed for each strain. Each group was subdivided into 6 replicates of 10 birds each. Results revealed that the white strain showed significant (P<0.05) higher values in final body weight (BW), egg quality parameters, weights of dressed carcass, and total return (TR) compared with the brown strain. Brown strain had higher hen day egg production % (HDEP%). A significant (P<0.05) interaction effects between genetic type and the dietary PP powder levels was recorded in growth traits, some egg production traits, and mRNA expression of FSHR and LH-ß genes. Results concluded that all the dietary levels of PP powder up to 9% improved growth traits, egg production traits, fertility% (P=0.001), and hatchability% (P=0.007). Moreover, they have a safely biochemical effect on the level of urea (P=0.002) and the concentration of aspartate amino transferase (AST) (P<0.001). It also enhanced mRNA expression of FSHR and LH-ß genes, but showed non-significant (P>0.05) influence on carcass traits. Economically, the net return (NR) was increased in quails fed on 6% and 9% PP powder diets.


Asunto(s)
Coturnix , Granada (Fruta) , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Coturnix/genética , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Hormona Luteinizante de Subunidad beta , Polvos , Codorniz
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101257, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174566

RESUMEN

Increased growth rate and decreased cost of feed are main focuses to increase revenue of poultry farms. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth and mutation on MSTN results in increased muscle growth. Due to the antimyogenic function of MSTN, MSTN gains high attention as a potential target and genetic selection marker to increase meat yield in the livestock industry. In addition, MSTN can affect feed efficiencies and, thus decrease total feed requirement as shown in increased feed efficiencies in pigs and cattle with MSTN mutations. Although MSTN mutation in various animal species has been previously studied, MSTN mutation in avian species has only recently been generated to characterize its biological function. However, beneficial effects of MSTN mutation on poultry production need to be further investigated. In this study, using the MSTN mutant quail, feed efficiency related to interplay of changes in body weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and fat accretion were investigated. WG of mutant quail were significantly higher (P< 0.001) than those of wild-type (WT) from all time periods, 10-d interval from post-hatching day (D)10 to 40. Feed intake of mutant quail were significantly higher than those of WT from D 10 to 20 (P< 0.01) and D 20 to 30 (P< 0.001), but not from D 30 to 40, resulting in a significantly lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) of mutant quail compared to WT quail only from D 30 to 40 (P< 0.001). From those results, overall (D 10 to 40) FCR was significantly lower in mutant quail (P< 0.001) indicating improved feed efficiency by MSTN mutation. In addition, percentages of leg or abdominal fat compared to body weight in mutant quail at 8 wk were significantly lower than WT (P< 0.05). In combination to greater WG, less fat accretion might partially contribute to improved feed efficiency in MSTN mutant quail. As there is a current preference of meat with lower fat as a healthy food, MSTN can be used for the potential selection marker for not only bigger and leaner poultry, but also better feed efficiency that can satisfy both producers and consumers.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Miostatina , Codorniz , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Pollos , Edición Génica/veterinaria , Mutación , Miostatina/genética , Codorniz/genética
10.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066903

RESUMEN

The effect of effective microorganisms (EM) on internal organ morphology, intestinal morphometry, and serum biochemical activity in Japanese quails under Clostridium perfringens challenge was determined. After 30 days of EM addition, one group of quails was orally inoculated with Clostridium perfringens. The second group did not receive EM and was inoculated with C. perfringens. In the gut, EM supplementation reduced the number of lesions, enhanced gut health, and protected the mucosa from pathogenic bacteria. EM showed an anti-inflammatory effect and fewer necrotic lesions in villi. In the internal organs, EM showed a protective effect against a typical lesion of C. perfringens infection. Necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes, necrosis of bile ducts, and bile duct proliferation were more severe in the infected group without EM. Morphometric evaluation showed significantly higher villi in the jejunum after EM addition. A greater crypt depth was observed in the C. perfringens group. Biochemical analysis of the blood indicated lower cholesterol on the 12th day of the experiment and between-group differences in total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin levels in the EM group. Further studies are needed to improve EM activity against pathologic bacteria as a potential alternative to antibiotics and to develop future natural production systems.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de las Aves/sangre , Enfermedades de las Aves/dietoterapia , Infecciones por Clostridium/sangre , Infecciones por Clostridium/dietoterapia , Clostridium perfringens , Enteritis/sangre , Enteritis/dietoterapia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Sustancias Protectoras/uso terapéutico , Codorniz/sangre , Codorniz/microbiología , Alimentación Animal/microbiología , Animales , Conductos Biliares/patología , Enfermedades de las Aves/microbiología , Colesterol/sangre , Infecciones por Clostridium/microbiología , Enteritis/microbiología , Femenino , Hepatocitos/patología , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Yeyuno/microbiología , Yeyuno/patología , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Necrosis , Albúmina Sérica/análisis , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117319, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990053

RESUMEN

Deltamethrin is the most common type II synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, and has posed widespread residues to environment. However, whether deltamethrin has potential toxic effects on quail cerebrum remains greatly obscure. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of chronic exposure to deltamethrin on oxidative stress and apoptosis in quail cerebrum. Quails upon 12-week exposure of deltamethrin (0, 15, 30, or 45 mg/kg body weight intragastric administration) were used as a cerebrum injury model. The results showed that deltamethrin treatment led to cerebral injury dose-dependently through the weakened antioxidant defense by downregulating nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream proteins levels and mRNA expression. Furthermore, deltamethrin treatment induced apoptosis in cerebrum by decreasing B-cell lymphoma gene 2 (Bcl-2) level, as well as increasing Jun N-terminal kinase3, caspase-3, and Bcl-2-associated X protein levels. Simultaneously, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) downstream inflammation-related genes or proteins were significantly up-regulated by deltamethrin dose-dependently. Altogether, our study demonstrated that chronic exposure to deltamethrin induces inflammation and apoptosis in quail cerebrums by promoting oxidative stress linked to inhibition of the Nrf2/TLR4 signaling pathway. These results provide a novel knowledge on the chronic toxic effect of deltamethrin, and establish a theoretical foundation for the evaluation of pesticide-induced health risk.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Cerebro , Animales , Apoptosis , Nitrilos , Estrés Oxidativo , Piretrinas , Codorniz
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101172, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951594

RESUMEN

The present study was designed to assess the impact of dietary supplementation of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, carcass traits, liver and kidney function, immunity, antioxidant indices and caecal microbiota of growing quail. A total of 200 Japanese quails at 1-week-old were haphazardly allotted to 5 groups of 40 chicks in five replicates (8 per replicate). The first group was the control group, while LGEO was added at levels of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg diet in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation of LGEO (150, 300 and 450 mg/ kg diet) increased body weight at 3 and 5 wk of age, and increased body weight gain during all periods compared with the control group (P < 0.05). All levels of LGEO improved feed conversion ratio during the periods from 1 to 3 and 1 to 5 wk of age. During 3 to 5 wk, feed conversion ratio was improved in quails fed LGEO (300 and 450 mg/kg diet) compared with the control and other treatments. Carcass traits, plasma globulin, alanine aminotransferase, and urea values did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05), but the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in the plasma was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LGEO-treated groups. The total protein and albumin values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in quails fed levels of LGEO (except 600 mg/kg diet) compared with the control. The inclusion of LGEO in quail diets improved (P < 0.05) plasma lipid profile. The dietary supplementation of LGEO increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) plasma immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA) levels, lysozyme values and activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase compared with the control group. The caecal Coliform, E. coli and Salmonella were lowered (P < 0.0001) in the quails treated with all LGEO levels, but the total bacterial count and Lactobacillus count were increased with dietary supplementation of LGEO levels (300 and 450 mg/kg) compared with those in the control group. The activities of digestive enzymes were significantly higher in birds fed the diet supplemented with LGEO levels than those fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of LGEO can improve the performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant indices and decline intestinal pathogens and thus boost the health status of growing quail.


Asunto(s)
Cymbopogon , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aceites Volátiles , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Antioxidantes , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Escherichia coli , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Codorniz
13.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809098

RESUMEN

Lichens comprise a number of unique secondary metabolites with remarkable biological activities and have become an interesting research topic for cancer therapy. However, only a few of these metabolites have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of extract Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (PSE) and its metabolite physodic acid (Phy) on tumour microenvironment (TME) modulation, focusing on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) transformation and angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate, by using flow cytometry, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy, that tested compounds inhibited the EMT process in MCF-10A breast cells through decreasing the level of different mesenchymal markers in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By the same mechanisms, PSE and Phy suppressed the function of Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)-stimulated fibroblasts. Moreover, PSE and Phy resulted in a decreasing level of the TGF-ß canonical pathway Smad2/3, which is essential for tumour growth. Furthermore, PSE and Phy inhibited angiogenesis ex ovo in a quail embryo chorioallantoic model, which indicates their potential anti-angiogenic activity. These results also provided the first evidence of the modulation of TME by these substances.


Asunto(s)
Dibenzoxepinas/farmacología , Metaboloma , Parmeliaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Microambiente Tumoral , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Cadherinas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoides/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoides/metabolismo , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Embrión no Mamífero/efectos de los fármacos , Embrión no Mamífero/metabolismo , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efectos de los fármacos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/efectos de los fármacos , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Neovascularización Fisiológica/efectos de los fármacos , Codorniz/embriología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(5): 855-862, 2021 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814520

RESUMEN

Although the gallbladder is one of the characteristic component of the vertebrate body, it has been independently lost in several lineages of mammals and birds. Gallbladder loss is a widely reported phenomenon; however, there have been few descriptive comparisons of entire hepatobiliary structures between birds with and without a gallbladder. Here, we discuss the evolution of avian hepatobiliary morphology by describing the gross anatomy of the hepatobiliary system in the quail and pigeon. Quails have two major extrahepatic bile ducts: the right cystic-enteric duct, which has a gallbladder, and the left hepatic-enteric duct, which does not. Together with two pancreatic ducts, they share one opening to the ascending part of duodenum. Pigeons lack a gallbladder, but also have two extrahepatic ducts similar to those of quails. However, the hepatic-enteric duct opens solely to the descending part of the duodenum close to the stomach. The pancreatic duct opens to the very posterior part of the duodenum independent from the biliary tracts, giving rise to three separate openings in the duodenum. The hepatobiliary anatomy of the pigeon represents a highly derived condition not only because of gallbladder loss. Avian gallbladder loss may be related to remodeling of the entire hepatobiliary system, and may have occurred via a different mechanism from that of mammals, which can be explained simply by the disappearance of the gallbladder primordium.


Asunto(s)
Conductos Biliares Extrahepáticos , Vesícula Biliar , Anatomía Comparada , Animales , Columbidae , Codorniz
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 263, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864132

RESUMEN

Embryonic thermal manipulation led to several modifications in molecular, physiological, and biochemical parameters which affect pre- and post-hatch growth performance. The current study aims to elucidate the onset and long-term effects of intermittent thermal manipulations (TM) during two-time windows, early/late, of embryogenesis in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on embryonic development, hatchability, muscle histogenesis, and post-hatch growth performance. Four groups were created; quail eggs in the control group were incubated at 37.7 °C and relative humidity (RH) 55%. Three thermally treated groups were incubated intermittently at 41 °C and 65% RH intermittently (3 h/day): early embryogenesis group (EE) was thermally treated during embryonic days (ED) 6-8, late embryogenesis group (LE) was thermally treated during (ED12-ED14), and early and late embryogenesis group (EL) was thermally manipulated in both time windows. Relative embryo weights in EL and EE were significantly lighter than those in LE and Ctrl groups. The hatched chicks were reared under optimal managemental conditions (three replicates per treatment). Average daily feed intake was recorded, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated. Histological and quantitative analyses of muscle fibers were performed. The results revealed that TM led to significant hypertrophy of quail breast muscle in (EE). Intermittent short-term (3-6 h) thermal manipulation (39-40 °C) protocols during early embryogenesis (ED6-ED8) could be recommended to enhance muscle mass growth and breast muscle yield in the Japanese quail.


Asunto(s)
Coturnix , Óvulo , Animales , Pollos , Desarrollo Embrionario , Codorniz
16.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(7): 1447-1456, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844419

RESUMEN

Permethrin is a commonly used, highly effective pesticide in poultry agriculture, and has recently been trialed in conservation efforts to protect Galápagos finch hatchlings from an invasive ectoparasite. Although permethrin is considered safe for adults, pesticides can have health consequences when animals are exposed during early life stages. The few studies that have examined permethrin's effects in embryonic chicks and rats have shown hydrocephaly, anencephaly, reduced cellular energy conversion, and disruption of developing heart muscle. To test whether trans-ovo exposure of permethrin affects early development in birds, we exposed Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs to cotton treated with 1% permethrin that was incorporated into nests in two amounts (0.2, 0.8 g), each with a paired untreated cotton control group. When measured on incubation Day 15, we found permethrin-treated developing birds were smaller and showed signs of microcephaly, although mortality rates were the same. Despite no difference in heart mass, ventricular tissue was less compact, cardiac arteries were reduced and heart rates were slower in permethrin-treated birds. Differences in heart development were also observed at 5 days of incubation, indicating that abnormalities are present from early in cardiac development. Future studies are needed to examine permethrin's effects on developmental pathways and to determine if these effects persist after hatching to affect offspring health. This study provides evidence that permethrin can cross the eggshell to cause non-lethal but adverse effects on embryonic development, and studies should look beyond hatching when monitoring the efficacy of permethrin on wild bird populations.


Asunto(s)
Coturnix , Codorniz , Animales , Encéfalo , Corazón , Permetrina/toxicidad , Ratas
17.
FEBS Lett ; 595(11): 1559-1568, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786814

RESUMEN

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved, constitutively active Ser/Thr protein kinase that is involved in various important biological processes. HIPK2 activates itself by auto-phosphorylation during its synthesis, and its activity is mainly controlled through modulation of its expression by ubiquitin-dependent degradation. By comparing the expression of wild-type and kinase-defective HIPK2, we have recently described a novel mechanism of HIPK2 regulation that is based on preferential co-translational degradation of kinase-defective versus wild-type HIPK2. Here, we have addressed this novel regulatory mechanism in more detail by focusing on the possible involvement of chaperones. Our work shows that HIPK2 is a client of the CDC37-HSP90 chaperone complex and points to a novel role of CDC37 in the co-translational degradation of a client protein.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Portadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Chaperoninas/metabolismo , Proteínas HSP90 de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Biosíntesis de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/metabolismo , Proteolisis , Animales , Proteínas Portadoras/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Línea Celular , Chaperoninas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Chaperoninas/genética , Fibroblastos/citología , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Proteínas HSP90 de Choque Térmico/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Codorniz , ARN Interferente Pequeño/genética , ARN Interferente Pequeño/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinación
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 377, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742093

RESUMEN

Mammalian three-dimensional (3D) enteroids mirror in vivo intestinal organisation and are powerful tools to investigate intestinal cell biology and host-pathogen interactions. We have developed complex multilobulated 3D chicken enteroids from intestinal embryonic villi and adult crypts. These avian enteroids develop optimally in suspension without the structural support required to produce mammalian enteroids, resulting in an inside-out enteroid conformation with media-facing apical brush borders. Histological and transcriptional analyses show these enteroids comprise of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells bound by cell-cell junctions, and notably, include intraepithelial leukocytes and an inner core of lamina propria leukocytes. The advantageous polarisation of these enteroids has enabled infection of the epithelial apical surface with Salmonella Typhimurium, influenza A virus and Eimeria tenella without the need for micro-injection. We have created a comprehensive model of the chicken intestine which has the potential to explore epithelial and leukocyte interactions and responses in host-pathogen, food science and pharmaceutical research.


Asunto(s)
Eimeria tenella/patogenicidad , Células Epiteliales , Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Mucosa Intestinal , Leucocitos , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidad , Animales , Células Cultivadas , Microambiente Celular , Pollos , Eimeria tenella/inmunología , Células Epiteliales/inmunología , Células Epiteliales/microbiología , Células Epiteliales/parasitología , Células Epiteliales/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitología , Mucosa Intestinal/virología , Leucocitos/inmunología , Leucocitos/microbiología , Leucocitos/parasitología , Leucocitos/virología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Organoides , Permeabilidad , Fagocitosis , Fenotipo , Codorniz , Salmonella typhimurium/inmunología
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 101012, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652243

RESUMEN

The objective of present study was to estimate the efficiency of lysine utilization by meat quail of 21 to 35 d of age. A total of 500 meat quails were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 5 digestible lysine levels (0.714, 0.816, 0.918, 1.020, and 1.122%) and 5 replications of 10 birds each. The variables studied were feather-free body weight (FFBW), feed intake (FI), lysine intake (LysI), feather-free body protein deposition (FFBPD), feather-free body lysine deposition (FFBLysD), feather-free body fat deposition (FFBFatD), feather weight (FW), feather protein deposition, feather lysine deposition, and feather fat deposition. The FFBW, FFBPD, FFBLysD, and FFBFatD were regressed as a function of LysI for each sex to estimate the efficiency of lysine utilization in the feather-free body (ELysFFB), and the individual equations were compared. In addition, a multiple regression without intercept was also used to estimate the ELysFFB and in feathers (ELysF) individually. To compare the ELysFFB obtained by the different methods, the t-statistic was used. There was no effect on sex × lysine level interactions for any variable. The females showed higher FFBW (5.07%) and FFBFatD (26.23%) than males. All variables increased with the level of dietary lysine, with the exception of FI, FW, and the deposition of nutrients within them. The ELysFFB values obtained by simple linear regression and multiple linear regression were 48.0 and 44.6%, respectively. As there was no difference in the efficiencies estimated by the different methodologies, the best estimate of ELysFFB was 46.3%, that is, the average. The best estimate of ELysF was 18.1%, obtained by multiple linear regression.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Lisina , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Codorniz
20.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 138-140, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647983

RESUMEN

Quail populations in the United States have been declining for several decades, and the role that parasites may be playing in this decline is not well understood. The goal of this study was to document novel parasites that inhabited the scaled quail, Callipepla squamata, of the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas. To do this, quail were collected by hunter-harvest, night-netting, and funnel-trapping and were necropsied in the laboratory to determine the parasites they hosted. After analyzing 386 birds, we identified Dispharynx sp. in one of the samples. This specimen is the first to be officially documented in scaled quail.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Codorniz/parasitología , Infecciones por Spirurida/veterinaria , Spirurina/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Proventrículo/parasitología , Proventrículo/patología , Infecciones por Spirurida/epidemiología , Infecciones por Spirurida/parasitología , Infecciones por Spirurida/patología , Spirurina/clasificación , Texas/epidemiología
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