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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 111-125, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125735

RESUMEN

A compreensão dos processos de saúde-doença envolve distintos conhecimentos em saúde, já que são fenômenos complexos e multifatoriais. As teorias psicológicas têm especificidades na sua visão de homem, da saúde e doença em que persiste uma visão de saúde e doença que separa mente e corpo. Por meio de uma revisão narrativa da literatura científica buscou-se identificar como as Teorias Psicanalítica, Cognitivo-Comportamental e Sistêmica compreendem os processos de saúde-doença. As Teorias partem de uma perspectiva biopsicossocial, havendo indícios de superação da dicotomia corpo versus mente, e de maior preocupação em integrar conhecimentos para tratar pessoas. Considera-se necessário ampliar a compreensão dos processos de saúde-doença e discutir uma aproximação e interação entre as abordagens psicológicas e as diferentes áreas da saúde.


The understanding of health-disease processes involves different knowledge in the health field since they are complex and multifactorial phenomena. The psychological theories have specificities in their view of man, health, and disease, in which a vision of health and illness persists that separates mind and body. The objective of this study was to identify how the Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-Behavioral, and Systemic theories understand health-disease, processes. These theories start from a biopsychosocial model, showing an overcoming of the body versus mind dichotomy, and increasing concern in integrating knowledge to help people. It is necessary to broaden the understanding of the health-disease processes and to discuss an approximation and interaction between the psychological approaches and the different areas of health.


La comprensión de los procesos de salud-enfermedad implican en distintos conocimientos en salud, una vez que son fenómenos complejos y multifactoriales. Las teorías en Psicología tienen especificidades en su visión de hombre, de salud y enfermedad en que persiste una visión de salud y enfermedad que separa mente y cuerpo. Por medio de una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica este estudio buscó identificar cómo las teorías Psicoanalítica, Cognitivo-Conductual y Sistémica entienden los procesos de salud-enfermedad. Las teorías están amparadas en una visión biopsicosocial de la salud, lo que sugiere la superación de la dicotomía cuerpo versus mente, y una preocupación en integrar conocimientos para ayudar las personas. Es necesario ampliar la comprensión de los procesos salud-enfermedad y discutir un posible acercamiento e integración entre las teorías psicológicas y las diferentes áreas de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Psicoanálisis , Teoría Psicológica , Proceso Salud-Enfermedad , Enfermedad , Cognición
2.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 113, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between executive function (EF), stuttering, and comorbidity by examining children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) with and without comorbid conditions. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to examine behavioral manifestations of EF, such as inattention and self-regulation, in CWS and CWNS. METHODS: The sample included 2258 CWS (girls = 638, boys = 1620), and 117,725 CWNS (girls = 57,512; boys = 60,213). EF, and the presence of stuttering and comorbid conditions were based on parent report. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of stuttering and comorbidity across group and sex. Regression analyses were to determine the effects of stuttering and comorbidity on EF, and the relationship between EF and socioemotional competence. RESULTS: Results point to weaker EF in CWS compared to CWNS. Also, having comorbid conditions was also associated with weaker EF. CWS with comorbidity showed the weakest EF compared to CWNS with and without comorbidity, and CWS without comorbidity. Children with stronger EF showed higher socioemotional competence. A majority (60.32%) of CWS had at least one other comorbid condition in addition to stuttering. Boys who stutter were more likely to have comorbid conditions compared to girls who stutter. CONCLUSION: Present findings suggest that comorbidity is a common feature in CWS. Stuttering and comorbid conditions negatively impact EF.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Tartamudeo/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Cognición , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos de Investigación , Habla
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(41): 3218-3223, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167107

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the correlation between tissue oxygen saturation during one lung ventilation and postoperative neuro cognitive dysfunction (PND) in elderly patients in thoracic surgery. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight elderly patients who underwent selective lobectomy from August 2017 to September 2018 in the Forth Hospital of Hebei Medical University were enrolled. The patients were divided into PND group (n=34) and non-PND group (n=94) according to whether PND occurred 3 days after surgery. Tissue oxygenation was monitored at bilateral forebrain, brachioradialis muscle and quadriceps. Cognitive function was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at baseline and the third day after the operation. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was diagnosed if postoperative MoCA decreased at least 2 scores compared with preoperative baseline value. Outcomes included the incidence of PND, the incidence of tissue oxygen desaturation during one lung ventilation, postoperative complications within 30 days and length of postoperative in-hospital stay. Logistic regression was used to screen independent risk factors of PND. Results: The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction was 26.6% (34/128). The two groups had no significant difference in the incidence of non-neurogenic complications (new occurred arrhythmia, pulmonary infection, pulmonary embolism, acute renal insufficiency, sepsis, deep vein thrombosis, all P>0.05). However, the length of postoperative in-hospital stay of PND group was 7.0 (6.0, 8.5) d, which was longer than that of non-PND group [6.0 (5.0, 8.0) d]. There was significant difference (U=2.394, P=0.017) . There was no correlation between the two groups within the minimum of SmtO(2) in upper limbs (OR=0.988, 95%CI: 0.954-1.024, P=0.519) and the range of desaturation (OR=1.010, 95%CI: 0.979-1.042, P=0.514) , as well as the minimum of SmtO(2) in legs (OR=0.996, 95%CI: 0.961-1.032, P=0.832) and the range of desaturation (OR=0.997, 95%CI: 0.971-1.025, P=0.851) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the high ASA grade (OR=2.617, 95%CI: 1.112-6.157, P=0.029) and the minimum of cerebral oxygen saturation during one lung ventilation (OR=0.931, 95%CI: 0.880-0.986, P=0.014) were independent risk factors of PND. There was no statistical correlation between muscle oxygen saturation and PND. Conclusion: Cerebral desaturation during one lung ventilation increased the risk of PND in elderly patients, while the muscle desaturation has no statistical correlation with PND.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Ventilación Unipulmonar , Anciano , Cognición , Humanos , Oxígeno , Complicaciones Cognitivas Postoperatorias , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología
4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(41): 3224-3229, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167108

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the value of intraoperative cerebral oxygen saturation in predicting postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction (PND) in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: A total of 210 cases of lumbar decompression, bone grafting and fusion surgery under general anesthesia were collected in the Third Central Hospital of Tianjin from June, 2019 to January, 2020, either sex, aged 65-75 year, BMI 19.5-32.5 kg/m(2), ASA physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ, preoperative comorbidities with mild cognitive impairment. MoCA and MMSE were used to evaluate the cognitive function of patients 1 day before the operation, 7 days and 3 monthes after operation. PND group (n=38) and non-PND group (n=172) were selected according to postoperative MMSE and MoCA scale scores and the diagnostic criteria of PND. Heart rate (HR) , mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), bispectral index (BIS), cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO(2), average left and right brain SctO(2) were recorded) were recorded pre-anesthetic (T(0)), ten minutes of anesthesia(T(1)), twenty minutes of anesthesia (T(2)), thirty minutes into the operation (T(3)), one hour into the operation (T(4)), end of the surgery (T(5)), and leave the PACU (T(6)). SctO(2) at time point T(0) was the base value of SctO(2), and the maximum percentage drop in SctO(2) from the base value was calculated (SctO(2max)%). Results: The incidence of PND was 18% (38/210) in 210 elderly patients undergoing surgery. The age of PND group and non-PND group was (71.0±2.1) and (67.8±2.0) years old, and the PACU time was (57±5) and (46±8) min, respectively. Compared with the non-PND group, the age of the PND group was higher (t=2.600, P<0.05) and the PACU time was longer (t=3.039, P<0.05). At the time points T(3), T(4), T(5) and T(6), SctO(2) in the PND group was (62±10) %, (60±11) %, (64±12) % and (66±10)%, respectively, lower than that in the non-PND group (67±60) %, (68±6) %, (69±5) % and (70±7)%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (t=3.369, 4.906, 3.787, 2.516, all P<0.05).The MoCA and MMSE scores of the PND group were (22.9±1.2) and (24.1±1.2) points, respectively, 1 day before surgery; and the MoCA and MMSE scores of the PND group were reduced to (20.8±1.2) and (21.3±0.7) points, respectively, 7 days after surgery, with statistically significant differences (t=3.523, 5.675, all P<0.05). MoCA and MMSE scores 7 days after surgery in the non-PND group were (22.4±1.3) and (23.1±1.6) points, respectively. Compared with the non-PND group, MoCA and MMSE scores 7 days after surgery in the PND group were reduced (t=2.630, 3.108, all P<0.05). The critical value of intraoperative SctO(2max)% was 13.74%, the area under the curve of PND was predicted to be 0.907 (95%CI: 0.819-0.995), sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 88.5%, respectively. Conclusion: SctO(2max)%>13.74% can be used as an indicator to predict PND occurrence in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment during lumbar surgery.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano , Anestesia General , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Humanos , Oxígeno , Intercambio Gaseoso Pulmonar
5.
Brain Nerve ; 72(11): 1223-1237, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191300

RESUMEN

Electroencephalographic recordings of human brain oscillations have been performed over approximately a century. Noninvasive methods for manipulation of brain oscillations are currently available. Reportedly, the manipulation of brain oscillations alters human behavior and cognition and is also used for "oscillotherapy" to treat many neurological diseases. In this review, we summarize the physiological mechanisms of brain oscillations, human behavioral and cognitive changes, and oscillotherapy; we have focused on our recent findings of the manipulation of human brain oscillations during bipedal walking and gait disorder recovery.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Neuronas , Cognición , Electroencefalografía , Humanos , Caminata
6.
Brain Nerve ; 72(11): 1263-1273, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191304

RESUMEN

Because higher-order cognitive functions are supposed to be executed by the interplay between various brain regions, it is necessary to elucidate the neural communication between brain regions to understand the purpose of understanding the mechanism of such brain functions. Therefor, functional connectivity analysis has been rapidly gaining in importance. This is an analysis that illuminates the spatiotemporal dynamics at the whole-brain level based on the functional or effective connections, defined by a statistical correlation or a causal relation of neural activities between brain regions. The present manuscript primarily provides the basic idea of functional connectivity analysis, and then introduces representative methods. Finally, the approaches to the diagnosis of neurological diseases based on this analysis are introduced.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Encefálico , Encéfalo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cognición , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Vías Nerviosas
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 445-454, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149596

RESUMEN

Purpose: To evaluate a model for calculating the risk of AF and its relationship with the incidence of ischemic stroke and prevalence of cognitive decline. Materials and Methods: It was a multicenter, observational, retrospective, community-based study of a cohort of general population ≥6ct 35 years, between 01/01/2016 and 31/12/2018. Setting: Primary Care. Participants: 46,706 people ≥65 years with an active medical history in any of the primary care teams of the territory, information accessible through shared history and without previous known AF. Interventions: The model to stratify the risk of AF (PI) has been previously published and included the variables sex, age, mean heart rate, mean weight and CHA2DS2VASc score. Main measurements: For each risk group, the incidence density/1000 person/years of AF and stroke, number of cases required to detect a new AF, the prevalence of cognitive decline, Kendall correlation, and ROC curve were calculated. Results: The prognostic index was obtained in 37,731 cases (80.8%) from lowest (Q1) to highest risk (Q4). A total of 1244 new AFs and 234 stroke episodes were diagnosed. Q3-4 included 53.8% of all AF and 69.5% of strokes in men; 84.2% of all AF and 85.4% of strokes in women; and 77.4% of cases of cognitive impairment. There was a significant linear correlation between the risk-AF score and the Rankin score (p < 0.001), the Pfeiffer score (p < 0.001), but not NIHSS score (p 0.150). The overall NNS was 1/19. Conclusion: Risk stratification allows identifying high-risk individuals in whom to intervene on modifiable risk factors, prioritizing the diagnosis of AF and investigating cognitive status.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/epidemiología , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiología , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fibrilación Atrial/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , España/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e21717, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181634

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of milrinone, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and nitroglycerin (NTG) on induced hypotension, cerebral perfusion, and postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients >60 years scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery were assigned to receive milrinone (group M), SNP (group S), or NTG (group N). The administration of the study drug was initiated immediately after perivertebral muscle retraction and was stopped after completion of interbody fusion. Target blood pressure was a decrease of 30% in systolic blood pressure from baseline or mean blood pressure of 60 to 65 mm Hg. The regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation (rSVO2), as a measure of cerebral perfusion, and the change in perioperative Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, as a measure of postoperative cognitive function, were assessed. RESULTS: During the administration of the study drug, the overall and lowest intraoperative rSVO2 values were significantly higher (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively), and the duration of rSVO2 <60% was shorter in group M than in the other groups (P = .03). In group M, intraoperative rSVO2 was not different from the basal value, whereas in groups S and N, rSVO2 was significantly lower than the basal value during the administration of the study drug, but then returned to the basal value after terminating the study drug. Basal MMSE scores were comparable among the 3 groups. The MMSE score on postoperative day 5 was higher in group M than the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Milrinone used to induce hypotension resulted in better intraoperative cerebral perfusion and postoperative cognitive function compared to SNP and nitroglycerin.


Asunto(s)
Circulación Cerebrovascular/efectos de los fármacos , Milrinona/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Cardiotónicos/uso terapéutico , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Región Lumbosacra/cirugía , Masculino , Milrinona/farmacología , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/métodos , Periodo Posoperatorio , Estudios Prospectivos , República de Corea
11.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(10. Vyp. 2): 39-45, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205929

RESUMEN

Cognitive impairment or delirium occurs in about 40% of elderly patients after surgery. The increasing number of elderly people has led to a significant increase in the number of cases of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). This is one of the most important medical and social problems, the analysis of which is especially difficult, since it requires the coordination of a large number of specialties: anesthesiology, surgery, neurology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, as well as fundamental neurosciences. Thus, a systematic multidisciplinary approach that takes into account all possible factors affecting the condition of patients should be considered. The article is devoted to the main aspects of the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of POCD.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Disfunción Cognitiva , Delirio , Anciano , Cognición , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Conocimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Humanos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Periodo Posoperatorio
12.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(10. Vyp. 2): 74-79, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205934

RESUMEN

The asymmetry of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) reflects the asymmetry of the degenerative process and death of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which is confirmed by the data of functional neuroimaging. This review discusses a possible effect of the asymmetry of substantia nigra lesions on other PD symptoms, primarily neuropsychological functions. The authors summarize the data obtained in a comparative analysis of cognitive impairments in PD patients with right-sided and left-sided predominance of motor symptoms. The association between the asymmetry of motor and cognitive symptoms indicates the variability of the profile of cognitive impairments in PD, as well as an important modulating role of subcortical structures on neuropsychological functions traditionally referred to as cortical. The effect of lateralization of symptoms on cognitive function should be considered when evaluating and treating PD patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Parkinson , Cognición , Neuronas Dopaminérgicas , Lateralidad Funcional , Humanos , Enfermedad de Parkinson/complicaciones , Sustancia Negra
13.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(10. Vyp. 2): 89-95, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205936

RESUMEN

Fluctuations of cognitive function (FCF) is one of the core diagnostic features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, identification, pathophysiology, management of this unusual phenomena remain poor understood. The review presents modern ideas about phenomenology, causes, systematization, clinical significance and current methods of diagnosis and treatment of FCF in patients with DLB.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy , Cognición , Humanos , Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy/diagnóstico
14.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081452

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the dynamics of cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia during intake of various forms of folate as an add-on to antipsychotic therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a battery of cognitive tests, the authors evaluated the dynamics of cognitive functions in 3 groups of patients with schizophrenia who received folic acid (n=25), metafolin (n=25) during 4 weeks and in the control group (n=25). Genetic variants of the polymorphism of the folate metabolism enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T were determined using real-time PCR. Only the carriers of the minor T allele were included in the study. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The improvement of certain cognitive functions was noted after folate administration, it was more pronounced and statistically significant in the metapholin group. The results hold promises for further studies of prolonged use of folate in prophylactic doses for schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Fólico , Esquizofrenia , Cognición , Humanos , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Reductasa (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética
15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 892-900, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053529

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive behavior and the expression of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) in hippocampus of the adolescent mice with high fat diet. METHODS: A total of healthy 3-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control (Con) group, a high fat diet (HFD) group, and a high fat diet+environmental enrichment (HFD+EE) group, with 10 mice in each group. The Con group was given normal diet. The HFD group was given high fat diet. The HFD+EE group was given high fat diet; at the same time, they treated by environmental enrichment. After 10 weeks, open field test was used to detect activity. Novel object recognition test and Y maze test were used to detect cognitive behavior. After the test, the brain was collected and used to detect the protein expression of ABCA7 in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. And quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the ABCA7 mRNA expression level in the hippocampus. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the total movement distance in the mice among the 3 groups (P>0.05). In the novel object recognition test, the discrimination index of the HFD group was much lower than that of the Con group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The discrimination index of the HFD+EE group was higher than that of the HFD group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). In the Y maze test, there was no significant difference in the percentage of time spent on the new arm among the mice in the 3 groups (P=0.1279). The percentage of entries in new arm in the HFD group was much lower than that in the Con group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The percentage of the entries in new arm in the HFD+EE group was significantly higher than that in the HFD group (P<0.05). The results of immunohistochemistry showed that ABCA7 was positively expressed in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons in the mice from these 3 groups, and the expression of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of the HFD group was lower than that of the Con group (CA1: P<0.01, CA3: P=0.06), while the expression of ABCA7 in hippocampus of HFD+EE group was higher than that of HFD group (CA1: P=0.23, CA3: P<0.05). Western blotting results showed that compared with the Con group, the protein level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of the HFD group was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while compared with the Con group, the protein level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of the HFD+EE group showed an upward trend (P=0.06). The results of RT-qPCR showed that the mRNA level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of HFD group was significantly lower than that of the Con group (P<0.01), while the mRNA level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of HFD+EE group was significantly higher than that of the HFD group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet in adolescent can impair cognitive function with a decrease in the expression of ABCA7 in hippocampus, which can be ameliorate by environmental enrichment.


Asunto(s)
Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP , Adenosina Trifosfato , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Hipocampo , Animales , Cognición , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 394-397, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018011

RESUMEN

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) provides an effective tool in neuroscience studies of cognition in infants. fNIRS signals are normally processed by applying ANOVA analysis on the grand average of the hemodynamic responses to investigate the cognitive-related differences between experimental groups. However, this averaging approach does not account for any differences in the temporal patterns of the responses. Therefore, we propose a new approach based on a combination of tensor decomposition and ANOVA. First, a four-way tensor of the hemodynamic responses is arranged as time × frequency × channel× subject and decomposed using Canonical Polyadic Decomposition (CPD). Next, ANOVA is applied to identify significant patterns between subjects. Instead of averaging, the CPD can capture the distinct patterns between groups in all the dimensions. We used fNIRS dataset of 70 infants who participated in an experiment to investigate cortical activation to an agent (i.e., mechanical claws vs. human hands) with different events (i.e., function and non-function). In the comparison with the traditional ANOVA, CPD+ANOVA identified the same significance factors. However, CPD+ANOVA discovered new information on the temporal and spatial patterns indicating a longer interval hemodynamic responses, which was missed using the traditional ANOVA. This new analysis of hemodynamic responses as captured using fNIRS will improve neuroscience and cognitive studies.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Cognición , Mano , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Lactante
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 832-836, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018114

RESUMEN

Lapses in vigilance and slowed reactions due to mental fatigue can increase risk of accidents and injuries and degrade performance. This paper describes a method for rapid, unobtrusive detection of mental fatigue based on changes in electrodermal arousal (EDA), and changes in neuromotor coordination derived from speaking. Twenty-nine Soldiers completed a 2-hour battery of cognitive tasks intended to induce fatigue. Behavioral markers derived from audio and video during speech were acquired before and after the 2hour cognitive load tasks, as was EDA. Exposure to cognitive load produced detectable increases in neuromotor variability in speech and facial measures after load and even after a recovery period. A Gaussian mixture model classifier with crossvalidation and fusion across speech, video, and EDA produced an accuracy of AUC=0.99 in detecting a change in cognitive fatigue relative to a personalized baseline.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Fatiga Mental , Cognición , Humanos , Fatiga Mental/diagnóstico , Habla , Vigilia
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2332-2336, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018475

RESUMEN

Sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment represent two of the most common and debilitating conditions facing seropositive (HIV+) individuals who are otherwise well controlled with antiretroviral therapy. Sleep-assessment-based biomarkers represent an important step towards improving our understanding of the unique mechanistic features that may link sleep disruption and cognition in HIV+ individuals, ultimately leading to advancements in treatment and management options. In this study, a risk score was computed via a generalized linear model (GLM), which optimally combines polysomnography (PSG) features extracted from EEG, EMG, and EOG signals, to distinguish 18 HIV+ Black male individuals with and without cognitive impairment. The optimal set of features was identified via the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) approach, and the risk separation between the two groups, i.e., cognitively normal and cognitive impaired, was significant (and has a P-value < .001). The optimal set of predictive features were all EEG derived and sleep stage-specific. These preliminary findings suggest that sleep-based EEG features may be used as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cognition in HIV+ subjects.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Sueño , Biomarcadores , Cognición , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Fases del Sueño
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2853-2856, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018601

RESUMEN

In more recent times, the network perspective study of the human brain has expanded enormously due to the advancements in the field of network neuroscience. Existing methods to form the functional connectivity from the multichannel EEG leads to a fully connected network. Representation of a fully connected functional network with a significant functional network (SFN) can help to characterize and quantify the complex brain networks. Further, it can also provide novel insight into the brain cognition analysis and is crucial in several brain network-based applications. This paper presents a framework to find the SFN corresponding to any event from its fully connected network. Using the phase-locking value (PLV) in EEG we first identify the difference PLV of an event to the rest. Based on the difference PLV, we then identify the reactive band and event-associated most reactive pairs (MRPs). The SFNs corresponding to their events is then formed with the identified MRPs. The proposed method is employed on 'database for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP)' data set to find the SFNs associated with emotions. Comparable state-of-the-art multiple emotion classification accuracies are obtained with the identified SFNs. Results show that the proposed methods can be used as a general thresholding technique to identify the event-related SFNs which are crucial in brain network-based applications.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Electroencefalografía , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cognición , Emociones , Humanos , Descanso
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2885-2888, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018609

RESUMEN

Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) can provide critical support and improve daily task functionality for prosthesis users or social interaction for patients with locked-in syndrome using an assistive communication device. One goal in the development of sophisticated HMIs is to reduce the cognitive load (CL) they place on the user to promote the use of the technology. Electroencephalogram (EEG)-derived measures collected with wired wet-electrode systems have been used to assess CL in laboratory environments and have demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. Assessment of CL during real-world unconstrained HMI operation, however, requires the use of a wireless dry-electrode EEG system which provides easier electrode application and untethered movement. However, the test-retest reliability of wireless dry-electrode systems to quantify CL has not been explored. Ensuring the consistent capture of CL-related signals across multiple sessions is critical if these devices are to be used to assess how improvements in HMIs affect CL. Therefore, the current study used a wireless dry-electrode EEG system to compare Evoked Response Potential (ERP) features of a simple auditory oddball task to measure CL during two separate testing sessions a week apart. ERPs of 11 subjects were recorded while participants performed a virtual task at two difficulty levels. A significant correlation was found between the P300 component of the ERPs and subjective ratings of CL during both testing sessions. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant test-retest reliability for this same ERP feature and similar signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) across sessions.Clinical Relevance- This is an initial step in validating wireless dry-electrode EEG systems to assess cognitive load across multiple sessions. The evidence presented is critical if dry-wireless EEG systems are to be used to identify aspects of HMIs that reduce CL in clinical and real-life environments. Assessing CL in unconstrained environments can better inform clinicians and technology developers in their design of future HMIs.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados , Cognición , Electrodos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
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