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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1030, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589626

RESUMEN

The amount of mental effort we invest in a task is influenced by the reward we can expect if we perform that task well. However, some of the rewards that have the greatest potential for driving these efforts are partly determined by factors beyond one's control. In such cases, effort has more limited efficacy for obtaining rewards. According to the Expected Value of Control theory, people integrate information about the expected reward and efficacy of task performance to determine the expected value of control, and then adjust their control allocation (i.e., mental effort) accordingly. Here we test this theory's key behavioral and neural predictions. We show that participants invest more cognitive control when this control is more rewarding and more efficacious, and that these incentive components separately modulate EEG signatures of incentive evaluation and proactive control allocation. Our findings support the prediction that people combine expectations of reward and efficacy to determine how much effort to invest.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Motivación/fisiología , Recompensa , Autoeficacia , Adolescente , Adulto , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
2.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(2): 160-167, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575706

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Frailty and cognitive impairment are common manifestations of the ageing process and are closely related. But the mechanisms linking aging, physical frailty, and cognitive disorders, are complex and remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the role of cerebral amyloid pathology, but also a range of nutritional, physical, biological or brain-aging marker in the development of cognitive frailty. METHOD: COGFRAIL study is a monocentric prospective study of frail older patients with an objective cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale global score at 0.5 or 1). Three-hundred-and-twenty-one patients are followed up every 6 months, for 2 years. Clinical assessment at baseline and during follow-up included frailty, physical, mood, sensory, nutritional, and cognitive assessment (with a set of neuropsychological tests). Cerebral amyloid pathology is measured by amyloid Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or amyloid-ß-1-42 level in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of body composition using Dual X Ray Absorptiometry and blood sampling are performed. The main outcome of the study is to assess the prevalence of positive cerebral amyloid status according to amyloid PET or amyloid-ß-1-42 level CSF. Secondary outcomes included biological, nutritional, MRI imaging, cognitive, clinical, physical and body composition markers to better understand the mechanisms of cognitive frailty. PERSPECTIVE: COGFRAIL study will give the opportunity to better understand the link between Gerosciences, frailty, cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease, and to better characterize the physical and cognitive trajectories of frail older adults according to their amyloid status. Understanding the relationship between physical frailty and cognitive impairment is a prerequisite for the development of new interventions that could prevent and treat both conditions.


Asunto(s)
Amiloide , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva , Anciano Frágil , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Amiloide/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435943

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The Program 4 of the Healthy Aging in Industrial Environment study investigates whether the health and wellbeing benefits of physical activity (PA) can be fully realized in individuals living in highly polluted environments. Herein, we introduce the behavioral, psychological and neuroimaging protocol of the study. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of N = 1500 individuals aged 18-65 years comparing: (1) individuals living in the highly polluted, industrial region surrounding the city of Ostrava (n = 750), and (2) controls from the comparison region with relative low pollution levels in Southern Bohemia (n = 750). Quota sampling is used to obtain samples balanced on age, gender, PA status (60% active runners vs. 40% insufficiently active). Participants are screened and complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires and in-person lab-based assessments of physiological, biomechanical, neuroimaging and cognitive function parameters. Prospective 12-month intensive monitoring of air pollution and behavioral parameters (PA, inactivity, and sleep) follows, with a focus on PA-related injuries and psychological factors through fitness trackers, smartphones, and mobile apps. Subsequently, there will be a 5-year follow-up of the study cohort. DISCUSSION: The design of the study will allow for (1) the assessment of both short-term variation and long-term change in behavioral parameters, (2) evaluation of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors impacting behavior and injury recovery, and (3) the impact that air pollution status (and change) has on behavior, psychological resilience, and injury recovery. Furthermore, the integration of MRI techniques and cognitive assessment in combination with data on behavioral, biological and environmental variables will provide an opportunity to examine brain structure and cognitive function in relation to health behavior and air pollution, as well as other factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse changes in brain structure and cognitive aging. This study will help inform individuals about personal risk factors and decision-makers about the impact of environmental factors on negative health outcomes and potential underlying biological, behavioral and psychological mechanisms. Challenges and opportunities stemming from the timing of the study that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Ejercicio Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Envejecimiento Saludable , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuroimagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/química , Proyectos de Investigación , Resiliencia Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
Neurology ; 96(7): e975-e985, 2021 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443136

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of biologically defined Alzheimer disease (AD) in relation to age, sex, APOE ε4, and clinical diagnosis in a prospective cohort study evaluated with amyloid-PET and tau-PET. METHODS: We assessed cognitively unimpaired (CU) elderly (n = 166), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 77), and patients with probable AD dementia (n = 62) who underwent evaluation by dementia specialists and neuropsychologists in addition to amyloid-PET with [18F]AZD4694 and tau-PET with [18F]MK6240. Individuals were grouped according to their AD biomarker profile. Positive predictive value for biologically defined AD was assessed in relation to clinical diagnosis. Frequency of AD biomarker profiles was assessed using logistic regressions with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The clinical diagnosis of probable AD dementia demonstrated good agreement with biologically defined AD (positive predictive value 85.2%). A total of 7.88% of CU were positive for both amyloid-PET and tau-PET. Frequency of biologically defined AD increased with age (OR 1.14; p < 0.0001) and frequency of APOE ε4 allele carriers (single ε4: OR 3.82; p < 0.0001; double ε4: OR 17.55, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Whereas we observed strong, but not complete, agreement between clinically defined probable AD dementia and biomarker positivity for both ß-amyloid and tau, we also observed that biologically defined AD was not rare in CU elderly. Abnormal tau-PET was almost exclusively observed in individuals with abnormal amyloid-PET. Our results highlight that even in tertiary care memory clinics, detailed evaluation by dementia specialists systematically underestimates the frequency of biologically defined AD and related entities. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that biologically defined AD (abnormal amyloid PET and tau PET) was observed in 85.2% of people with clinically defined AD and 7.88% of CU elderly.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Cognitiva/genética , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Factores Sexuales , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401605

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an online high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention and health education on the behaviors, mental health, and cognitive function of sedentary young females. A single-blinded, six-week, randomized controlled pilot trial involving 70 sedentary young Chinese females, aged 18-30 years, was conducted. An intervention group (IG) (n = 33) underwent a HIIT intervention and health education, while a waitlist group (WG) (n = 37) only received health education. In pre-, mid-, and post-tests, both groups filled out questionnaires about physical activity, sedentary behavior, and mental health. Cognitive functions were assessed at the pre- and post-tests by computer-administered cognitive tests. A mixed-effect model with repeated measures was used to analyze outcomes of interest. The retention rate of the IG and WG was 100% and 78.38%, respectively. The IG were found to have significantly increased rates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (Mdiff = 940.61, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 576.67, 1304.55) from pre-test to post-test, while the WG demonstrated a more marked reduction in sedentary time (Mdiff = -73.02, p = 0.038, 95% CI: -141.90, -4.14) compared with the IG in the post-test. Moreover, anxiety and stress levels were shown to significantly reduce in the IG over the six-week period (Mdiff = -4.73, p = 0.002, 95% CI: -7.30, -2.15 and Mdiff = -5.09, p = 0.001, 95% CI: -8.29, -1.89, respectively). In addition, we observed a significant improvement in verbal ability (p = 0.008, ηp2 = 0.19) following the HIIT intervention and effects of the interaction with time on processing speed (p = 0.050, ηp2 = 0.10) and episodic memory (p = 0.048, ηp2 = 0.11). Moreover, the IG had better global cognitive performance than the WG in the post-test (Mdiff = 8.28, p = 0.003, 95% CI: 3.06, 13.50). In summary, both an online bodyweight HIIT intervention combined with health education, or health education alone, can effectively improve health-related behaviors, but the behavioral consequences may differ based on the emphasis of different intervention modalities. Furthermore, the "bodyweight HIIT plus health education" modality might be a more promising online intervention strategy to mitigate against negative emotions and improve cognitive function.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Educación en Salud , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad , Intervención basada en la Internet , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , China , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Educación en Salud/métodos , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad/métodos , Humanos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Conducta Sedentaria , Método Simple Ciego , Adulto Joven
6.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117602, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395572

RESUMEN

Reconstructing perceived stimulus (image) only from human brain activity measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a significant task in brain decoding. However, the inconsistent distribution and representation between fMRI signals and visual images cause great 'domain gap'. Moreover, the limited fMRI data instances generally suffer from the issues of low signal noise ratio (SNR), extremely high dimensionality, and limited spatial resolution. Existing methods are often affected by these issues so that a satisfactory reconstruction is still an open problem. In this paper, we show that it is possible to obtain a promising solution by learning visually-guided latent cognitive representations from the fMRI signals, and inversely decoding them to the image stimuli. The resulting framework is called Dual-Variational Autoencoder/ Generative Adversarial Network (D-Vae/Gan), which combines the advantages of adversarial representation learning with knowledge distillation. In addition, we introduce a novel three-stage learning strategy which enables the (cognitive) encoder to gradually distill useful knowledge from the paired (visual) encoder during the learning process. Extensive experimental results on both artificial and natural images have demonstrated that our method could achieve surprisingly good results and outperform the available alternatives.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246204, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503055

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and government imposed social restrictions like lockdown exposed most individuals to an unprecedented stress, increasing mental health disorders worldwide. We explored subjective cognitive functioning and mental health changes and their possible interplay related to COVID-19-lockdown. We also investigated potential risk factors to identify more vulnerable groups. Across Italy, 1215 respondents completed our Qualtrics-based online-survey during the end of a seven to 10-week imposed lockdown and home confinement (from April 29 to May 17, 2020). We found subjective cognitive functioning and mental health severely changed in association with the lockdown. Under government regulations, cognitive complaints were mostly perceived in routine tasks involving attention, temporal orientation and executive functions-with no changes in language abilities. A paradoxical effect was observed for memory, with reduced forgetfulness compared to pre-lockdown. We found higher severity and prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, abnormal sleep, appetite changes, reduced libido and health anxiety: with mild-to-severe depression and anxiety prevalence climbing to 32 and 36 percent, respectively, under restrictions. Being female, under 45 years, working from home or being underemployed were all identified as relevant risk factors for worsening cognition and mental health. Frequent consumers of COVID-19 mass media information or residents in highly infected communities reported higher depression and anxiety symptoms, particularly hypochondria in the latter. If similar restrictions are reimposed, governments must carefully consider these more vulnerable groups in their decisions, whilst developing effective global and long-term responses to the cognitive and mental health challenges of this type of pandemic; as well as implementing appropriate psychological interventions with specific guidelines: particularly regarding exposure to COVID-19 mass-media reports.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , /metabolismo , Cognición/fisiología , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 10, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482925

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals tend to avoid effortful tasks, regardless of whether they are physical or mental in nature. Recent experimental evidence is suggestive of individual differences in the dispositional willingness to invest cognitive effort in goal-directed behavior. The traits need for cognition (NFC) and self-control are related to behavioral measures of cognitive effort discounting and demand avoidance, respectively. Given that these traits are only moderately related, the question arises whether they reflect a common core factor underlying cognitive effort investment. If so, the common core of both traits might be related to behavioral measures of effort discounting in a more systematic fashion. To address this question, we aimed at specifying a core construct of cognitive effort investment that reflects dispositional differences in the willingness and tendency to exert effortful control. METHODS: We conducted two studies (N = 613 and N = 244) with questionnaires related to cognitive motivation and effort investment including assessment of NFC, intellect, self-control and effortful control. We first calculated Pearson correlations followed by two mediation models regarding intellect and its separate aspects, seek and conquer, as mediators. Next, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a hierarchical model of cognitive effort investment as second-order latent variable. First-order latent variables were cognitive motivation reflecting NFC and intellect, and effortful self-control reflecting self-control and effortful control. Finally, we calculated Pearson correlations between factor scores of the latent variables and general self-efficacy as well as traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality for validation purposes. RESULTS: Our findings support the hypothesized correlations between the assessed traits, where the relationship of NFC and self-control is specifically mediated via goal-directedness. We established and replicated a hierarchical factor model of cognitive motivation and effortful self-control that explains the shared variance of the first-order factors by a second-order factor of cognitive effort investment. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results integrate disparate literatures on cognitive motivation and self-control and provide a basis for further experimental research on the role of dispositional individual differences in goal-directed behavior and cost-benefit-models.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Individualidad , Motivación , Personalidad , Autocontrol , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23876, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429747

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on cognition function in people with schizophrenia (SZ) during daily nursing. METHODS: The literature search will be conducted via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be adopted to calculate the association between AE and cognitive function in patients with SZ. Publication bias will be performed by Begg test. When there is publication bias, "cut-and-fill method" will be adopted to adjust publication bias. Sensitivity analysis will be used to test the stability of the result. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%), meta regression will be used to explore the source of inter-study heterogeneity. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%) and the results are statistically significant (P < .05), age, sex, duration of disease, duration of intervention, amount of exercise per week, improvement of cardiopulmonary health, and other factors will be sub-analyzed. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis will evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in patients with SZ during daily nursing on the basis of existing evidence. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/C8ABX.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos Clínicos , Cognición/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Esquizofrenia/enfermería , Correlación de Datos , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Atención de Enfermería/métodos , Atención de Enfermería/normas , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23945, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by impaired memory and cognitive judgment. It is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, and its high morbidity and mortality have also brought a significant social burden. So far, there is no method can completely cure Alzheimer's dementia, but there are many non-drug treatments that have been praised by people, especially the cognitive behavioral therapy proposed in recent years. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the cognitive function improvement of patients with Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: We did a network meta-analysis to identify both direct and indirect evidence in relevant studies. A systematic literature search will be performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE from inception to October 2020. We extracted the relevant information from these trials with a predefined data extraction sheet and assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane risk of bias tool.The outcomes investigated were Mini-Mental State Examination and AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive section scores. We did a pair-wise meta-analysis using the fixed-effects model and then did a random-effects network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework. The = the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews-2 scale, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses scale and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation were used to assess the quality and evidence grade of the literature. General characteristics of the eligible randomized controlled trials will be summarized and described. Meanwhile, The ADDIS software will be used to perform the network meta-analysis, and the result figures will be generated by STATA 15.0 software. RESULTS: Using the draft search strategy of databases and after screening,7 randomized controlled trials met the a priori criteria and were included. This network mate-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Our study will provide evidence for cognitive behavioral intervention in AD patients. And provide recommendations and guidelines for the clinic. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: INPLASY2020110052.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/normas , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/normas , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
11.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117632, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316392

RESUMEN

Creative thinking is a hallmark of human cognition, which enables us to generate novel and useful ideas. Nevertheless, its emergence within the macro-scale neurocognitive circuitry remains largely unknown. Using resting-state fMRI data from two large population samples (SWU: n = 931; HCP: n = 1001) and a novel "travelling pattern prediction analysis", here we identified the modularized functional connectivity patterns linked to creative thinking ability, which concurrently explained individual variability across ordinary cognitive abilities such as episodic memory, working memory and relational processing. Further interrogation of this neural pattern with graph theoretical tools revealed both hub-like brain structures and globally-efficient information transfer paths that together may facilitate higher creative thinking ability through the convergence of distinct cognitive operations. Collectively, our results provide reliable evidence for the hypothesized emergence of creative thinking from core cognitive components through neural integration, and thus allude to a significant theoretical advancement in the study of creativity.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cognición/fisiología , Creatividad , Red Nerviosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Pensamiento/fisiología , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiología , Conectoma , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Red Nerviosa/fisiología
12.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 247-254, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346799

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at risk for cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies show patients' complaints of cognitive decline do not correlate well with concurrently measured objective neuropsychological performance, but rather with emotional variables and health-related quality of life. This longitudinal study investigated whether patient self-report of cognitive status would be concordant with objectively measured neuropsychological performance after accounting for change from their own pre-transplant objective baseline. METHODS: Pre-HSCT and at 30 and 100 days post-HSCT, 46 patients underwent computerized neuropsychological testing (CogState) and completed surveys assessing patient-reported cognitive complaints, emotional symptoms (depression, anxiety), sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and physical and functional well-being. Correlations were calculated between cognitive complaints and neuropsychological performance (at each time-point and across time-points), as well as all other patient-reported variables. RESULTS: Patient-reported cognitive complaints were largely independent of concurrently assessed objective neuropsychological performance. Uniquely, our longitudinal data demonstrated significant medium to large effect size associations between subjective cognitive complaints post-HSCT with objectively measured change from pre-HSCT in attention, visual learning, and working memory (p < .05-.01). Subjective cognitive complaints post-HSCT were also associated with depression, anxiety, daytime sleepiness and physical well-being (p < .05-.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients appear better able to assess their cognitive functioning relative to their own baseline and changes across time rather than relative to community norms. Thus, patient complaints of cognitive compromise justify further in-depth neuropsychological, emotional, and functional assessment. Future research into relationships between cognitive complaints and neuropsychological performance should account for changes in performance over time.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Autoevaluación , Receptores de Trasplantes/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Atención , Cognición/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría/métodos , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
J Frailty Aging ; 10(1): 31-37, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331619

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the important association between cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline, and their significant implications on frailty status, the contribution of neurocognitive frailty measure helping with the assessment of patient outcomes is dearly needed. OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the prognostic value of the Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) in the elderly with cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) dataset was used for prediction of 5-year cognitive changes. SETTING: Community and institutional sample. PARTICIPANTS: Canadians aged 65 and over [Mean age: 80.4 years (SD=6.9; Range of 66-100)]. MEASUREMENT: Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) scores for cognitive functioning of all subjects at follow-up and mortality rate were measured. RESULTS: The NFI mean score was 9.63 (SD = 6.04) and ranged from 0 to 33. This study demonstrated that the NFI was significantly associated with cognitive changes for subjects with heart disease and this correlation was a stronger predictor than age. CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of this study is that our result supports the prognostic utility of the NFI tool in treatment planning for those with modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors in the development of dementia.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Cognición/fisiología , Fragilidad/psicología , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Envejecimiento Cognitivo , Análisis de Datos , Anciano Frágil/psicología , Humanos , Tasa de Supervivencia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23807, 2020 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371157

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic insomnia (CI) can lead to cognitive dysfunction and bring great pain to patients' life. There is no effective intervention for cognitive dysfunction caused by CI. Shenmen (HT7) is the first choice for insomnia treatment. However, the effect and mechanism of this acupoint on cognitive function after insomnia is not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore whether magnetic stimulation of HT7 can improve cognitive impairment of CI by regulating prefrontal lobe and its mechanism. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Seventy-two subjects aged 18 to 65 years old with primary insomnia and more than 3 months were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the ratio of 1:1, and 36 healthy controls were included. The control group was given sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy in behavioral cognitive therapy technology, while the experimental group was given the behavioral cognitive therapy technology intervention and magnetic stimulation of HT7 acupoint for 30 times (2 times / d, 5 times / wk for 20 days), while the healthy control group had no intervention measures. Before treatment and 20 days after treatment, we evaluated the working memory (1-back test), episodic memory (Complex Figure Test), and problem-solving ability (Hanoi tower test) processed by prefrontal lobe to explore the effect of magnetic stimulation on cognitive function of CI and its possible mechanism. At the same time, insomnia severity index was used to evaluate sleep state, Becker depression scale was used to evaluate depression, and Beck anxiety scale was used to evaluate anxiety. Chi-squared test or rank sum test was used to collect the data of patients. If P value is less than or equal to .05, the difference will be considered statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study explored the effect and mechanism of magnetic stimulation of Shenmen (HT7) on cognitive function of CI, and confirmed that magnetic stimulation of HT7 can be used as an alternative therapy to improve cognitive impairment of CI. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2000034280.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Terapia de Campo Magnético/normas , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Terapia de Campo Magnético/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322157

RESUMEN

Self-regulation (SR) in pre-schoolers is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, SR only recently has been examined concerning physical activity and its effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, 49 preschool children aged 4-5 years were submitted to classroom movement breaks (CMBs) of 15-min with different degrees of difficulty. Before beginning the intervention, SR (i.e., head, toes, knees and shoulders test, HTKS) and skill levels were assessed for tasks demand adjustment to individual resources and the counterbalanced assignment of the participants to the groups. Similarly, after the intervention, the performance on the HTKS was re-evaluated. There was a general intervention effect on the SR of pre-schoolers, regardless of the difficulty level of the task [F (3) = 11.683, p-value < 0.001, η2p = 0.438]. Nevertheless, it seems that only when CMBs stimulate the children cognitively with optimal difficulty, is it possible to obtain benefits. We recommend providing teachers with professional support when implementing physical activity breaks in their daily program to generate an individualized level of cognitive load that would allow children to reach the optimal challenge point.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Autocontrol , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Inhibición Psicológica
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240201, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382720

RESUMEN

Driving is an everyday task involving a complex interaction between visual and cognitive processes. As such, an increase in the cognitive and/or visual demands can lead to a mental overload which can be detrimental for driving safety. Compiling evidence suggest that eye and head movements are relevant indicators of visuo-cognitive demands and attention allocation. This study aims to investigate the effects of visual degradation on eye-head coordination as well as visual scanning behavior during a highly demanding task in a driving simulator. A total of 21 emmetropic participants (21 to 34 years old) performed dual-task driving in which they were asked to maintain a constant speed on a highway while completing a visual search and detection task on a navigation device. Participants did the experiment with optimal vision and with contact lenses that introduced a visual perturbation (myopic defocus). The results indicate modifications of eye-head coordination and the dynamics of visual scanning in response to the visual perturbation induced. More specifically, the head was more involved in horizontal gaze shifts when the visual needs were not met. Furthermore, the evaluation of visual scanning dynamics, based on time-based entropy which measures the complexity and randomness of scanpaths, revealed that eye and gaze movements became less explorative and more stereotyped when vision was not optimal. These results provide evidence for a reorganization of both eye and head movements in response to increasing visual-cognitive demands during a driving task. Altogether, these findings suggest that eye and head movements can provide relevant information about visuo-cognitive demands associated with complex tasks. Ultimately, eye-head coordination and visual scanning dynamics may be good candidates to estimate drivers' workload and better characterize risky driving behavior.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Movimientos de la Cabeza/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor , Adulto , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Entrenamiento Simulado , Visión Ocular/fisiología
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028634, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331917

RESUMEN

Importance: Plasma measurement of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides has been associated with cognitive function, but evidence of its ability to identify cognitive decline is still scarce. Objective: To investigate the associations between plasma Aß42/40 and cognitive decline over time among community-dwelling older adults with subjective memory concerns. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study used data from volunteers in the 5-year study Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Participants were aged 70 years or older and observed for a median (interquartile range) of 3.9 (2.0-4.0) years. Recruitment of participants started in May 2008 and ended in February 2011. Follow-up ended in April 2016. Data analysis was conducted from April to October 2020. Exposure: Plasma Aß42 and Aß40 were measured at 12 months for 448 participants (92.8%) and at 24 months for the rest. The moment of Aß assessment was defined as the baseline for this study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cognitive function was assessed at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months by a composite cognitive score based on 4 tests; Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE); Clinical Dementia Rating, sum of boxes; and Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living. Mixed-effect linear regressions were performed. Results: A total of 483 participants (median [IQR] age, 76.0 [73.0-80.0]; 286 [59.2%] women) were analyzed. Of them, 161 (33.3%) were classified as low plasma Aß42/40 (≤0.107). After adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, Geriatric Depression Scale score, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, and MAPT intervention groups, low plasma Aß42/40 was associated with more pronounced decline in composite cognitive score (adjusted between-group mean difference: -0.20, 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.07; P = .004) and decline in MMSE score (adjusted between-group mean difference: -0.59; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.11; P = .02) during the follow-up period compared with the group with an Aß42/40 ratio greater than 0.107. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, low plasma Aß42/40 was associated with more pronounced decline in cognitive function (measured by multiple outcomes) over time. Findings suggest that plasma Aß42/40 may be used to identify people at risk of cognitive decline, being an alternative to more complex and expensive measures, such as positron emission tomography imaging or cerebrospinal fluid measurement.


Asunto(s)
Péptidos beta-Amiloides/sangre , Disfunción Cognitiva , Vida Independiente , Fragmentos de Péptidos/sangre , Anciano , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/sangre , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Correlación de Datos , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Memoria/sangre , Trastornos de la Memoria/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Memoria/psicología
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e21717, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181634

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of milrinone, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and nitroglycerin (NTG) on induced hypotension, cerebral perfusion, and postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients >60 years scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery were assigned to receive milrinone (group M), SNP (group S), or NTG (group N). The administration of the study drug was initiated immediately after perivertebral muscle retraction and was stopped after completion of interbody fusion. Target blood pressure was a decrease of 30% in systolic blood pressure from baseline or mean blood pressure of 60 to 65 mm Hg. The regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation (rSVO2), as a measure of cerebral perfusion, and the change in perioperative Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, as a measure of postoperative cognitive function, were assessed. RESULTS: During the administration of the study drug, the overall and lowest intraoperative rSVO2 values were significantly higher (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively), and the duration of rSVO2 <60% was shorter in group M than in the other groups (P = .03). In group M, intraoperative rSVO2 was not different from the basal value, whereas in groups S and N, rSVO2 was significantly lower than the basal value during the administration of the study drug, but then returned to the basal value after terminating the study drug. Basal MMSE scores were comparable among the 3 groups. The MMSE score on postoperative day 5 was higher in group M than the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Milrinone used to induce hypotension resulted in better intraoperative cerebral perfusion and postoperative cognitive function compared to SNP and nitroglycerin.


Asunto(s)
Circulación Cerebrovascular/efectos de los fármacos , Milrinona/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Cardiotónicos/uso terapéutico , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Región Lumbosacra/cirugía , Masculino , Milrinona/farmacología , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/métodos , Periodo Posoperatorio , Estudios Prospectivos , República de Corea
19.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(11): 899-907, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098800

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure significantly reduced the occurrence of mild cognitive impairment, but not probable dementia. We investigated the effects of intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure on specific cognitive functions in a preplanned substudy of participants from SPRINT. METHODS: SPRINT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial undertaken at 102 sites, including academic medical centres, Veterans Affairs medical centres, hospitals, and independent clinics, in the USA and Puerto Rico. Participants were adults aged 50 years or older with systolic blood pressure higher than 130 mm Hg, but without diabetes, history of stroke, or dementia. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) versus less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). All major classes of antihypertensive agents were included. A subgroup of randomly assigned participants including, but not limited to, participants enrolled in an MRI substudy was then selected for a concurrent substudy of cognitive function (target 2800 participants). Each individual was assessed with a screening cognitive test battery and an extended cognitive test battery at baseline and biennially during the planned 4-year follow-up. The primary outcomes for this substudy were standardised composite scores for memory (Logical Memory I and II, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure [immediate recall], and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [delayed recall]) and processing speed (Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol Coding). SPRINT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01206062. FINDINGS: From Nov 23, 2010, to Dec 28, 2012, 2921 participants (mean age 68·4 years [SD 8·6], 1080 [37%] women) who had been randomly assigned in SPRINT were enrolled in the substudy (1448 received intensive treatment and 1473 received standard treatment). SPRINT was terminated early due to benefit observed in the primary outcome (composite of cardiovascular events). After a median follow-up of 4·1 years (IQR 3·7-5·8), there was no between-group difference in memory, with an annual decline in mean standardised domain score of -0·005 (95% CI -0·010 to 0·001) in the intensive treatment group and -0·001 (-0·006 to 0·005) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference -0·004, 95% CI -0·012 to 0·004; p=0·33). Mean standardised processing speed domain scores declined more in the intensive treatment group (between-group difference -0·010, 95% CI -0·017 to -0·002; p=0·02), with an annual decline of -0·025 (-0·030 to -0·019) for the intensive treatment group and -0·015 (-0·021 to 0·009) for the standard treatment group. INTERPRETATION: Intensive treatment to lower systolic blood pressure did not result in a clinically relevant difference compared with standard treatment in memory or processing speed in a subgroup of participants from SPRINT. The effect of blood pressure lowering might not be evident in specific domains of cognitive function, but instead distributed across multiple domains. FUNDING: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Alzheimer's Association.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antihipertensivos/farmacología , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/métodos , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/tendencias , Cognición/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/prevención & control , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipertensión/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/tendencias
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239973, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045015

RESUMEN

Where is the visual aesthetic preference rooted from and what's its relationship with the perceptual preference that is emerging early? Do young children naturally prefer some visual stimuli or do they learn to appreciate visual stimuli for aesthetic pleasure? Here, for young preschool children who are on the age that the preferences are developing, we provide findings from a study to show that the interplay between early emerging perceptual sensitivity and perceptual exposure promotes the emergence of preschool children's aesthetic preferences for simple visual patterns. Specifically in the experiments, 4-year-old children were exposed to either symmetric or asymmetric non-figurative forms in a perceptually demanding game; the group of children who received exposure to symmetric patterns showed aesthetic preference to the exposed patterns, while no preference was found in the group that received exposure to asymmetric patterns. The following recognition test then showed that the symmetric objects were differentiated better and remembered more clearly by the children, indicating that the symmetry was perceptually encoded better. These findings suggest that the early emerging perceptual sensitivity to 'good features' such as symmetry provides the prior cognitive prerequisites, allowing visual perceptual exposure to nourish the eventual formation of aesthetic preference. Thus, the preferences for aesthetic appreciation are likely the outcome of the interplay between biological and ecological adaptation.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Estética/psicología , Preescolar , Conducta de Elección , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos , Estimulación Luminosa
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