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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 09001, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791099

RESUMEN

Background: Crowdsourcing was recognized as having the potential to collect information rapidly, inexpensively and accurately. U-Report is a mobile empowerment platform that connects young people all over the world to information that will change their lives and influence decisions. Previous studies of U-Report's effectiveness highlight strengths in the timeliness, low cost and high credibility for collecting and sending information, however they also highlight areas to improve on concerning data representation. EquityTool has developed a simpler approach to assess the wealth quintiles of respondents based on fewer questions derived from large household surveys such as Multiple Indicators Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Methods: The methodology of Equity Tool was adopted to assess the socio-economic profile of U-Reporters (ie, enrolled participants of U-Report) in Bangladesh. The RapidPro flow collected the survey responses and scored them against the DHS national wealth index using the EquityTool methodology. This helped placing each U-Reporter who completed all questions into the appropriate wealth quintile. Results: With 19% of the respondents completing all questions, the respondents fell into all 5 wealth quintiles, with 79% in the top-two quintiles and only 21% in the lower-three resulting in an Equity Index of 53/100 where 100 is completely in line with Bangladesh equity distribution and 1 is the least in line. An equitable random sample of 1828 U-Reporters from among the regular and frequent respondents was subsequently created for future surveys and the sample has an Equity Index of 98/100. Conclusions: U-Report in Bangladesh does reach the poorest quintiles while the initial recruitment skews to respondents towards better off families. It is possible to create an equitable random sub-sample of respondents from all five wealth quintiles and thus process information and data for future surveys. Moving forward, U-Reporters from the poorly represented quintiles may be incentivized to recruit peers to increase equity and representation. In times of COVID-19, U-Report in combination with the EquityTool has the potential to enhance the quality of crowdsourced data for statistical analysis.


Asunto(s)
Colaboración de las Masas/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Bangladesh , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(1): 170-178, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694142

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the validity of optical mark recognition, a novel user interface, and crowdsourced data validation to rapidly digitize and extract data from paper COVID-19 assessment forms at a large medical center. METHODS: An optical mark recognition/optical character recognition (OMR/OCR) system was developed to identify fields that were selected on 2,814 paper assessment forms, each with 141 fields which were used to assess potential COVID-19 infections. A novel user interface (UI) displayed mirrored forms showing the scanned assessment forms with OMR results superimposed on the left and an editable web form on the right to improve ease of data validation. Crowdsourced participants validated the results of the OMR system. Overall error rate and time taken to validate were calculated. A subset of forms was validated by multiple participants to calculate agreement between participants. RESULTS: The OMR/OCR tools correctly extracted data from scanned forms fields with an average accuracy of 70% and median accuracy of 78% when the OMR/OCR results were compared with the results from crowd validation. Scanned forms were crowd-validated at a mean rate of 157 seconds per document and a volume of approximately 108 documents per day. A randomly selected subset of documents was reviewed by multiple participants, producing an interobserver agreement of 97% for documents when narrative-text fields were included and 98% when only Boolean and multiple-choice fields were considered. CONCLUSION: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it may be challenging for health care workers wearing personal protective equipment to interact with electronic health records. The combination of OMR/OCR technology, a novel UI, and crowdsourcing data-validation processes allowed for the efficient extraction of a large volume of paper medical documents produced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Intercambio de Información en Salud , Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información , Colaboración de las Masas , Humanos , Médicos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(4): 739-742, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600250

RESUMEN

Objectives. To understand whether and how crowdfunding campaigns are a source of COVID-19-related misinformation.Methods. We searched the GoFundMe crowdfunding platform using 172 terms associated with medical misinformation about COVID-19 prophylaxes and treatments. We screened resulting campaigns for those making statements about the ability of these searched-for or related terms to prevent or treat COVID-19.Results. There were 208 campaigns worldwide that requested $21 475 568, raised $324 305 from 4367 donors, and were shared 24 158 times. The most discussed interventions were dietary supplements and purported immune system boosters (n = 231), followed by other forms of complementary and alternative medicine (n = 24), and unproven medical interventions (n = 15). Most (82.2%) of the campaigns made definitive efficacy claims.Conclusions. Campaigners focused their efforts on dietary supplements and immune system boosters. Campaigns for purported COVID-19 treatments are particularly concerning, but purported prophylaxes could also distract from known effective preventative approaches. GoFundMe should join other online and social media platforms to actively restrict campaigns that spread misinformation about COVID-19 or seek to better inform campaigners about evidence-based prophylaxes and treatments.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Colaboración de las Masas/economía , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Terapias Complementarias , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos
4.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S244-S246, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622846

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: As of May 13, 2020, 1004 health care worker (HCW) deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported globally. This study seeks to organize deaths by demographic group, including age, gender, country, and occupation. METHODS: We collected data from a crowdsourced list of global HCW COVID-19 deaths published by Medscape, including age, gender, country, occupation, and physician specialty. RESULTS: As of May 13, 2020, of 1004 HCW deaths, 550 were physicians. The average age of physician death is 62.49, skewed right, and nonphysician is 52.62, approximately symmetrical. The majority of U.S. HCW deaths are male (64.1%). General practitioners and family medicine and primary care physicians account for 26.9% of physician deaths. Anesthesiologists and emergency medicine and critical care physicians account for 7.4%. The United States has the highest number of HCW deaths but a similar number as a fraction of national cases and deaths compared with other developed countries. CONCLUSIONS: Among HCWs globally, in the United States there have been more reported deaths of physicians, primary care physicians, males, and HCWs versus opposing groups. Further research is needed to understand relative risks of death due to COVID-19 in each of these demographic groups.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colaboración de las Masas , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25429, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 cases increased precipitously in the United States, policy makers and health officials marshalled their pandemic responses. As the economic impacts multiplied, anecdotal reports noted the increased use of web-based crowdfunding to defray these costs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the web-based crowdfunding response in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States to understand the incidence of initiation of COVID-19-related campaigns and compare them to non-COVID-19-related campaigns. METHODS: On May 16, 2020, we extracted all available data available on US campaigns that contained narratives and were created between January 1 and May 10, 2020, on GoFundMe. We identified the subset of COVID-19-related campaigns using keywords relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the incidence of COVID-19-related campaigns by geography, by category, and over time, and we compared the characteristics of the campaigns to those of non-COVID-19-related campaigns after March 11, when the pandemic was declared. We then used a natural language processing algorithm to cluster campaigns by narrative content using overlapping keywords. RESULTS: We found that there was a substantial increase in overall GoFundMe web-based crowdfunding campaigns in March, largely attributable to COVID-19-related campaigns. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic persisted and progressed, the number of campaigns per COVID-19 case declined more than tenfold across all states. The states with the earliest disease burden had the fewest campaigns per case, indicating a lack of a case-dependent response. COVID-19-related campaigns raised more money, had a longer narrative description, and were more likely to be shared on Facebook than other campaigns in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based crowdfunding appears to be a stopgap for only a minority of campaigners. The novelty of an emergency likely impacts both campaign initiation and crowdfunding success, as it reflects the affective response of a community. Crowdfunding activity likely serves as an early signal for emerging needs and societal sentiment for communities in acute distress that could be used by governments and aid organizations to guide disaster relief and policy.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Colaboración de las Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo Financiero , /economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Estudios Transversales , Colaboración de las Masas/economía , Gobierno , Humanos , Narración , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Healthc Q ; 23(4): 23-27, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475488

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic presented the healthcare system with numerous challenges requiring an expedited process to address issues and identify necessary innovations. Crowdsourcing is a rapid, flexible and low-cost engagement approach that allows the user to collect substantial information from a large number of people. CorHealth Ontario worked with its cardiac, stroke and vascular stakeholders to develop provincial-level, evidence-based policy and protocol through data-driven crowdsourcing. The experiences of crowdsourcing through CorHealth's stakeholder forums, guidance memos, data and modelling activities and the resource centre form a transferable model for times of crisis wherein organizations must act quickly and effectively to meet stakeholder needs.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Colaboración de las Masas , Política de Salud , /terapia , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Humanos , Formulación de Políticas , Participación de los Interesados
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244534, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411827

RESUMEN

The current pandemic outbreak of the novel COVID-19, which originated from Wuhan in China in late 2019, has eventually spread to six continents with a rising toll of death cases. No vaccine has yet been developed for COVID-19. The compliance of the general public with the advice and regulations of the health authorities and the adoption of effective health behavior regimens are currently the only weapons to effectively cope with the disease. Here we report the results of a worldwide survey (n = 953) conducted between March 2 and March 14, 2020 that sought (a) to identify critical proximal predictors of health behavior relevant to the current situation, (b) to examine their relationships to various demographic characteristics of the population, (c) and to provide a model of health behavior specific to COVID-19. We found that the perceived severity of the disease and susceptibility to it, emotional reactions, and attitudes toward COVID-19 predicted one-third of the preventive behavior variance. Various demographic variables influenced these predictors. Based on the data collected, we constructed, using path analysis, a theoretical model of health behavior. Our results emphasize the need to consider the impact of antecedent variables on actual precautionary behavior and the influence of demographic factors on these antecedent variables. Understanding the complex interplay of these precursors in health behavior will maximize their beneficial role, eliminate maladaptive prevention patterns, and facilitate the eradication of the disease.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Colaboración de las Masas , Demografía , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24069, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infodemic, a surge of information and misinformation, has sparked worry about the public's perception of the coronavirus pandemic. Excessive information and misinformation can lead to belief in false information as well as reduce the accurate interpretation of true information. Such incorrect beliefs about the COVID-19 pandemic might lead to behavior that puts people at risk of both contracting and spreading the virus. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was two-fold. First, we attempted to gain insight into public beliefs about the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 in one of the worst hit countries: the United States. Second, we aimed to test whether a short intervention could improve people's belief accuracy by empowering them to consider scientific consensus when evaluating claims related to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a 4-week longitudinal study among US citizens, starting on April 27, 2020, just after daily COVID-19 deaths in the United States had peaked. Each week, we measured participants' belief accuracy related to the coronavirus and COVID-19 by asking them to indicate to what extent they believed a number of true and false statements (split 50/50). Furthermore, each new survey wave included both the original statements and four new statements: two false and two true statements. Half of the participants were exposed to an intervention aimed at increasing belief accuracy. The intervention consisted of a short infographic that set out three steps to verify information by searching for and verifying a scientific consensus. RESULTS: A total of 1202 US citizens, balanced regarding age, gender, and ethnicity to approximate the US general public, completed the baseline (T0) wave survey. Retention rate for the follow-up waves- first follow-up wave (T1), second follow-up wave (T2), and final wave (T3)-was high (≥85%). Mean scores of belief accuracy were high for all waves, with scores reflecting low belief in false statements and high belief in true statements; the belief accuracy scale ranged from -1, indicating completely inaccurate beliefs, to 1, indicating completely accurate beliefs (T0 mean 0.75, T1 mean 0.78, T2 mean 0.77, and T3 mean 0.75). Accurate beliefs were correlated with self-reported behavior aimed at preventing the coronavirus from spreading (eg, social distancing) (r at all waves was between 0.26 and 0.29 and all P values were less than .001) and were associated with trust in scientists (ie, higher trust was associated with more accurate beliefs), political orientation (ie, liberal, Democratic participants held more accurate beliefs than conservative, Republican participants), and the primary news source (ie, participants reporting CNN or Fox News as the main news source held less accurate beliefs than others). The intervention did not significantly improve belief accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The supposed infodemic was not reflected in US citizens' beliefs about the COVID-19 pandemic. Most people were quite able to figure out the facts in these relatively early days of the crisis, calling into question the prevalence of misinformation and the public's susceptibility to misinformation.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Comunicación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colaboración de las Masas , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244245, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332455

RESUMEN

Allowing members of the crowd to propose novel microtasks for one another is an effective way to combine the efficiencies of traditional microtask work with the inventiveness and hypothesis generation potential of human workers. However, microtask proposal leads to a growing set of tasks that may overwhelm limited crowdsourcer resources. Crowdsourcers can employ methods to utilize their resources efficiently, but algorithmic approaches to efficient crowdsourcing generally require a fixed task set of known size. In this paper, we introduce cost forecasting as a means for a crowdsourcer to use efficient crowdsourcing algorithms with a growing set of microtasks. Cost forecasting allows the crowdsourcer to decide between eliciting new tasks from the crowd or receiving responses to existing tasks based on whether or not new tasks will cost less to complete than existing tasks, efficiently balancing resources as crowdsourcing occurs. Experiments with real and synthetic crowdsourcing data show that cost forecasting leads to improved accuracy. Accuracy and efficiency gains for crowd-generated microtasks hold the promise to further leverage the creativity and wisdom of the crowd, with applications such as generating more informative and diverse training data for machine learning applications and improving the performance of user-generated content and question-answering platforms.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático , Solución de Problemas , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Simulación por Computador , Humanos
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322465

RESUMEN

A rapidly increasing growth of social networks and the propensity of users to communicate their physical activities, thoughts, expressions, and viewpoints in text, visual, and audio material have opened up new possibilities and opportunities in sentiment and activity analysis. Although sentiment and activity analysis of text streams has been extensively studied in the literature, it is relatively recent yet challenging to evaluate sentiment and physical activities together from visuals such as photographs and videos. This paper emphasizes human sentiment in a socially crucial field, namely social media disaster/catastrophe analysis, with associated physical activity analysis. We suggest multi-tagging sentiment and associated activity analyzer fused with a a deep human count tracker, a pragmatic technique for multiple object tracking, and count in occluded circumstances with a reduced number of identity switches in disaster-related videos and images. A crowd-sourcing study has been conducted to analyze and annotate human activity and sentiments towards natural disasters and related images in social networks. The crowdsourcing study outcome into a large-scale benchmark dataset with three annotations sets each resolves distinct tasks. The presented analysis and dataset will anchor a baseline for future research in the domain. We believe that the proposed system will contribute to more viable communities by benefiting different stakeholders, such as news broadcasters, emergency relief organizations, and the public in general.


Asunto(s)
Colaboración de las Masas , Aprendizaje Profundo , Desastres , Actividades Humanas , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Red Social
13.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S294-S299, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001729

RESUMEN

Objectives. To use crowdfunding campaigns to better understand how cannabidiol (CBD) is represented (and misrepresented) as cancer-related care.Methods. We analyzed CBD-related crowdfunding campaigns (n = 155) created between January 2017 and May 2019 in multiple countries on GoFundme.com.Results. More than 81.9% of campaigns fundraised CBD for curative or life-prolonging reasons, and 25.2% fundraised for pain management.Conclusions. Most campaigns seeking funds for CBD for cancer-related care on GoFundMe are for curative or life-prolonging purposes and present CBD definitively as an effective treatment option. In general, campaigners supported their funding requests with anecdotal claims of efficacy and referenced sources of information that were either not evidence-based or that misrepresented existing evidence.Public Health Implications. Misinformation around CBD for cancer is widespread on medical crowdfunding campaigns. Given the potential adverse impact, crowdfunding platforms, like GoFundMe, must take steps to address their role in enabling and spreading this misinformation.


Asunto(s)
Cannabidiol/administración & dosificación , Comunicación , Colaboración de las Masas/tendencias , Financiación Personal , Neoplasias/terapia , Decepción , Salud Global , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidad
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 715, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part of a challenge contest to increase the number of women fellowship applicants. The purpose of this study is to examine themes from submitted ideas and the impact of implementing the top three ideas on the number of women applicants. METHODS: We solicited ideas for modifying the TDR fellowship using a crowdsourcing challenge. Then we used a mixed methods approach to evaluate texts submitted in response to the challenge. The qualitative analysis identified themes from eligible submissions. The quantitative analysis examined the mean score (1-10 scale) assigned to submitted ideas and also the number of eligible women applicants before (2014-7) and after (2018) implementing the top three ideas. RESULTS: We received 311 ideas on improving women's participation in this fellowship from 63 countries. Among all ideas, 282 (91%) were from women and 286 (92%) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thirty-three (17%) ideas received an overall mean score of 7.0 or greater. The top three ideas included enhanced social media communication targeting women, improving career mentorship, and creating a nomination system to nudge women applicants. These ideas were implemented as part of the 2018 fellowship application cycle. The number of eligible women applicants increased from 11 in 2016 to 48 in 2018. The number of eligible men applicants increased from 55 in 2016 to 114 in 2018. Women represent 44% (8/18) of the 2018 cohort. CONCLUSION: This suggests that the challenge contest resulted in strong participation from women in LMICs. The three top ideas likely contributed to a greater number of women applicants to this mid-career fellowship. Further ways of enhancing women's participation in global health training are needed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Becas , Investigadores , Mujeres Trabajadoras , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Comunicación , Femenino , Salud Global , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Investigación Cualitativa
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239026, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936811

RESUMEN

The Government of India in-network with the state governments has implemented the epidemic curtailment strategies inclusive of case-isolation, quarantine and lockdown in response to ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. In this manuscript, we attempt to estimate the impact of these steps across ten selected Indian states using crowd-sourced data. The trajectory of the outbreak was parameterized by the reproduction number (R0), doubling time, and growth rate. These parameters were estimated at two time-periods after the enforcement of the lockdown on 24th March 2020, i.e. 15 days into lockdown and 30 days into lockdown. The authors used a crowd sourced database which is available in the public domain. After preparing the data for analysis, R0 was estimated using maximum likelihood (ML) method which is based on the expectation minimum algorithm where the distribution probability of secondary cases is maximized using the serial interval discretization. The doubling time and growth rate were estimated by the natural log transformation of the exponential growth equation. The overall analysis shows decreasing trends in time-varying reproduction numbers (R(t)) and growth rate (with a few exceptions) and increasing trends in doubling time. The curtailment strategies employed by the Indian government seem to be effective in reducing the transmission parameters of the COVID-19 epidemic. The estimated R(t) are still above the threshold of 1, and the resultant absolute case numbers show an increase with time. Future curtailment and mitigation strategies thus may take into account these findings while formulating further course of action.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Número Básico de Reproducción , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Colaboración de las Masas , Bases de Datos Factuales , Geografía Médica , Agencias Gubernamentales , Política de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Modelos Biológicos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena
16.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(8): 1181-1190, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757673

RESUMEN

The Chinese Government quarantined Wuhan on 23 January 2020 and thereafter the Hubei province, affecting a total of 59 million citizens, to cease the spread of the coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). The effects of this lockdown on the psychological and mental health of both the affected and unaffected Chinese are largely unknown currently. We utilized one of the largest crowdsourced databases (Sleep as Android) that consisted of 15,681 sleep records from 563 users in China to estimate the change in the sleep pattern of Chinese users during the span of 30 December 2019 to 8 March 2020 with reference to 64,378 sleep records of 1,628 users for the same calendar period of years 2011-2019. The sleep pattern in China changed drastically after 23 January 2020 when the law of quarantine and suspension of Wuhan became effective. The two major findings are: (1) Chinese people increased their sleep duration by an average of 20 min and delayed their sleep onset by an average of 30 min at weekdays, while they maintained a similar sleep duration at weekends, and (2) larger changes were found in several subgroups, including those in Wuhan (80 sleep records from 3 users), female subjects, and those aged ≤ 24 years. Overall, Chinese people slept later and longer than usual during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Colaboración de las Masas , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Sueño/fisiología , Vigilia , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Cuarentena/psicología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Teléfono Inteligente
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236979, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760110

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to identify the dynamic explicit and implicit information factors which displayed on the webpage of platforms that influence backers' investment decision-making behavior. We analyze the connections among these factors by collecting the longitudinal dataset from reward-based crowdfunding platform. Based on ELM model, we establish Fixed Estimation Panel Data Model respectively according to explicit and implicit factors and take Funding Status (crowdfunding results) as the moderating variable to observe the goal gradient effect. Results indicate that most variables in the central route affect backers' investment behavior positively, while most variables in the periphery route have a negative impact on backers' investment behavior. The Funding Status has a significant negative moderating effect on the explicit variables, and has no significant moderating effect on the implicit information variables of the project. In addition, we upgrade the econometric method used by previous scholars, which could improve the accuracy of the FE model. Furthermore, we find strong support for the herding effect in reward-based crowdfunding and the intensity tends to decrease before the funding goal draws near.


Asunto(s)
Colaboración de las Masas/economía , Inversiones en Salud , Comunicación Persuasiva , Recompensa , Bases de Datos Factuales , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Internet , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Modelos Económicos , Modelos Psicológicos
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S60-S65, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737234

RESUMEN

Charlie Gard (August 4, 2016, to July 28, 2017) was an infant in the United Kingdom who was diagnosed with an encephalopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome caused by a mutation in the RRM2B gene. Charlie's parents raised £1.3 million (∼$1.6 million US) on a crowdfunding platform to travel to New York to pursue experimental nucleoside bypass treatment, which was being used to treat a myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome caused by mutations in a different gene (TK2). The case made international headlines about what was in Charlie's best interest. In the medical ethics community, it raised the question of whether best interest serves as a guidance principle (a principle that provides substantive directions as to how decisions are to be made), an intervention principle (a principle specifying the conditions under which third parties are to intervene), both guidance and intervention, or neither. I show that the United Kingdom uses best interest as both guidance and intervention, and the United States uses best interest for neither. This explains why the decision to withdraw the ventilator without attempting nucleoside bypass treatment was the correct decision in the United Kingdom and why the opposite conclusion would have been reached in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Encefalomiopatías Mitocondriales/terapia , Defensa del Paciente/ética , Respiración Artificial/ética , Ribonucleótido Reductasas/genética , Privación de Tratamiento/ética , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/ética , Colaboración de las Masas/economía , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Inutilidad Médica/ética , Encefalomiopatías Mitocondriales/genética , Ciudad de Nueva York , Responsabilidad Parental , Defensa del Paciente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transferencia de Pacientes/ética , Transferencia de Pacientes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Timidina Quinasa/genética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Privación de Tratamiento/legislación & jurisprudencia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1048, 2020 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a growing public health problem with a large disease burden worldwide. In China many people living with HCV are unaware of their hepatitis status and not connected to care and treatment. Crowdsourcing is a technique that invites the public to create health promotion materials and has been found to increase HIV testing uptake, including in China. This trial aims to evaluate crowdsourcing as a strategy to improve HCV awareness, testing and linkage-to-care in China. METHODS: A randomized controlled, two-armed trial (RCT) is being conducted in Shenzhen with 1006 participants recruited from primary care sectors of The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital. Eligible participants are ≥30 years old; a resident in Shenzhen for at least one month after recruitment; no screening for HCV within the past 12 months and not known to have chronic HCV; and, having a WeChat social media account. Allocation is 1:1. Both groups will be administered a baseline and a follow-up survey (4-week post-enrollment). The intervention group will receive crowdsourcing materials to promote HCV testing once a week for two weeks and feedback will be collected thereafter, while the control group will receive no promotional materials. Feedback collected will be judged by a panel and selected to be implemented to improve the intervention continuously. Those identified positive for HCV antibodies will be referred to gastroenterologists for confirmation and treatment. The primary outcome will be confirmed HCV testing uptake, and secondary outcomes include HCV confirmatory testing and initiation of HCV treatment with follow-ups with specialist providers. Data will be collected on Survey Star@ via mobile devices. DISCUSSION: This will be the first study to evaluate the impact of crowdsourcing to improve viral hepatitis testing and linkage-to-care in the health facilities. This RCT will contribute to the existing literature on interventions to improve viral hepatitis testing in primary care setting, and inform future strategies to improve HCV care training for primary care providers in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. ChiCTR1900025771. Registered September 7th, 2019, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=42788.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Adulto , China , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Femenino , Hepacivirus , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C Crónica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e15547, 2020 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is often described as the phantom perception of a sound and is experienced by 5.1% to 42.7% of the population worldwide, at least once during their lifetime. The symptoms often reduce the patient's quality of life. The TrackYourTinnitus (TYT) mobile health (mHealth) crowdsensing platform was developed for two operating systems (OS)-Android and iOS-to help patients demystify the daily moment-to-moment variations of their tinnitus symptoms. In all platforms developed for more than one OS, it is important to investigate whether the crowdsensed data predicts the OS that was used in order to understand the degree to which the OS is a confounder that is necessary to consider. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored whether the mobile OS-Android and iOS-used during user assessments can be predicted by the dynamic daily-life TYT data. METHODS: TYT mainly applies the paradigms ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and mobile crowdsensing to collect dynamic EMA (EMA-D) daily-life data. The dynamic daily-life TYT data that were analyzed included eight questions as part of the EMA-D questionnaire. In this study, 518 TYT users were analyzed, who each completed at least 11 EMA-D questionnaires. Out of these, 221 were iOS users and 297 were Android users. The iOS users completed, in total, 14,708 EMA-D questionnaires; the number of EMA-D questionnaires completed by the Android users was randomly reduced to the same number to properly address the research question of the study. Machine learning methods-a feedforward neural network, a decision tree, a random forest classifier, and a support vector machine-were applied to address the research question. RESULTS: Machine learning was able to predict the mobile OS used with an accuracy up to 78.94% based on the provided EMA-D questionnaires on the assessment level. In this context, the daily measurements regarding how users concentrate on the actual activity were particularly suitable for the prediction of the mobile OS used. CONCLUSIONS: In the work at hand, two particular aspects have been revealed. First, machine learning can contribute to EMA-D data in the medical context. Second, based on the EMA-D data of TYT, we found that the accuracy in predicting the mobile OS used has several implications. Particularly, in clinical studies using mobile devices, the OS should be assessed as a covariate, as it might be a confounder.


Asunto(s)
Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático/normas , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Telemedicina/métodos , Acúfeno/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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