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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145573, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940733

RESUMEN

In Colombia, the beef production chain accounts for approximately 11.6 million cattle heads and annually produces 933 million kg of the beef carcass. There are no life cycle assessment (LCA) studies that have evaluated the environmental performance of Colombian beef systems. The present study aimed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF), non-renewable energy use, and land use of 251 cow-calf and 275 fattening farms in Colombia. The study also aimed to identify the main hotspots of adverse environmental impacts and propose possible mitigation options and their cost-effectiveness. The impact categories were estimated using the 2006 IPCC and the 2019 Refinement to 2006 IPCC guidelines, databases, and locally estimated emission factors. The functional units used were 1 kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) and 1 kg live weight gain (LWG), leaving the farm gate. Three methods of allocating environmental burdens to meat and milk products were applied: economic, energy, and mass allocation. The adoption of improved pastures was considered a mitigation measure, and an economic assessment was performed to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of its establishment. A principal component multivariate analysis and a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components were performed. The economic allocation method assigned a greater environmental burden to meat (83%), followed by energy content (80%) and mass production (73%). The largest sources of GHG emissions were enteric fermentation and manure deposited on pasture. Both cow-calf and fattening systems had a cluster of farms with better productivity, pasture and cattle management practices, and environmental performance. The CF for meat could be reduced by 33 to 56% for cow-calf and 21 to 25% for fattening farms, by adopting improved pastures. Therefore, our results suggest that GHG emissions can be reduced by adopting improved pastures, better agricultural management practices, efficient fertilizer usage, using the optimal stocking rate, and increasing productivity.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Industria Lechera , Animales , Bovinos , Colombia , Femenino , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Leche
2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 187, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888085

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a considerable public health problem, which has caused a burden on health systems in many countries. Despite the existence of multiple studies on the different digestive symptoms and their relationship with this disease, it is still vital to highlight the severity of the different symptoms, the need to diagnose it properly and quickly. Currently in Colombia there are no writings that highlight the above. CASE PRESENTATION: This article reports the case of a 37-year-old female patient, with no important history, who consulted for 10 h of a generalized intense abdominal pain, of sudden onset, associated with multiple stools of diarrheal consistency, and no respiratory symptoms and no epidemiological exposure. Physical examination with intense pain in the colic frame with tenderness. It was decided to rule out surgical pathology and a CT scan was performed finding no evidence of acute intra-abdominal pathology, but with a peripheral alveolar, and ground-glass opacities at lung bases, classic COVID-19 radiological pattern, confirmed by a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, leading to consider that the gastrointestinal symptoms were secondary to this infection. Symptomatic management was given with subsequent improvement. CONCLUSIONS: It is extremely important to present this first case report of a young female COVID-19 patient with an acute abdominal pain as the main clinical manifestation, that almost culminates in a surgical procedure; demonstrating the scope of gastrointestinal symptoms secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Abdomen Agudo/virología , /diagnóstico , Adulto , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 101-106, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857053

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD. AS and COPD patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify a major depressive disorder risk. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients diagnosed with AS or COPD aged 18 to 69 (M=60.4, SD=17.6) participated. The risk of major depression was assessed using the PHQ-9 sent online after telephone contact with the participants. 30.7% of the patients during the last month reported a risk of major depression, and it was associated with a history of major depressive disorder (OR=4.39, 95% CI 1.53-12.67) and medical comorbidity (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: The depression risk is associated with a history of depressive disorder and medical comorbidity in patients with AS and COPD. Medical history is the leading risk factor for depression during confinement. It is recommended to carry out studies with many participants and study other variables that may mediate said associations during confinement by SAR-CoV-2 in the Colombian Caribbean.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Asma/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
4.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(3): 287-292, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818424

RESUMEN

Kidney transplantation (KTx) is the best therapeutic modality for end stage renal disease. Currently in Colombia there are approximately 2800 patients waiting for KTx. Historically, urologists have beenin close contact with KTx, however in Colombia the interaction between urology and KT is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine the perceptions and KTx training level into colombian urology residents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study through 14 items survey applied to colombian urology residents. Data are summarizedas means and Pearson Chi2 test was used to evaluate differences between qualitative variables.RESULTS: The study included 76 participants. More than half of the programs of urology residency in Colombia includes KTx training into their academic programs, 36.84% of participants have received formal training (lectures, rounds, clinical rotation, seminars) on KTx, 28.95% have participated into KTx procedure, 97.37% considered the KTx as a urological field, KTx is the urological area with least academic interest for the residents, 76.32% consider their training in KTx as insufficient. The main barrier identified to increase training in KTx during urology residency is the non-availability of a formal rotation. CONCLUSIONS: KTx is not an area of primary interest for the colombian urology residents. Although most residents identify the KTx as an area related to urology and that exposure to some phases of the KTx is acceptable, 76% of residents consider their transplant training as insufficient. The main barriers identified for the urology resident's approach to KTx are modifiable.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Trasplante de Riñón , Urología , Colombia , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Urología/educación
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 344, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845789

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous infectious disease characterized by eschar-like skin ulcers typically caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we report a case of relapsing EG in a patient who had returned from a trip to Colombia, thus establishing EG as an important differential diagnosis of tropical diseases, and demonstrating that even long-term antibiotic treatment can result in only partial remission of EG. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old man with underlying chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) on ibrutinib treatment was admitted because of a superinfected mosquito bite on the left ear and multiple partially necrotic skin lesions disseminated all over the entire body five days after returning from a trip to Colombia. The initial clinical suspicion of a tropical disease (leishmaniosis, systemic mycosis, or others) could not be confirmed. During the diagnostic workup, microbiological cultures of the skin biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, leading to a diagnosis of EG. Initial antibiotic treatment resulted in partial remission. However, the patient had to be re-admitted due to a relapse 3-4 weeks after the first episode. Finally, the patient was successfully treated with a combined approach consisting of antibiotics, recurrent surgical incisions, and administration of immunoglobulins. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients presenting with eschar-like skin ulcers. A combined treatment approach seems to be the best choice to achieve clinical cure and avoid relapse.


Asunto(s)
Ectima/diagnóstico , Úlcera Cutánea/diagnóstico , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/uso terapéutico , Administración Intravenosa , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/microbiología , Colombia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ectima/tratamiento farmacológico , Ectima/microbiología , Ectima/cirugía , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Inmunoglobulinas/uso terapéutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crónica de Células B/patología , Masculino , Piperidinas/uso terapéutico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/aislamiento & purificación , Úlcera Cutánea/microbiología , Úlcera Cutánea/cirugía
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800910

RESUMEN

There is increasing interest in the study of flourishing as an indicator of subjective wellbeing. The objective herein was to adapt and study the psychometric properties of Diener's Flourishing Scale (FS) among the Colombian population. Accordingly, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probability sample of 1255 Colombian adults. The scale's structure, invariance by gender, and convergent and concurrent validity were studied from a confirmatory perspective using structural equation models. The confirmatory factor analysis showed excellent fit indicators for the one-dimensional structure (CFI = 0.985, RMSEA = 0.039, SRMR = 0.020) as well as for the convergent (CFI = 0.909, RMSEA = 0.050, SRMR = 0.063) and concurrent (CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.036, SRMR = 0.041) validity models. The correlations calculated among flourishing with positive and negative effects (PANAS), satisfaction with life (SWL), and optimism and pessimism (LOT) were statistically significant and as expected. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender was confirmed. Percentiles were provided for the total score. The FS scale was a valid and reliable measure to assess high levels of wellbeing among the Colombian population.


Asunto(s)
Colombia , Estudios Transversales , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009327, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced health authorities across the world to take important decisions to curtail its spread. Genomic epidemiology has emerged as a valuable tool to understand introductions and spread of the virus in a specific geographic location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the sequences of 59 SARS-CoV-2 samples from inhabitants of the Colombian Amazonas department. The viral genomes were distributed in two robust clusters within the distinct GISAID clades GH and G. Spatial-temporal analyses revealed two independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 in the region, one around April 1, 2020 associated with a local transmission, and one around April 2, 2020 associated with other South American genomes (Uruguay and Brazil). We also identified ten lineages circulating in the Amazonas department including the P.1 variant of concern (VOC). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first genomic epidemiology investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in one of the territories with the highest report of indigenous communities of the country. Such findings are essential to decipher viral transmission, inform on global spread and to direct implementation of infection prevention and control measures for these vulnerable populations, especially, due to the recent circulation of one of the variants of concern (P.1) associated with major transmissibility and possible reinfections.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /aislamiento & purificación , /etnología , Colombia/epidemiología , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Análisis Espacial , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920843

RESUMEN

The negative effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have impacted the world economy due to the absence from work because of SARS-CoV-2 infection in workers, among other reasons. However, some economic areas are essential to society and people must continue working outside the home to support economic reactivation; their serological profile could be different from that of the global population. Cross-sectional study: Workers from health, construction, public transportation, public force, bike delivery messengers, independent or informal commerce areas, and residents of Bucaramanga or its metropolitan area were invited to participate. All participants self-completed a virtual survey and a blood test was taken to assess IgG and IgM with the ARC COV2 test. Seroprevalence was estimated considering a complex survey design, correcting for a finite population effect and adjusting for test performance. A total of 7045 workers were enrolled; 59.9% were women and most were residents of Bucaramanga and working in health occupations. The global adjusted seroprevalence was 19.5% (CI: 95% 18.6-20.4), being higher for Girón (27.9%; 95% CI: 24.5-31.30). Workers with multiple contact with people during working hours or using public transportation to go to work had a higher frequency of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. The seroprevalence among workers living in these four municipalities from the Colombian northeast area is still low.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805338

RESUMEN

Knowledge of physical activity (PA) can be considered a predictor of public health for society. Thus, this study aims to show content validity of the "Knowledge Questionnaire on World Health Organization (WHO) Recommendations on PA and Health" (CUAFYS-A) and reference values on adults' knowledge of the WHO recommendations on PA. This is a quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive, and cross-sectional study, in which 579 adults completed an online questionnaire with demographic data. The questionnaire was made up of 9 items to measure PA related to knowledge. For the elaboration of the items of the questionnaire a disciplinary team formed it and for the analysis of results, a descriptive analysis of these was applied. Then an inferential analysis was performed, content validity, construct validity, and reliability were analyzed. The CUAFYS-A after its content analysis, obtained appropriate results in terms of pertinence and relevance; additionally, it showed Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.62. Thereby, it was concluded the CUAFYS-A questionnaire proved to be a valid and reliable instrument to show reference values and to evaluate the knowledge of adults of PA and health according to the WHO recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Colombia , Estudios Transversales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Organización Mundial de la Salud
10.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823049

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 may produce neurological manifestations, including its occurrence in children, and newborns, which has been little reported so far in newborns with COVID-19. CASE: We present a case in Colombia, of community-acquired neonatal infection of SARS-CoV-2, with suggestive symptoms, such as fever, and showing neurological findings, such as drowsiness, poor suction and mild hypotonia for a short time. DISCUSSION: The clinical manifestations of SARS-COV-2 in neonates are beginning to be described in detail. We report a case of SARS-COV-2-associated neurological compromise in a newborn, with features of drowsiness, poor suction and hypotonia.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/virología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/virología , /diagnóstico , Colombia , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Hipotonía Muscular/virología , Somnolencia
11.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 20, 2021. 33 p. ilus..
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178359
12.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 6, 2021. 30 p. ilus..
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178362
13.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 13, 2021. 23 p. ilus..
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178363
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668584

RESUMEN

Colombia experienced an outbreak of Zika virus infection during September 2015 until July 2016. This study aimed to identify the socioeconomic factors that at the municipality level correlate with this outbreak and therefore could have influenced its incidence. An analysis of publicly available, municipality-aggregated data related to eight potential explanatory socioeconomic variables was conducted. These variables are school dropout, low energy strata, social security system, savings capacity, tax, resources, investment, and debt. The response variable of interest in this study is the number of reported cases of Zika virus infection per people (projected) per square kilometer. Binomial regression models were performed. Results show that the best predictor variables of Zika virus occurrence, assuming an expected inverse relationship with socioeconomic status, are "school", "energy", and "savings". Contrary to expectations, proxies of socioeconomic status such as "investment", "tax", and "resources" were associated with an increase in the occurrence of Zika virus infection, while no association was detected for "social security" and "debt". Energy stratification, school dropout rate, and the percentage of the municipality's income that is saved conformed to the hypothesized inverse relationship between socioeconomic standing and Zika occurrence. As such, this study suggests these factors should be considered in Zika risk modeling.


Asunto(s)
Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Colombia/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Incidencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 177, 2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711937

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With this study, we aim to determine the associations of the different categories of the body mass index (BMI) with activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive performance in two different populations living in the community; Colombian and South Korean older adults. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of two surveys separately; The Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Colombia (SABE) (n = 23,343) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of aging (KLoSA) (n = 4556). Participants older than 50 years were selected from rural and urban areas achieving a representative sample. Here we investigated the association between BMI categories with function using zero-inflated negative binomial regressions, and with cognition using logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment, in Colombia, underweight was associated with an impaired score on the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and worse performance in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Also, being overweight was associated with a better score on the MMSE and the IADL. For both outcomes education level significantly influenced the predictions. In South Korea, there were no significant associations for cognition, IADL, or basic activities of daily living (BADL). CONCLUSIONS: In the Colombian population, underweight, was associated with reduced cognitive performance and daily functioning. Additionally, being overweight but not obese was associated with better cognition and daily functioning. In South Korea, there were no significant associations between BMI and cognition, IADL, or BADL.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Cognición , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , República de Corea/epidemiología
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 140, 2021 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are related to psychological factors. Adolescence is one of the stages in life with more psychosocial vulnerability, which is dissimilar in rural and urban zones. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association between psychological factors (symptoms of anxiety, depression and somatization) and TMD in adolescents between 12 and 15 years, belonging to urban and rural zones of Colombia. METHODS: 180 subjects aged 12-15 years (mean 13.8, SD 1.2), enrolled in public schools in the rural (n = 90) and urban (n = 90) zones were included. All subjects were evaluated using the DC/TMD instrument; the Axis I was applied for the clinical examination and the Axis II for the psychological evaluation. Data were analyzed by means of T-student, Mann-Whitney, Kruskall-Wallis tests, Pearson Chi square and multiple-variable analysis with logistic regression. RESULTS: Forty percent of the included subjects presented some type of TMD. TMD related to pain were the most common (25.5% of the studied adolescents), being myalgia the most common (20% of the adolescents in urban zone and 31.1% of the adolescents in the rural zone). There was no difference between the TMD present in males and females, but there were differences in the symptoms of Anxiety, and Somatization (p < 0.05). TMD and psychological factors were more prevalent in children with 13 years of age. A statistically significant association between TMD and symptoms of Anxiety (Pearson Chi squared 25.57, p = 0.04), depression (Pearson Chi squared 33.28, p = 0.03) and somatization (Pearson Chi squared 25.79, p = 0.04) was found in subjects from rural zones. No associations between psychological aspects and TMD were found in subjects from urban zones, but overall all psychological factors significantly influenced TMD. CONCLUSION: This study indicates Myalgia to be the most prevalent TMD in studied Colombian adolescents. Pain-related TMDs are associated with psychological factors in the adolescent population of rural Colombia. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and somatization were found to be associated to TMD, even when the frequency was not necessarily severe.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dolor , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/epidemiología
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 146, 2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752655

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Caries in the elderly has been associated with dependence, oral-health status and -care practices. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between root/coronal caries and individual factors among institutionalised elderly people in Bogotá, Colombia, using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System severity and activity criteria (ICDAS). METHODS: A total of 226 institutionalised elderly were clinically examined for root and coronal caries in 40 institutions. Caries risk was assessed with Cariogram, and demographics, oral health knowledge and practices, oral health-related quality of life and denture-use habits using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Participants (mean age: 80.1 ± 9.3 years; 63.7% female) presented a mean number of 10.8 ± 7.3 teeth and 19.4 ± 18.8 exposed root surfaces. Prevalence of Coronal-ICDAS caries experience (C-ICDAS DF) was of 100% and of 54.4% for C-ICDAS D; mean number of C-ICDAS DFS was 16.76 ± 27.36, with 50.9% of subjects having ≥ one active C-ICDAS DS. Prevalence of Root Caries Index was of 49.1% and of R-ICDAS DF of 46%; mean number of R-ICDAS DFS was 2.03 ± 2.78, with 40.3% of subjects having ≥ one active R-ICDAS DS. Most individuals had a systemic condition (94.2%) and required oral-hygiene assistance (58%). Logistic regression analyses showed significant associations (p < 0.05): for coronal active caries when having over six teeth (OR: 2.7), and for root caries, when having coronal caries (OR: 2.41), being a man (OR: 1.95), and having over 14 teeth (OR: 0.30). Those presenting with > eight exposed root surfaces were 4.04 more likely to have root caries and 2.4 times more likely to have active root caries. CONCLUSION: In the institutionalised elderly population in Bogotá significant associations were found, both for the presence as for the activity status of root and coronal caries, with individual clinical factors including coronal caries, exposed root surfaces and number of teeth.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Caries Radicular , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Caries Dentarias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Caries Radicular/epidemiología
19.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 37(3): 447-459, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The history of physiotherapy in Latin America has received little attention thus far in the English-speaking literature. In this paper, we draw on narratives from activists, educators, and professional leaders who have been instrumental in shaping the development of physiotherapy in Argentina, Colombia, and Ecuador. Physiotherapists in the Latin American countries faced many similar challenges, including developing physiotherapy in the shadow of medicine, overcoming conservative attitudes toward women professionals, and frequent social upheaval. AIMS: The paper explores the disputed story of physiotherapy's origins in the polio epidemics, the influence of Swedish remedial gymnastics, and the educational colonialism of North American and European educators. We examine some of the effects of social unrest and trauma, military rule, and economic instability on the professions attempts to establish itself in the face of competition from other professions allied to medicine. And we consider the efforts taken to establish the profession's autonomy and its shifting relationship with the state. METHODS: We employed two different methods for data collection to explore aspects of physiotherapy's history in Latin America from a political and socio-cultural context: 1) A reconstruction of memories from activist physiotherapists in Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina, who have seen, lived, and promoted the development of physiotherapy in their own countries, gleaned from in-depth interviews; and 2) Analysis of secondary sources. Data were analyzed following the method described by Maynes, Pierce, and Laslett (2008), exploring personal narratives. Textual data were analyzed using documentary research (Prior, 2003) using thematic analysis, to inductively discover, and describe relevant themes about the two main guiding study questions. A constant comparative method as outlined by Boeije (2002) was used to form categories, establish boundaries, and discerning conceptual similarities between participants' narrative. RESULTS: Five physiotherapists were interviewed. One from Colombia, two from Argentina and two from Ecuador. Three main themes were identified: 'A Female Profession?', 'training and education', and 'Present Day in Argentina, Ecuador, and Colombia'. Tensions between the interests of the State, professionals, patients, cultures, urban and rural services, and practices are prevalent throughout physiotherapy in Argentina, Colombia, and Ecuador. Operating within these tensions is very much the reality for physiotherapists in Latin America today. CONCLUSION: Multiple histories emerge from the research, opening up a space for a more nuanced, polyphonic reading of physiotherapy in Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina than has been heard to date.


Asunto(s)
Fisioterapeutas/educación , Fisioterapeutas/historia , Fisioterapia/educación , Fisioterapia/historia , Argentina , Colombia , Ecuador , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009259, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705409

RESUMEN

Dengue, Zika and chikungunya are diseases of global health significance caused by arboviruses and transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is of worldwide circulation. The arrival of the Zika and chikungunya viruses to South America increased the complexity of transmission and morbidity caused by these viruses co-circulating in the same vector mosquito species. Here we present an integrated analysis of the reported arbovirus cases between 2007 and 2017 and local climate and socio-economic profiles of three distinct Colombian municipalities (Bello, Cúcuta and Moniquirá). These locations were confirmed as three different ecosystems given their contrasted geographic, climatic and socio-economic profiles. Correlational analyses were conducted with both generalised linear models and generalised additive models for the geographical data. Average temperature, minimum temperature and wind speed were strongly correlated with disease incidence. The transmission of Zika during the 2016 epidemic appeared to decrease circulation of dengue in Cúcuta, an area of sustained high incidence of dengue. Socio-economic factors such as barriers to health and childhood services, inadequate sanitation and poor water supply suggested an unfavourable impact on the transmission of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in all three ecosystems. Socio-demographic influencers were also discussed including the influx of people to Cúcuta, fleeing political and economic instability from neighbouring Venezuela. Aedes aegypti is expanding its range and increasing the global threat of these diseases. It is therefore vital that we learn from the epidemiology of these arboviruses and translate it into an actionable local knowledge base. This is even more acute given the recent historical high of dengue cases in the Americas in 2019, preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, which is itself hampering mosquito control efforts.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Aedes/fisiología , Aedes/virología , Animales , Fiebre Chikungunya/economía , Fiebre Chikungunya/virología , Virus Chikungunya/fisiología , Clima , Colombia/epidemiología , Dengue/economía , Dengue/virología , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , Ecosistema , Humanos , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , América del Sur , Temperatura , Virus Zika/fisiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/economía , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
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