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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231051, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243470

RESUMEN

Historical representation of collective identity offer means of influencing the extent to which group members engage in activities in line with the collective interests of their group vs. their own individual interests. This research tested the effect of different historical representations of the African people on Africans' perceptions of African social identity and engagement in identity management strategies across two studies. In Study 1 (N = 162), we tested the effect of two historical representations: positive (prestigious precolonial African history and resistance to the colonial power) and negative (inhumane practices of precolonial Africans). In Study 2 (N = 431), we tested the effect of two historical representations: positive (prestigious precolonial African history) and negative factual (inhuman practices of precolonial Africans) while also making salient the ubiquitous historical representation of the African people (negative colonial-perspective) across all history conditions. We predicted that positive (vs. negative) historical representation would lead to more positive perceptions of African identity, which in turn would predict more collectively-oriented identity management strategies. Altogether, results provided no support for these predictions. We highlight methodological (and by extension theoretical) features-such as, psychological reactance and outgroup audience effect-which may have limited the effect of the manipulations to help inform the interpretation of the null findings obtained. We conclude by discussing other limitations and the theoretical implications of our work, before pointing out various avenues for future research to help us better test, and understand, the role of historical representation in the African context.


Asunto(s)
Identificación Social , Participación Social , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Anciano , Colonialismo , Femenino , Historia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoimagen , Movilidad Social , Participación Social/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 219-239, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284635

RESUMEN

This article surveys the evolution of Rwandan family planning practices from the nation's mythico-historical origins to the present. Rwanda is typically regarded as a patriarchal society in which Rwandan women have, throughout history, endured limited rights and opportunities. However, oral traditions narrated by twentieth-century Rwandan historians, storytellers and related experts, and interpreted by the scholars and missionaries who lived in Rwanda during the nation's colonial period, suggest that gender norms in Rwanda were more complicated. Shifting practices related to family planning - particularly access to contraception, abortion, vasectomies and related strategies - are but one arena in which this becomes evident, suggesting that women's roles within their families and communities could be more diverse than the historiography's narrow focus on women as wives and mothers currently allows. Drawing upon a range of colonial-era oral traditions and interviews conducted with Rwandans since 2007, I argue that Rwandan women - while under significant social pressure to become wives and mothers throughout the nation's past - did find ways to exert agency within and beyond these roles. I further maintain that understanding historical approaches to family planning in Rwanda is essential for informing present-day policy debates in Rwanda aimed at promoting gender equality, and in particular for ensuring women's rights and access to adequate healthcare are being upheld.


Asunto(s)
Catolicismo/historia , Colonialismo/historia , Anticoncepción/historia , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/historia , Religión y Medicina , Bélgica , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Regulación Gubernamental/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Misioneros/historia , Religión/historia , Rwanda
3.
Nat Genet ; 52(2): 135, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025002
4.
Med Hist ; 64(1): 32-51, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933501

RESUMEN

This paper addresses the relative scholarly oversight of the history of public health in Haiti through a close examination of the colonial public health system constructed and operated by the United States (US) during its occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934. More than simply documenting a neglected aspect of Caribbean history, the paper offers the US occupation of Haiti as a remarkably clear example of a failed attempt to use a free public health service to cultivate a health conscientiousness among the Haitian citizenry through the aggressive treatment of highly visible ailments such as cataracts and yaws. I argue that the US occupation viewed the success of the Haitian Public Health Service as critical to the generation of a taxable, compliant and trusting citizenry that the colonial state could enter into a contract with. This idealistic programme envisioned by the US occupation was marred by financial mismanagement, racism, delusions of grandeur and contempt for Haitian physicians that resulted in the production of a far more precarious public health service and administrative state than the US occupation had hoped. By the time the Great Depression arrived in 1930 the Haitian Public Health Service was gutted and privatised, having successfully provided the majority of Haitians with free healthcare, yet failed to have persuaded them of the value of being governed by a centralised administrative state.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Colonialismo/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Haití , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Médicos/historia , Administración en Salud Pública/historia , Práctica de Salud Pública/historia , Racismo/historia , Estados Unidos
5.
Hist Sci ; 58(1): 51-75, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966814

RESUMEN

This essay examines the relationship between slavery and plant knowledge for cultivational activities and medicinal purposes on Isle de France (Mauritius) in the second half of the eighteenth century. It builds on recent scholarship to argue for the significance of slaves in the acquisition of plant material and related knowledge in pharmaceutical, acclimatization, and private gardens on the French colonial island. I highlight the degree to which French colonial officials relied on slaves' ethnobotanical knowledge but neglected to include such information in their published works. Rather than seeking to explore the status of such knowledge within European frameworks of natural history as an endpoint of knowledge production, this essay calls upon us to think about the plant knowledge that slaves possessed for its practical implementations in the local island context. Both female and male slaves' plant-based knowledge enriched - even initiated - practices of cultivation and preparation techniques of plants for nourishment and medicinal uses. Here, cultivational knowledge and skills determined a slave's hierarchical rank. As the case of the slave gardener Rama and his family reveals, plant knowledge sometimes offered slaves opportunities for social mobility and, even though on extremely rare occasions, enabled them to become legally free.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Personas Esclavizadas/historia , Etnobotánica , Jardines/historia , Medicina de Hierbas/historia , Plantas Medicinales , África/etnología , Asia/etnología , Esclavización/historia , Grupos Étnicos/historia , Femenino , Francia , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Mauricio
6.
Rev. polis psique ; 10(1): 107-122, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1102614

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste trabalho é enfocar a trama dos processos subjetivos desencadeada pela dominação colonial na relação que ela estabelece entre dominador e dominado: como se imbricam e se interpolam as forças vitais de cada parte, um para subjugar o outro e fazê-lo ceder, vergando-o sob o peso da astúcia, da sedução, do medo; o outro para se opor à tirania e ao controle, resistindo, lutando ou até preferindo morrer. O artigo traz o ponto de vista de diferentes autores vinculados as reflexões sobre pós- e descolonialidade e seus encaminhamentos quanto as possibilidades de resistência à violência da opressão. O foco na economia psíquica põe em relevo as conexões inexoráveis entre história pessoal e coletiva, valorizando posicionamentos ontológicos, epistemológicos e psicológicos que escapam às frequentes dicotomias e reducionismos ao buscar visibilizar as relações paradoxais entre dominador e dominado.


The aim of the present paper is to focus on the patchwork of subjective processes engendered by colonial domination within the scope of relations between the oppressor and the oppressed: how the vital forces of each side imbricate and interpolate each other, the former to subjugate the other and make him/her acquiesce either by astuteness, seduction or terror; the latter, to oppose tyranny and control by struggling, resisting or even, preferring death. The article discusses post- and decolonial scholarship in view of articulating how possibilities of resisting to violence are envisaged within this tradition. The focus on the psychic economy brings forth the inexorable connections between personal and collective history. These are analysed in their ontological, epistemological and psychological underpinnings in order to escape the frequent dichotomies and reductionisms whenever the paradoxical relations between the oppressor and the oppressed are at stake.


El objetivo de ese trabajo es discutir la trama de los procesos subjetivos engendrados por la dominación colonial en el ámbito de la relación que se establece entre opresor y oprimido: como se mezclan las fuerzas vitales de cada parte, una para someter la otra haciendo con que ceda bajo el peso de la astucia, la seducción o el miedo; la otra para se oponer a la tiranía, al control, resistiendo, luchando hasta casi escoger la muerte. El artigo presenta el punto de vista de diferentes autores asociados a la discusión pos- o decolonial y sus contribuciones a la temática de la resistencia a la violencia de la opresión. El foco sobre la economía psíquica pone en relievo el enlace inexorable entre la historia personal y la colectiva teniendo en cuenta posiciones ontológicas, epistemológicas y psicológicas que escapan dicotomías y reduccionismos comunes cuando se intenta volver visible las relaciones paradojales entre el señor y el sujeto dominado.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Social , Colonialismo , Dominación-Subordinación , Emoción Expresada , Cultura , Control
7.
Sci Context ; 32(3): 239-260, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829298

RESUMEN

After World War II, blood groups became a symbol of anti-racial science. This paper aims to shed new light on the post-WWII history of blood groups and race, illuminating the postcolonial revitalization of racial serology in South Korea. In the prewar period, Japanese serologists developed a serological anthropology of Koreans in tandem with Japanese colonialism. The pioneering Korean hematologist Yi Samyol (1926-2015), inspired by decolonization movements during the 1960s, excavated and appropriated colonial serological anthropology to prove Koreans as biologically independent from the Japanese. However, his racial serology of Koreans shared colonial racism with Japanese anthropology, despite his anti-colonial nationalism.


Asunto(s)
Antropología , Colonialismo/historia , Racismo/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , República de Corea
8.
Malar J ; 18(1): 397, 2019 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801538

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is increasing in non-endemic areas due to the increment of international travels, migration and, probably, other unknown factors. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of malaria cases in a region of Spain; analyse the possible association between the variables of interest; compare this series with others; and evaluate the characteristics of imported malaria cases according to the country of origin, particularly cases from Equatorial Guinea (Spanish ex-colony) and from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was carried out with a retrospective data collection of cases of malaria reported in Aragon from 1996 to 2017. Univariate and bivariate analysis of clinical-epidemiological variables was performed. In addition, an analysis of cases from sub-Saharan Africa was carried out using logistic regression, calculating odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: 609 cases of malaria were recorded in Aragon from 1996 to 2017. An autochthonous case in 2010. 50.33% were between 15 and 39 years old. 45.65% of the cases were notified of the 4-weeks 9 to 12. 82.6% reside in the main province, urban area, of which 65.4% were VFR (Visiting Friends and Relatives), 23.8% new immigrants and 10.9% travellers. The infectious Plasmodium species par excellence was Plasmodium falciparum (88%). Analysing the cases from sub-Saharan Africa (95.2% of the total), 48.1% were from Equatorial Guinea. Comparing these with the cases from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, it was observed that the cases from the Spanish ex-colony have association with the female gender, being under 5 years old, residing in the main province (urban area) and being a new immigrant. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological profile of imported malaria cases can be defined as VFR between 15 and 39 years old, coming from sub-Saharan Africa, particularly from Equatorial Guinea. Immigrants education about the importance of chemoprophylaxis when travelling to visit friends and relatives, emphasizing on those who are originally from the ex-colonies of destination country, is necessary; as well as to raise awareness among health professionals to make advice in consultations, specially before summer vacations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Colonialismo , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Guinea Ecuatorial/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 725-735, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047528

RESUMEN

O Exército Zapatista de Liberação Nacional (EZLN) e suas bases de apoio são formados predominantemente por indígenas que vivem na região de Chiapas, no México. O movimento constrói uma profunda experiência de autonomia, o que passa por diferentes dimensões da vida coletiva. Neste artigo, pretendemos, a partir de um trabalho de campo realizado na região, nos focar na saúde autônoma. A concepção de saúde está estritamente relacionada com a noção de terra, já que para ter saúde é preciso pertencer a um cosmos, permeado pelo respeito recíproco entre os mais diferentes seres, em uma luta constante para engrandecer o ch'ulel (espírito) e, com isso, caminhar rumo ao lekil kuxlejal (Bem Viver). Para colocar em prática esses princípios, o cuidado em saúde é protagonizado pelos promotores autônomos de saúde e pelas assembleias comunitárias.


The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN, in Spanish) and its bases are formed predominantly by indigenous languages living in the region of Chiapas, Mexico. The movement builds a profound experience of autonomy, which goes through different dimensions of collective life. In this article, we intend, from a fieldwork carried out in the region, to focus on autonomous health. The conception of health is closely related to the notion of land, since in order to have health it is necessary to belong to a cosmos, permeated by mutual respect between the most different beings, in a constant struggle to ennoble the ch'ulel (spirit) and thus to walk to the lekil kuxlejal (Good Living). To put these principles into practice, healthcare is carried out by autonomous health promoters and communal assemblies.


El Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN) y sus bases de apoyo son formados predominantemente por indígenas que viven en la región de Chiapas, México. El movimiento construye una experiencia profunda de autonomía, que atraviesa diferentes dimensiones de la vida colectiva. En este artículo, nos proponemos, a partir de un trabajo de campo realizado en la región, enfocar la salud autónoma. La concepción de salud guarda una estrecha relación con la noción de tierra, ya que para tener salud es necesario pertenecer a un cosmos, impregnado por el respeto mutuo entre los seres más diferentes, en una lucha constante para engrandecer el ch'ulel (espíritu) y, de este modo, caminar hasta el lekil kuxlejal (Buen Vivir, también llamado Vivir Bien). Para poner en práctica estos principios, la asistencia en salud se lleva a cabo por los promotores autónomos de salud y por las asambleas comunitarias.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Colonialismo , Capitalismo , Grupos de Población , Antropología Médica , Antropología Cultural , Organización Comunitaria , Racismo , Derechos Humanos , Cultura Indígena , Promoción de la Salud , México
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4449-4458, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778495

RESUMEN

The article proposes a reinterpretation about the health crisis within a broader crisis of utopias and the need to reinvent social emancipation that can show us realistic paths of hope from the present. For this purpose, we propose the association of four types of justice: social, health, environmental and cognitive. The two first ones are well known in critical thinking and collective health, and the last two extend the understanding of the crisis in its civilizing, ethical, and planetary aspects, marked by the contradictions and destructive potential of Eurocentric, Western and capitalist modernity. The social is considered inseparable from the ecological, ontological, and epistemological dimensions in the interface between ethics, politics, science and social transformation related to the various crises and the necessary civilizational transition. The article is based on contributions from three fields of knowledge: collective health, political ecology and postcolonial approaches, especially the Epistemologies of the South, as presented by Boaventura de Sousa Santos around the reinvention of social emancipation. Finally, we propose some brief reflections for collective health to produce alternatives on topics such as economic, scientific and technological development, health promotion, surveillance, and care.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Libertad , Salud Pública , Derecho a la Salud , Justicia Social , Capitalismo , Vestuario , Colonialismo , Desarrollo Económico , Violencia Étnica , Humanos , Industrias , Metáfora , Racismo , Mercadeo Social , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Violencia , Guerra
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 59-73, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1049994

RESUMEN

A sociedade brasileira possui um histórico marcado por violências e autoritarismos. A história colonial que funda a ideia de Brasil se consolida com a noção de identidade nacional baseada em aspectos racistas, sexistas e heteronormativos. Essas violências têm sido denunciadas e visibilizadas a partir de um olhar focado na dimensão pública e macroestrutural da sociedade e as microviolências ou a dimensão da vida privada nem sempre são compreendidas como fundamentais para a reprodução dessas violências. A ideia cunhada pelas feministas dos anos 1970 de que o pessoal é político busca romper com essa divisão e reconhece que a vida privada e os aspectos que historicamente foram associados a ela, são locus fundamental para compreender como as distintas violências e sistemas de poder se entrecruzam e produzem experiências que exigem dos analistas sociais, dos atores das políticas públicas e dos sujeitos um olhar crítico fundamentado e interseccional. A proposta deste ensaio é problematizar a instituição da maternidade como um aparato patriarcal, colonial, capitalista e racista de controle e reclusão das mulheres a partir de duas construções religiosas sobre a maternidade: a primeira versão da oração Ave Maria e um itan da tradição oral iorubá sobre Oxum, orixá da fecundidade e protetora das mulheres grávidas...(AU)


Brazilian society has a history marked by violence and authoritarianism. The colonial history that founds the idea of Brazil is consolidated with the notion of national identity based on racist, sexist and heteronormative aspects. These expressions of violence have been denounced and viewed from a perspective focused on the public and macro-structural dimension of society, and the expressions of micro-violence or the dimension of private life are not always understood as fundamental for the reproduction of these expressions of violence. The 1970s feminist idea that "the personal sphere" is political, seeks to break away from this division and recognizes that private life and the aspects that have historically been associated with it are a central locus for understanding how distinct violence and power systems intersect and produce experiences that require a critical and intersectional critical look from social analysts, public policy actors, and individuals. The proposal of this essay is to problematize the institution of motherhood as a patriarchal, colonial, capitalist and racist apparatus of control and reclusion of women from two religious constructions on motherhood: the first version of the Hail Mary prayer and an itan of the Yoruba oral tradition on Oxum, orixá of the fecundity and protector of the pregnant women...(AU)


La sociedad brasileña tiene una historia marcada por la violencia y el autoritarismo. La historia colonial que subyace a la idea de Brasil se consolida con la noción de identidad nacional basada en aspectos racistas, sexistas y heteronormativos. Esta violencia se ha denunciado y se ha hecho visible a través de un enfoque en la dimensión pública y macro estructural de la sociedad, y la micro violencia o la dimensión de la vida privada no siempre se entienden como fundamentales para la reproducción de esta violencia. La idea acuñada por las feministas de la década de 1970 de que lo personal es político busca romper esta brecha y reconoce que la vida privada y los aspectos que históricamente se han asociado con ella son un lugar fundamental para comprender cómo se cruzan los distintos sistemas de violencia y poder y producen experiencias que requieren que los analistas sociales, los actores de políticas públicas y los sujetos tengan un ojo crítico fundamentado e interseccional. El propósito de este ensayo es problematizar la institución de la maternidad como un aparato de control y aislamiento patriarcal, colonial, capitalista y racista de las mujeres desde dos construcciones religiosas sobre la maternidad: la primera versión de la oración Ave María y un itan de la tradición oral yoruba. sobre Oxum, orixá de fertilidad y protectora de las mujeres embarazadas...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Autoritarismo , Violencia , Responsabilidad Parental , Feminismo , Violencia contra la Mujer , Sexismo , Normas de Género , Política Pública , Embarazo , Colonialismo , Capitalismo , Racismo
12.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 532-537, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577862

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This paper provides a case study of the responses to alcohol of an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (The Service), and investigates the implementation of comprehensive primary health care and how it challenges the logic of colonial approaches. METHODS: Data were drawn from a larger comprehensive primary health care study. Data on actions on alcohol were collected from: a) six-monthly service reports of activities; b) 29 interviews with staff and board members; c) six interviews with advocacy partners; and d) community assessment workshops with 13 service users. RESULTS: The Service engaged in rehabilitative, curative, preventive and promotive work targeting alcohol, including advocacy and collaborative action on social determinants of health. It challenged other government approaches by increasing Aboriginal people's control, providing culturally safe services, addressing racism, and advocating to government and industry. CONCLUSIONS: This case study provides an example of implementation of the full continuum of comprehensive primary health care activities. It shows how community control can challenge colonialism and ongoing power imbalances to promote evidence-based policy and practice that support self-determination as a positive determinant for health. Implications for public health: Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services are a good model for comprehensive primary health care approaches to alcohol control.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/terapia , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/organización & administración , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/etnología , Colonialismo , Humanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Racismo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
13.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 14(3): 1-18, jul.-set. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040701

RESUMEN

Este artigo propõe aproximações entre a Psicologia Social Comunitária, as pesquisas narrativas (auto)biográficas e a perspectiva decolonial. Reconhece-se, nesse sentido, que os efeitos da colonização latina seguem nutrindo lugares de enunciação muito distintos para sujeitos marcados pela diferença/desigualdade colonial na sociedade brasileira, o que tem produzido movimentos epistêmico-políticos decoloniais que interpelam o projeto de sujeito e sociedade construído a partir das lógicas coloniais. Dessa forma, é importante que possamos colaborar no endereçamento de que os sujeitos colonizados, a partir de suas narrativas, fazem à comunidade latina e brasileira em busca de elaboração denúncia e combate às desigualdades coloniais. É fundamental, portanto, que retomemos as alianças históricas que permitiram que os colonizados (re)inventassem outros mundos possíveis, rompendo com a posição subalterna, apenas, como lugar da vitimização. Devemos, assim, valorizar, eticamente, não sem (auto)críticas, os deslocamentos que as narrativas decoloniais proporcionam às narrativas comunitárias, historicamente, legitimadas como local de produção da transformação social.


This article builds approximations between Community Social Psychology, narrative (self) biographical research and the decolonial perspective. In this sense, it is recognized that the effects of the Latin colonization still harbor very distinct places of enunciation for subjects marked by the colonial difference / inequality in Brazilian society. What has produced decolonial epistemic-political movements which challenge the project of subject and society built from the colonial logics. Thus, it is important that we can collaborate in the addressing that the colonized subjects, from their narratives, make to the Latin and Brazilian community in search of elaboration, denunciation and combat to the colonial inequalities. It is therefore essential that we retake the historical alliances that allowed the colonized to (re)invent other possible worlds, breaking with the subaltern position, only, as a place of victimization. We must therefore ethically value, not without (self) criticism, the displacements that the decolonial narratives provide for historically legitimized community narratives as the place of production of social transformation.


Este artículo construye aproximaciones entre la Psicología Social Comunitaria, las investigaciones narrativas (auto) biográficas y la perspectiva decolonial. Se reconoce, en ese sentido, que los efectos de la colonización latina todavía nutren lugares de enunciación muy distintos para sujetos marcados por la diferencia / desigualdad colonial en la sociedad brasileña. Lo que ha producido movimientos epistémico-políticos decoloniales que interpelan el proyecto de sujeto y sociedad construido a partir de las lógicas coloniales. De esta forma, es importante que podamos colaborar en el direccionamiento que los sujetos colonizados, a partir de sus narrativas, hacen a la comunidad latina y brasileña en busca de elaboración, denuncia y combate a las desigualdades coloniales. Es fundamental, por lo tanto, que retomamos las alianzas históricas que permitieron que los colonizados (re) inventasen otros mundos posibles, rompiendo con la posición subalterna, apenas, como lugar de la victimización. Debemos, así, valorar, éticamente, no sin (auto) críticas, los desplazamientos que las narrativas decoloniales proporcionan a las narrativas comunitarias, históricamente, legitimadas como lugar de producción de la transformación social


Asunto(s)
Psicología Social , Participación de la Comunidad , Colonialismo , Inequidad Social
14.
15.
Am J Community Psychol ; 64(1-2): 59-71, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355969

RESUMEN

Canada's 2015 Truth and Reconciliation Commission published 94 Calls to Action including direction to post-secondary institutions "to integrate Indigenous knowledge and teaching methods into classrooms" as well as to "build student capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual respect." In response, Canadian universities have rushed to "Indigenize" and are now competing to hire Indigenous faculty, from a limited pool of applicants. However, it is missing the true spirit of reconciliation for non-Indigenous faculty to continue with the status quo while assigning the sole responsibility of Indigenizing curriculum to these new hires. How can non-Indigenous psychology professors change their teaching to ensure that all students acquire an appreciation of traditional Indigenous knowledge about holistic health and healing practices, as well as an understanding of Canada's history of racist colonization practices and its intergenerational effects? Community psychologists, particularly those who have established relationships with Indigenous communities, have an important role to play. In this article, I survey the existing literature on Indigenizing and decolonizing psychological curriculum and share ways in which I have integrated Indigenous content into my psychology courses. I also reflect upon the successes, questions, and ongoing challenges that have emerged as I worked in collaboration with first Anisinaabek First Nations and then Mi'kmaw/L'nu First Nations.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Cultural/educación , Indios Norteamericanos/educación , Pueblos Indígenas/educación , Psicología/educación , Canadá , Colonialismo , Curriculum , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos/etnología , Indios Norteamericanos/psicología , Pueblos Indígenas/psicología , Psicología/métodos
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(2): 232-245, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270812

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Ancient DNA (aDNA) and standard osteological analyses applied to 11 skeletons at a late 17th to early 18th century farmstead site in Delaware to investigate the biological and social factors of settlement and slavery in colonial America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteological analysis and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing were conducted for all individuals and the resulting data contextualized with archaeological and documentary evidence. RESULTS: Individuals of European and African descent were spatially separated in this colonial cemetery. The skeletal remains exhibited differences in osteological features and maternal genetic ancestry. A specific mtDNA haplotype appeared in a subset of the European-descended individuals suggesting they were maternally related. Individuals of African descent were not maternally related, and instead showed a diversity of haplotypes affiliated with present-day Western, Central, and Eastern regions of Africa. DISCUSSION: Along with the bioarchaeological and documentary evidence, the aDNA findings contribute to our understanding of life on the colonial Delaware frontier. Evidence of maternal relatedness among European-descended individuals at the site demonstrates kin-based settlements in 17th century Delaware and provides preliminary identifications of individuals. The maternal genetic diversity of the individuals with African descent aligns with the routes of the trans-Atlantic slave trade but broadens our understanding of the ancestries of persons involved in it. Burial positioning, osteological pathology, and lack of maternal kinship among individuals of African descent provide tangible evidence for the emergence of racialized labor and society in Delaware during the late 17th century.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Colonialismo/historia , Esclavización/historia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Arqueología , Cementerios/historia , Preescolar , ADN Antiguo/análisis , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Delaware , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(2): 123-128, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271364

RESUMEN

From 1939 to 1945, John Black Grant a Rockefeller Foundation officer and former Professor of Public Health at the Peking Union Medical College served as the Director of the All Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Calcutta. Grant's India tenure is important for his efforts to ameliorate the condition of public health in India. Much has been written about Grant's contribution to transforming public health in China but his work in India has not received sufficient attention. This article acquaints readers with some of his more noteworthy ideas and endeavours to remodel the colonial public health and medical system. His views on Indian public health may also be viewed as a critique of the colonial health system.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Administración de los Servicios de Salud/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Academias e Institutos , Colonialismo , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Higiene , India , Masculino
19.
Bioethics ; 33(7): 827-834, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222791

RESUMEN

In colonial societies such as Canada the implications of colonialism and ethnocide (or cultural genocide) for ethical decision-making are ill-understood yet have profound implications in health ethics and other spheres. They combine to shape racism in health care in ways, sometimes obvious, more often subtle, that are inadequately understood and often wholly unnoticed. Along with overt experiences of interpersonal racism, Indigenous people with health care needs are confronted by systemic racism in the shaping of institutional structures, hospital policies and in resource allocation decisions. Above all, racism is a function of state law - of the unilateral imposition of the settler society law on Indigenous communities. Indeed, the laws, including health laws, are social determinants of the ill-health of Indigenous peoples. This article describes the problem of Indigenous ethnocide and explores its ethical implications. It thereby problematizes the role of law in health ethics.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo , Prestación de Atención de Salud/ética , Genocidio/ética , Política de Salud , Pueblos Indígenas/psicología , Racismo/etnología , Racismo/psicología , Canadá/etnología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/etnología , Humanos , Racismo/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Public Health ; 172: 119-124, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171363

RESUMEN

The health of Maori, the Indigenous peoples of Aotearoa, New Zealand, like that of almost all Indigenous peoples worldwide, is characterised by systematic inequities in health outcomes, differential exposure to the determinants of health, inequitable access to and through health and social systems, disproportionate marginalisation and inadequate representation in the health workforce. As health providers, we are often taught that 'taking a history' is a critical component of a patient consultation to ensure that the underlying conditions are treated rather than the often superficial presenting symptoms. In the same way, attempts to make sense of the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples is inadequate unless health providers engage critically with the history of their respective nations and any subsequent patterns of privilege or disadvantage. Understanding this history, within the framework of western imperialism and other similar colonial projects, allows us to make sense of international patterns of Indigenous health status. While health commentators acknowledge the unequal health outcomes of Indigenous people, and an increasing number also link these inequities to Indigenous marginalisation resulting from historic events, very few go further and expose the deep relationship between racism and coloniality and how these continue to be the basic determinants of Indigenous health today. This work includes honest examination of the role that science and the health disciplines have played historically in colonisation through the subjugation of Indigenous ways of knowing and knowledge production, as well as being complicit in the creation and maintenance of a fabricated hierarchy of humankind. Despite the 'science' of this racial hierarchy being discredited, it retains a false validity in our societies. As long as oppressive systems that continue to re-inscribe racism and white privilege remain in communities, including our academic communities, coloniality continues its discrimination. Indigenous voices on migration, ethnicity, racisma and health will always demand the elimination of inequities in health but to do so will require a parallel commitment to critically interrogating all of our histories and our disciplines, as well as examining how our practice, including research, disrupts or maintains global systems of racism and coloniality.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Grupos de Población , Racismo , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda
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