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1.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 219-239, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284635

RESUMEN

This article surveys the evolution of Rwandan family planning practices from the nation's mythico-historical origins to the present. Rwanda is typically regarded as a patriarchal society in which Rwandan women have, throughout history, endured limited rights and opportunities. However, oral traditions narrated by twentieth-century Rwandan historians, storytellers and related experts, and interpreted by the scholars and missionaries who lived in Rwanda during the nation's colonial period, suggest that gender norms in Rwanda were more complicated. Shifting practices related to family planning - particularly access to contraception, abortion, vasectomies and related strategies - are but one arena in which this becomes evident, suggesting that women's roles within their families and communities could be more diverse than the historiography's narrow focus on women as wives and mothers currently allows. Drawing upon a range of colonial-era oral traditions and interviews conducted with Rwandans since 2007, I argue that Rwandan women - while under significant social pressure to become wives and mothers throughout the nation's past - did find ways to exert agency within and beyond these roles. I further maintain that understanding historical approaches to family planning in Rwanda is essential for informing present-day policy debates in Rwanda aimed at promoting gender equality, and in particular for ensuring women's rights and access to adequate healthcare are being upheld.


Asunto(s)
Catolicismo/historia , Colonialismo/historia , Anticoncepción/historia , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/historia , Religión y Medicina , Bélgica , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Regulación Gubernamental/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Misioneros/historia , Religión/historia , Rwanda
2.
Med Hist ; 64(1): 32-51, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933501

RESUMEN

This paper addresses the relative scholarly oversight of the history of public health in Haiti through a close examination of the colonial public health system constructed and operated by the United States (US) during its occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934. More than simply documenting a neglected aspect of Caribbean history, the paper offers the US occupation of Haiti as a remarkably clear example of a failed attempt to use a free public health service to cultivate a health conscientiousness among the Haitian citizenry through the aggressive treatment of highly visible ailments such as cataracts and yaws. I argue that the US occupation viewed the success of the Haitian Public Health Service as critical to the generation of a taxable, compliant and trusting citizenry that the colonial state could enter into a contract with. This idealistic programme envisioned by the US occupation was marred by financial mismanagement, racism, delusions of grandeur and contempt for Haitian physicians that resulted in the production of a far more precarious public health service and administrative state than the US occupation had hoped. By the time the Great Depression arrived in 1930 the Haitian Public Health Service was gutted and privatised, having successfully provided the majority of Haitians with free healthcare, yet failed to have persuaded them of the value of being governed by a centralised administrative state.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Colonialismo/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Haití , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Médicos/historia , Administración en Salud Pública/historia , Práctica de Salud Pública/historia , Racismo/historia , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(3): e23243, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016798

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The major aim of this article was to estimate the demographic impact of European arrival and colonization over Native American populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay. We also compared the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic diversity, structure, and demography of Native American lineages present in current indigenous (Natives) and nonindigenous admixed (Admixed) populations to estimate the effective population size (Ne ) of contemporary and ancestral (pre-Columbian) Native American populations. METHODS: We retrieved published mtDNA sequences from Native (n = 396) and Admixed (n = 309) populations from southern Brazil, Uruguay, and surrounding areas. We conducted genetic diversity, structure, and demographic analyses. Finally, we used Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate the Ne for current Native, Admixed, and pre-Columbian Native American populations. RESULTS: We found higher Native American mtDNA genetic diversity in admixed rather than in indigenous populations (131/309 vs 27/396 different haplotypes, respectively). Only Admixed populations maintained ancient signals of the Native American population expansion approximately 14 to 17 kya, which have decayed in Natives. Our Ne estimates suggest that Natives represent only 0.33% (0.18%-1.19%) of the Ne for ancestral pre-Columbian indigenous populations. CONCLUSIONS: Admixed populations represent an important genetic reservoir of Native American lineages, many of which are extinct in contemporary indigenous populations. In addition, the Native American lineages present in Admixed populations retain part of the past demographic history of Native Americans. The intensity of the reduction is congruent with historical accounts of strong indigenous depopulation during the colonization process.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , ADN Mitocondrial/análisis , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Densidad de Población , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Uruguay
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 256, 2019 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923917

RESUMEN

This study presents results of a sediment core located in Coroa de Boi Bay, a not dredged cove within Patos Estuary, Southern Brazil. The distribution of metals (Hg, Cu, Pb) and U in the sediment profile records several contamination events since pre-colonial times to present days. A joint assessment of the distribution of these parameters and the consultation to historical documents allowed us to establish causal links between concentrations anomalies in the sediments and ancient anthropogenic contamination in the area. During the industrial period, sedimentation rates in the bay ranged from 3.4 to 5.5 mm year-1. Applying a sedimentation rate previously calculated for undisturbed sediments in the Patos Estuary, we trace the beginning of Hg contamination as having started in the colonial period in Southern Brazil, soon after a Hispanic-Lusitanian conflict situation in South America. The most probable source of Hg contamination during this period was carroting technology used in fur processing.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Contaminación Ambiental/historia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Industrias/historia , Mercurio/historia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/historia , Pelaje de Animal , Animales , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estuarios , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Mercurio/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/historia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
6.
Med Humanit ; 44(4): 253-262, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482817

RESUMEN

This article provides a history of three pharmaceuticals in the making of modern South Africa. Borrowing and adapting Arthur Daemmrich's term 'pharmacopolitics', we examine how forms of pharmaceutical governance became integral to the creation and institutional practices of this state. Through case studies of three medicaments: opium (late 19th to early 20th century), thalidomide (late 1950s to early 1960s) and contraception (1970s to 2010s), we explore the intertwining of pharmaceutical regulation, provision and consumption. Our focus is on the modernist imperative towards the rationalisation of pharmaceutical oversight, as an extension of the state's bureaucratic and ideological objectives, and, importantly, as its obligation. We also explore adaptive and illicit uses of medicines, both by purveyors of pharmaceuticals, and among consumers. The historical sweep of our study allows for an analysis of continuities and changes in pharmaceutical governance. The focus on South Africa highlights how the concept of pharmacopolitics can usefully be extended to transnational-as well as local-medical histories. Through the diversity of our sources, and the breadth of their chronology, we aim to historicise modern pharmaceutical practices in South Africa, from the late colonial era to the Post-Apartheid present.


Asunto(s)
Anticonceptivos/historia , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/historia , Gobierno , Narcóticos/historia , Opio/historia , Política , Talidomida/historia , Apartheid/historia , Colonialismo/historia , Anticoncepción , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/historia , Control Social Formal , Sudáfrica
8.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 25(3): 841-858, 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365739

RESUMEN

Western colonialism influenced the encounter between traditional and modern knowledge from the nineteenth century onwards, resulting in the overlapping of Western medicine as a privileged form of knowledge. In 1958 the hybridization between Chinese and Western medicines became official under the name of traditional Chinese medicine and, through the development of biomedical research on acupuncture, it distanced itself from traditional knowledge. This essay presents historical changes experienced by Chinese medicine/acupuncture and discusses the effects of its absorption by modern medical reasoning from a postcolonial standpoint. The conclusion was that the scientism of Chinese medicine did not broaden its therapeutic potential and resulted in the loss of its epistemological authority.


Asunto(s)
Acupuntura/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Colonialismo/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Conocimiento , Política , Mundo Occidental
9.
Uisahak ; 27(2): 151-184, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287722

RESUMEN

The Korean Empire, its state sovereignty threatened by the Empire of Japan, joined the Geneva Conventions in 1903 for the purpose of neutral diplomacy and established the imperial Korean Red Cross Hospital in 1905. This hospital was a result of the effort of the Korean Empire to seek a new medical system based on the Western medicine. However, after the Russo-Japanese War, Japan interfered straightforwardly in the domestic affairs of Korea and eventually abolished the Korean Red Cross Hospital in 1907 to create Daehan Hospital under Japanese colonial rule. With newly-found historical records, this study investigates the whole process of the Korean Red Cross Hospital, which has remained unknown so far, despite its importance. From the very beginning, the Korean Red Cross Hospital was under strong influence of the Empire of Japan. The site for the hospital was chosen by a Japanese army doctor, Junryo Yoshimoto, and the construction was supervised by Rokuro Katsumata, who also later on are involved in the construction of Daehan Hospital. Moreover, all the main positions for medical treatments were held by Japanese practitioners such as Goro Tatami and Kaneko Yano. Nevertheless, the Korean government had to shoulder the all operating costs. The office of the Korean Red Cross was relocated away from the Korean Red Cross Hospital, and the government of the Korean Empire was not willing to burden the expenses of the Hospital. Moreover, the list of employees of the Korean Red Cross and that of the Korean Red Cross Hospital were drawn up separately: the former is left only in Korea and the latter in Japan. These facts suggest that those two institutes were managed dualistically unlike any other nation, implying that this may have been a means to support the Daehan Hospital project. According to the statistics, health care services in the Korean Red Cross Hospital seems to have been carried out successfully. There had been an increase in the number of patients, and the ratio of female patients was relatively high (26.4%). Only Western medications were prescribed and surgical operations with anesthesia were performed routinely. The approach to Western medicine in Korea was changing during that period. The rise and fall of the Korean Red Cross Hospital represent the urgent situation of the Korean Empire as well as the imperialistic methodology of the Empire of Japan to use medicine as a tool for colonization. Although the transition process of medical policy by the Japanese Resident-General of Korea still remains to be fully elucidated, this paper contributes to a better understanding of the history of modern medicine in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Hospitales/historia , Cruz Roja/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Japón , República de Corea
10.
Uisahak ; 27(2): 185-224, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287723

RESUMEN

In this article, I looked at the life of Yun Il-sun, a representative medical scientist of modern Korea, and examined the following problems. First, I took note of the position of the Korean people in the academic system of the Japanese colonial empire and restored the life of Yun Il-sun as specifically as possible. Yun was educated among Japanese people from elementary school to university. Although he received the best education at Old System High School and Imperial University and grew to be a prominent medical scientist, he could not overcome his identity as a colonized. Yun Il-sun, who moved from Keijo Imperial University to Severance Union Medical College, involved in activities founding of the Korean Medical Association and the Korean Medical Journal. Second, I the meaning of 'culture' to the intellectuals in the periphery. Old System High School and Imperial University where Yun Il-sun was educated were the hotbed of 'culturalism.' Yun's college days were the heyday of Taisho Democracy, and students were attracted to Marxism, Christian poverty movement, Buddhist cultivation movement and so on. Yun sought to overcome the ideological of young people through the acquisition of 'culture.' The 'culture' emphasized by Yun had an enlightenment characteristic that emphasized education, but it also functioned as a'identity culture of educated elites.' Third, I used the concept of 'colonial academism' and examined the aspects and characteristics of the colonial-periphery academic field, focusing on medicine. Yun Il-sun was a Korean professor at the Keijo Imperial University. He founded an academic society and published an academic journal for Koreans. He attempted to reproduce scholarship by doctoral dissertations. At the same time, several facts show that he was also in the affected area of 'colonial academism': the fact that he was kicked out of the Keijo Imperial University, the fact that the Korean Medical Association and the Korean Medical Journal were banned by Governor General, the fact that his students asked for doctoral degrees from Kyoto Imperial University where he studied. Yun Il-sun crossed the limits of 'colonial academism' and acted as the agent of empire. This was made possible by the characteristics of the academic discipline of medicine, the environment of the Severance Union Medical College, and personal traits of superior ability and indifference to politics. I the postcolonial evolution of the 'colonial academism' and 'culturalism.' The mix of continuity and discontinuity from 'colonial academism' and the hybrid of Japanese academism and American academism, the Korean characteristics of 'postcolonial academism.' Yun tried to harmonize the American academism with the Japanese academism and the purity of academism. This effort was revealed as an emphasis on basic medicine and natural sciences. As combined with culturalism and indifference to politics, he was recognized as the symbol of ivory tower and academism.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/historia , Colonialismo/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Japón , República de Corea
11.
Bull Hist Med ; 92(3): 413-438, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369498

RESUMEN

Professional medicine in colonial British Africa has been extensively examined by historians. Few scholars, however, have adequately considered the role that white settlers without medical training played in the provision of colonial health care in local African communities. This article addresses the gap by exploring amateur medical treatment by white settler women in East and South-Central African communities between 1890 and 1939, primarily in highland areas of Kenya and Southern Rhodesia. It examines the types of conditions treated, what techniques and equipment were used for treatment, and where treatment was carried out. It also explores medical identity in settler women's memoirs. Last, it considers the degree of choice exercised by patients in these amateur medical encounters. Overall, this article situates white settlers' amateur treatment in African communities as an important strand of colonial health care and as an intimate contact zone between white settlers, colonial medicine, and local people.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Personal de Salud/historia , Competencia Profesional , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Kenia , Zimbabwe
12.
Am Surg ; 84(6): 763-765, 2018 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981598

RESUMEN

Life in the early American colonies presented unique challenges to the British colonists. There was an acute need for health-care providers in the early Virginia colony at Jamestown. Many of the medical men who first arrived at Jamestown were surgeons who adapted themselves to fit the medical needs of the community. These men trained in the British system where they sat beneath physicians in a hierarchy that did not consider surgeons to be doctors. Through their service to the colonists, early surgeons earned the reputation traditionally given to physicians in Great Britain. The colonists in Virginia respected the surgeons and viewed them as doctors, which allowed surgeons to stand on equal ground with physicians as the colonies grew to eventually become the United States of America.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Cirugía General/historia , Personal de Salud/historia , Personal de Salud/organización & administración , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Reino Unido , Virginia
13.
Hist Psychiatry ; 29(3): 263-281, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860873

RESUMEN

This article examines Emil Kraepelin's notion of comparative psychiatry and relates it to the clinical research he conducted at psychiatric hospitals in South-East Asia (1904) and the USA (1925). It argues that his research fits awkwardly within the common historiographic narratives of colonial psychiatry. It also disputes claims that his work can be interpreted meaningfully as the fons et origio of transcultural psychiatry. Instead, it argues that his comparative psychiatry was part of a larger neo-Lamarckian project of clinical epidemiology and was thus primarily a reflection of his own long-standing diagnostic practices and research agendas. However, the hospitals in Java and America exposed the institutional constraints and limitations of those practices and agendas.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Colonialismo/historia , Etnopsicología/historia , Etnopsicología/métodos , Parálisis , Sífilis , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/etnología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Indonesia , Parálisis/etnología , Parálisis/historia , Sífilis/etnología , Sífilis/historia , Estados Unidos
14.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 54(2): 117-139, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537069

RESUMEN

During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule. Researchers asked how democracy functioned in contexts marked by hierarchy and difference. Their goal was to guide future policies toward US "minorities" and foreign races in post-war occupied territories. We show how researchers deployed ideas about race, cultural, and difference across a variety of cases to create a universal, predictive social science, which they combined with a prewar romanticism and cultural relativism. These researchers made ethnic, racial, and cultural difference compatible with predictive laws of science based on notions of fundamental human similarities.


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos , Colonialismo/historia , Segunda Guerra Mundial , Grupos de Población Continentales/historia , Gobierno , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Ciencias Sociales , Estados Unidos
15.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 73(2): 205-222, 2018 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546373

RESUMEN

This article considers the significance of eating and drinking within a series of diaries and journals produced in British colonial India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The discussion of food and drink in this context was not simply a means to add color or compelling detail to these accounts, but was instead a vital ingredient of the authors' understanding of health and medical treatment. These texts suggest a broader colonial medical understanding of the importance of regulating diet to maintain physical health. Concern with food, and the lack thereof, was understandably a key element in diaries, and in the eyewitness accounts kept by British soldiers, doctors, and civilians during the rebellion. At a narrative level, mention of food also functioned as a trope serving to increase dramatic tension and to capture an imagery of fortitude. In references to drink, by contrast, these sources reveal a conflict between professional and lay opinions regarding the use of alcohol as part of medical treatment. The accounts show the persistent use of alcohol both for medicinal and restorative purposes, despite growing social and medical anxieties over its ill-effects on the body. Close examination of these references to food and drink reflect the quotidian habits, social composition, and the extent of professional and lay knowledge of health and medicine in colonial British India.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Dietoterapia/historia , Dietoterapia/métodos , Historia de la Medicina , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , India , Medicina , Reino Unido
16.
Hist Psychiatry ; 29(3): 315-330, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582688

RESUMEN

This article traces the career of Thomas Adeoye Lambo, the first European-trained psychiatrist of indigenous Nigerian (Yoruba) background and one of the key contributors to the international development of transcultural psychiatry from the 1950s to the 1980s. The focus on Lambo provides some political, cultural and geographical balance to the broader history of transcultural psychiatry by emphasizing the contributions to transcultural psychiatric knowledge that have emerged from a particular non-western context. At the same time, an examination of Lambo's legacy allows historians to see the limitations of transcultural psychiatry's influence over time. Ultimately, this article concludes that the history of transcultural psychiatry might have more to tell us about the politics of the 'transcultural' than the practice of 'psychiatry' in post-colonial contexts.


Asunto(s)
Etnopsicología/historia , Trastornos Mentales/etnología , Servicios de Salud Mental/historia , Colonialismo/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Nigeria
18.
20 Century Br Hist ; 29(4): 497-521, 2018 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069506

RESUMEN

In 1927 Michael McDonnell, a diasporic Irish Catholic, was appointed Mandatory Palestine's Chief Justice, being directed to institute firm British-style legal-judicial foundations for future self-governance. This entailed common, equal status for Arab and Jewish Palestinians, implicitly de-privileging the Jewish National Home. McDonnell was resisted in this by the British Mandate's Anglo-Jewish, pro-Zionist Attorney General, Norman Bentwich. McDonnell prevailed but only at the cost of being characterized lastingly as a pro-Arab, Catholic anti-Semite. McDonnell's continuing defence of a supreme, independent judiciary antagonized the Palestine Executive of High Commissioner Arthur Wauchope, who tried to co-opt rather than subordinate Zionist interests. Consequent frictions culminated in 1936 with McDonnell adjudicating against supra-legal British repression of Palestine's great Arab rebellion. For this he was dismissed and ostracized, subsequently publishing critiques of British policy in fringe right-wing organs. Yet McDonnell professed explicitly non-racist views, reflecting a liberal-minded, constitutional Irish nationalist equation of Palestine with Ireland, seeing comparable settler-colonial abuses and native distress as remediable only by transcendentally impartial justice. Britain reneging on these principles led McDonnell, like those Irish imperial servants noted in India, to identify with colonial subjects against colonialism. His case is one of empire as a system of domination being challenged from within, although his removal foreshadowed emerging imperial counter-insurgency's tendency not only to repress subject populations but deny civil-progressive alternatives for managing post-colonial transition.


Asunto(s)
Catolicismo , Justicia Social , Colonialismo/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , India , Irlanda , Justicia Social/historia , Reino Unido
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