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1.
Saúde Soc ; 27(4): 1081-1093, Out.-Dez. 2018. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-979237

RESUMEN

Resumo Os antecedentes históricos da hanseníase como problema social conduziram à construção de hospitais-colônia para isolamento de portadores da doença - uma medida profilática, a fim de evitar sua disseminação. Entretanto, esses estabelecimentos reforçaram o estigma da moléstia e perderam significado diante dos avanços científicos do tratamento ambulatorial. Assim, foram progressivamente descaracterizados, a exemplo do objeto deste estudo - o Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária do Paraná, instalado em Piraquara, na região metropolitana de Curitiba. Com base nessa conjuntura, a pesquisa objetiva analisar as consequências da desativação de um complexo hospitalar, diagnosticando sua situação atual e refletindo sobre alternativas para minimização das suas interferências deletérias, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento do pensamento sobre outras experiências urbanísticas de organização do espaço social perante a estigmatização. A investigação foi baseada em técnicas de revisão de fontes bibliográficas e documentais sobre o tema e o objeto de estudo. Os resultados revelam que os retrocessos promoveram uma trajetória de segregação socioespacial e intraurbana, determinando necessidades de inclusão que demandam a constituição de políticas públicas de saúde associadas a diretrizes de gestão de cidades.


Abstract The history of leprosy as a social problem led to the construction of colony hospitals for the isolation of the ill - a prophylaxis measure, in order to contain dissemination. However, these establishments have reinforced the disease stigma and have lost their meaning in the face of scientific advances in outpatient treatment. Thus, they were progressively mischaracterized, like the object of this study - the Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária do Paraná, installed in Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil, in the metropolitan region of Curitiba. Based on this scenario, the research aims at analyzing the consequences of the deactivation of a hospital complex, diagnosing its current situation and reflecting on alternatives to minimize its deleterious interferences, contributing to the development of thinking about other urban experiences of organizing the social space in the face of stigmatization. The work was based on revision techniques of bibliographical and documentary sources on the subject and the object of study. The results show that the setbacks promoted a socio-spatial and intra-urban segregation, determining the necessity of inclusion that demand the constitution of public health policies associated to city management guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Prejuicio , Política Pública , Estigma Social , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra , Planificación de Ciudades
2.
Clin Dermatol ; 36(5): 680-685, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217283

RESUMEN

Father Damien de Veuster, or Saint Damien of Molokai (1840-1889), was one of the pioneers of the holistic approach to care provision for leprosy patients and contributed to the overcoming of the patients' social stigmatization. He devoted his life to the lepers living in America's only leper colony, on the Hawaiian island of Molokai, where people with leprosy were required to live under government-sanctioned medical quarantine. Father Damien gained practical skills in caring for the sick, eagerly learning wound cleansing, bandaging techniques, and drug administration from a nurse. Mahatma Gandhi said that Father Damien's work had inspired his own social campaigns in India.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Bélgica , Hawaii , Historia del Siglo XIX , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/terapia , Aislamiento de Pacientes/historia
3.
Anthropol Med ; 24(3): 301-318, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283038

RESUMEN

Medicine and religion worked in close synchronisation during the leprosy outbreak of New Caledonia (1890-1950). Once isolation of leprosy-affected people became mandatory doctors and missionaries came together to promote a particular form of medical practice that tied charitable zeal with cutting-edge medical research, developing a sophisticated set of medical practices that catered for the soul as well as the body. Such practices went hand-in-hand with ideas developed by doctors in the earlier stages of the epidemic about the way in which the disease had entered the Kanak (local Melanesian) population. Doctors and missionaries admitted that immoral colonial channels had upset the delicate balance of local social and biological rhythms. Yet they also believed that the highly contagious nature of the outbreak was linked to the inferior state of Kanak. This paper aims to highlight the way in which the leprosaria system in New Caledonia represented a double-edged moral high-ground within the French medical colonial narrative. It tracks the complex way in which emotionally charged arguments about contagion, science and spirituality constructed an ideology of humanitarian quarantine which was used to justify a highly aggressive form of medical biocontrol.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra , Cuarentena , Religión y Medicina , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Lepra/historia , Lepra/prevención & control , Lepra/terapia , Misioneros , Nueva Caledonia
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 24(1): 13-39, jan.-mar. 2017.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-840687

RESUMEN

Resumo A partir de documentação produzida entre a primeira metade do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX, prioritariamente relatórios médicos, o artigo aponta as concepções vigentes na comunidade médica colonial e entre as populações locais sobre a lepra, suas manifestações e seu enfrentamento. Enfoca as tensões quanto à prática de segregação dos leprosos e suas implicações sanitárias e sociais. Para compreender as raízes dos discursos e estratégias no meio médico português e colonial, recupera-se a trajetória das definições de isolamento, segregação, lepra e suas aplicações, ou ausência de referência, na literatura de missionários, cronistas e médicos em Angola e Moçambique a partir da segunda metade do século XVII.


Abstract Drawing on documents produced between the early nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, mainly medical reports, this paper indicates the prevailing conceptions in the colonial medical community and local populations about leprosy, its manifestations, and how to deal with it. It focuses on the tensions concerning the practice of segregating lepers and its social and sanitation implications. To comprehend the roots of the discourses and strategies in the Portuguese and colonial medical environment, the trajectory of the definitions of isolation, segregation, and leprosy are traced, as are their use in or absence from the writings of missionaries, chroniclers, and doctors in Angola and Mozambique as of the second half of the seventeenth century.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Aislamiento de Pacientes/historia , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/historia , Médicos/historia , Portugal , Colonialismo/historia , Enfermedades Endémicas/historia , África , Misioneros/historia , Lepra/terapia , Mozambique
5.
Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 86(1): 69-90, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148949

RESUMEN

A Hansen's disease (HD) policy began in Japan with the enactment of the No. 11 Act on Leprosy (1907 law No. 11), which was the first leprosy prevention law in Japan in 1907. Results of the law included the enforcement of regulations of the stated law and the establishment of Prefectural Allied (National) HD Sanatoriums in 1909. This policy continued until the "leprosy prevention law" abolition in 1996, and about 35,000 people were placed in isolation; however, its entering and out-going trends are not clear yet. The purpose of this research is to clarify the actual condition of the Japanese HD policy. We added up the number of individuals entering and leaving the sanatorium from 1909 to 2010. This information was collected from annual reports and the internal material from each national sanatorium. In the results, the number of general residents (new, re-entering, transferring from other sanatoriums) and the number of general out-going persons (transferring to another sanatorium, formal discharge, informal discharge including escape and wrong diagnosis, and others) were all totaled as the running number during the 102 year span, in addition to being added to the deaths. The results show that the number of general residents was 56,575 people and the number of general out-going persons was 54,047 people (death: 25,200 people; change of sanatorium: 4,350 people; formal discharge: 7,124 people; informal discharge including escape: 12,378 people; wrong diagnosis: 310 people; others: 4,685 people). Based on the details of each leprosy prevention law, the results for the first "1907 law No. 11" show that the number of general residents was 12,673 people and the number of general out-going persons was 9,070 people. The "1931 leprosy prevention law" results show that the number of general residents was 31,232 people and the number of general out-going persons was 23,354 people. The "1953 leprosy prevention law" results show that the number of general inmates was 12,098 people and the number of general out-going persons was 18,159 people. The "1996 law about repeal of leprosy prevention law" results show that the number of general residents was 572 people and the number of general out-going persons was 3,464 people. We can clarify the number of general residents and the number of general out-going persons in the National HD Sanatoriums in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Colonias de Leprosos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Lepra/epidemiología
6.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 24(1): 13-39, 2017.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27849217

RESUMEN

Drawing on documents produced between the early nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, mainly medical reports, this paper indicates the prevailing conceptions in the colonial medical community and local populations about leprosy, its manifestations, and how to deal with it. It focuses on the tensions concerning the practice of segregating lepers and its social and sanitation implications. To comprehend the roots of the discourses and strategies in the Portuguese and colonial medical environment, the trajectory of the definitions of isolation, segregation, and leprosy are traced, as are their use in or absence from the writings of missionaries, chroniclers, and doctors in Angola and Mozambique as of the second half of the seventeenth century.


Asunto(s)
Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/historia , Aislamiento de Pacientes/historia , África , Colonialismo/historia , Enfermedades Endémicas/historia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Lepra/terapia , Misioneros/historia , Mozambique , Médicos/historia , Portugal
7.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 23(2): 321-40, 2016 01 26.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276039

RESUMEN

This article analyzes the root causes of the shortage of social support for the relatives of people with leprosy, especially their children, in the state of Goiás, Central West region of Brazil, between 1920 and 1962. It focuses on the constitution of discourses that defined the medical and philanthropic care for the children of people isolated in leper colonies as a problem, and how this process resulted in the organization of the Society for the Welfare of Lepers and Defense Against Leprosy, and the construction of Afrânio de Azevedo children's home in Goiânia, the state capital. These elements are directly associated with the construction of a new approach in the regional history and social and medical policies for leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Protección Infantil/historia , Lepra/historia , Bienestar Social/historia , Brasil , Niño , Bienestar del Niño/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/terapia
8.
Int J Paleopathol ; 15: 140-151, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29539549

RESUMEN

This study compares the adult survivorship profiles of people interred in the Saint-Thomas d'Aizier leprosarium, estimated by cementochronology, to eight archaeological series in northern France dated from Late Antiquity to the Late Middle Ages, periods of significant visibility for Hansen's disease (leprosy). The goals are to understand the impact of leprosy on various social groups and to explore the cause of leprosy's decline by analyzing male and female fertility. Survival rates differed between medieval leprosy-free sites and the Saint-Thomas d'Aizier leprosarium, although this difference was statistically significant only for the female leprosarium sample. The selective female frailty, a consequence of social exclusion and the collapse of the quality of life, combined with the infertility of lepromatous couples, offer a multi-causal explanation to the end of the expansion and then decline of leprosy in southern and western European countries.


Asunto(s)
Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/historia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Fertilidad , Francia/epidemiología , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Análisis de Supervivencia
9.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 22(4): 1141-56, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26625914

RESUMEN

This article discusses the historical aspects of the policies for controlling Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas from the second half of the nineteenth century until the dismantling of this model in 1978. We present the historical changes in the local institutions and policies, and their relationship with national policies. The history and policies related to Hansen's disease in the state of Amazonas are analyzed through the following institutions: Umirisal, the Oswaldo Cruz Dispensary, the Paricatuba Leprosarium, the Antônio Aleixo Colony, and the Gustavo Capanema Preventorium. We seek to show that these institutions cared for the people who suffered from Hansen's disease and those related to them, and were also responsible for carrying out the policies for fighting and controlling the disease.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/historia , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/historia , Aislamiento de Pacientes/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Lepra/terapia , Aislamiento de Pacientes/legislación & jurisprudencia
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(4): 1141-1156, out.-dez. 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-767025

RESUMEN

Resumo O artigo versa sobre os aspectos históricos da política de controle da hanseníase no estado do Amazonas, desde a segunda metade do século XIX até a desconstrução desse modelo, em 1978. Apresentamos as mudanças históricas das instituições e das políticas locais, e a relação com a política nacional. A história e a política da hanseníase no estado do Amazonas são analisadas a partir das seguintes instituições: Umirisal, Dispensário Oswaldo Cruz, Leprosaria de Paricatuba, Colônia Antônio Aleixo, Preventório Gustavo Capanema. Procuramos mostrar que essas instituições realizaram o cuidado de pessoas que viveram e conviveram com a hanseníase e foram, também, responsáveis pela execução da política de combate e controle da hanseníase.


Abstract This article discusses the historical aspects of the policies for controlling Hansen’s disease in the state of Amazonas from the second half of the nineteenth century until the dismantling of this model in 1978. We present the historical changes in the local institutions and policies, and their relationship with national policies. The history and policies related to Hansen’s disease in the state of Amazonas are analyzed through the following institutions: Umirisal, the Oswaldo Cruz Dispensary, the Paricatuba Leprosarium, the Antônio Aleixo Colony, and the Gustavo Capanema Preventorium. We seek to show that these institutions cared for the people who suffered from Hansen’s disease and those related to them, and were also responsible for carrying out the policies for fighting and controlling the disease.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Aislamiento de Pacientes/historia , Política de Salud/historia , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/historia , Aislamiento de Pacientes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Lepra/terapia
19.
Med Sante Trop ; 23(3): 281-6, 2013.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24113552

RESUMEN

This article traces the history of leprosy in Reunion from the early eighteenth century, which long paralleled the slave trace. Lepers were confined to a lazaretto and treated with herbs. Father Raimbault, "doctor" and chaplain of the lepers in the middle of the twentieth century, is still honored today. The improvement in living standards and the use of sulfones finally resulted in the control of leprosy. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2011, an average of three new cases per year were detected among a population of 800,000 inhabitants.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/historia , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra/epidemiología , Reunión , Estigma Social , Sulfonas/historia , Sulfonas/uso terapéutico
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