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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1019, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589637

RESUMEN

Genome-wide variation in introgression rates across hybrid zones offers a powerful opportunity for studying population differentiation. One poorly understood pattern of introgression is the geographic displacement of a trait implicated in lineage divergence from genome-wide population boundaries. While difficult to interpret, this pattern can facilitate the dissection of trait genetic architecture because traits become uncoupled from their ancestral genomic background. We studied an example of trait displacement generated by the introgression of head plumage coloration from personata to alba subspecies of the white wagtail. A previous study of their hybrid zone in Siberia revealed that the geographic transition in this sexual signal that mediates assortative mating was offset from other traits and genetic markers. Here we show that head plumage is associated with two small genetic regions. Despite having a simple genetic architecture, head plumage inheritance is consistent with partial dominance and epistasis, which could contribute to its asymmetric introgression.


Asunto(s)
Introgresión Genética , Genoma , Passeriformes/genética , Pigmentación/genética , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Animales , Quimera , Color , Epistasis Genética , Plumas/anatomía & histología , Plumas/metabolismo , Femenino , Masculino , Passeriformes/anatomía & histología , Passeriformes/clasificación , Siberia , Uzbekistán
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 327: 124820, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578354

RESUMEN

The increasing volume of waste streams require new biological technologies that can address pollution concerns while offering sustainable products. Purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) are very versatile organisms that present a unique metabolism that allows them to adapt to a variety of environments, including the most complex waste streams. Their successful adaptation to such demanding conditions is partly the result of internal polymers accumulation which can be stored for electron/energy balance or as carbon and nutrients reserves for deprivation periods. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, glycogen, sulphur and polyphosphate are examples of polymers produced by PPB that can be economically explored due to their applications in the plastic, energy and fertilizers sectors. Their large-scale production implies the outdoor operation of PPB systems which brings new challenges, identified in this review. An overview of the current PPB polymer producing technologies and prospects for their future development is also provided.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Polihidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Color , Proteobacteria
3.
Am J Dent ; 34(1): 10-16, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544983

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To conduct a clinical evaluation of calcium lactate and sodium fluoride mouthrinses in reducing sensitivity and efficacy of color change during in-office bleaching. METHODS: 75 participants were selected and divided into three groups (n= 25), according to the type of desensitizing treatment tested: calcium lactate mouthrinse prior to sodium fluoride mouthrinse before each bleaching session; daily mouthrinse with sodium fluoride; control (absence of mouthrinse). Each mouthrinse was used for 1 minute. Bleaching was performed following the same protocol in all groups, with 40% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost), in three 40-minute sessions, with a 48-hour interval between sessions. Clinical parameters such as sensitivity, gingival irritation and mouthrinse acceptability were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and clinical examination at two timepoints: baseline (before any treatment) and 48 hours after the end of treatment. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (VITA Classical scale guide, 3D Master guide and CIEL*a*b*). The data were analyzed by generalized linear models and by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: There was significant color change in all groups according to the VITA Classical scale guide (P< 0.001). There was no significant difference among the groups for ΔL*, Δa*, Δb* and ΔE over time (P> 0.05). The control group presented a significant increase in sensitivity (P= 0.008). The other groups showed no significant difference between initial and final timepoints (P> 0.05). No symptoms of gingival irritation were observed in any of the groups evaluated. All desensitizing treatments presented high acceptability. Bleaching treatment was effective, regardless of association with desensitizing treatments. No treatment prevented bleaching sensitivity, but the absence of a combined desensitizing treatment led to increased sensitivity. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although bleaching sensitivity during in-office bleaching treatment cannot be avoided, daily fluoridated mouthrinse or calcium lactate used prior to fluoridated mouthrinse prevented its increase.


Asunto(s)
Sensibilidad de la Dentina , Blanqueadores Dentales , Blanqueamiento de Dientes , Compuestos de Calcio , Color , Sensibilidad de la Dentina/inducido químicamente , Sensibilidad de la Dentina/prevención & control , Fluoruros , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Lactatos , Blanqueadores Dentales/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Am J Dent ; 34(1): 39-43, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544987

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To characterize the color outcome on different zirconia types of various colored titanium backgrounds produced with a newly developed anodized technique. METHODS: Blue, green, pink and gold-colored titanium backgrounds were produced via different anodization voltage values. Non-anodized grey colored titanium was used as a control. A total of 40 disc-shaped zirconia specimens were prepared from four different zirconia types (Cercon HT, Noritake Alliance, Prettau, and Ice Zirkon). The zirconia specimens were placed on different titanium backgrounds to evaluate color differences (ΔE) by recording the L, a and b values. ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values were compared for different titanium backgrounds and zirconia types. To analyze the results, repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustments for pairwise comparison were used (α= 0.05). RESULTS: The Cercon HT group had the highest ΔE value, while the Noritake group showed the lowest ΔE value (P< 0.05). ΔL, Δa and Δb values showed significant color changes depending on the color of the titanium background, the sintering procedure of zirconia and the zirconia ingredients (P< 0.05). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Anodized titanium abutments may improve color in esthetic regions when a ceramic abutment cannot be used. The study showed that the gold-colored titanium produced via anodization was better than other colors at producing a tooth-like color for implant-supported zirconia restorations. Also, by adjusting the color of zirconia restorations, the effect of the background could be altered using the zirconia sintering protocol.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales , Titanio , Color , Ensayo de Materiales , Circonio
5.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(2): 33-35, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534691

Asunto(s)
Bioética , Medicina , Racismo , Color , Humanos
6.
Int J Prosthodont ; 34(1): 54-60, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570520

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of maxillofacial silicone elastomers following the incorporation of a specific particle size and concentration of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO of 20-nm and 40-nm particle sizes and in 1% and 2% concentrations were chosen. Silicone elastomer samples were prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The nano-oxides were incorporated via hand spatulation. The samples were subsequently tested for hardness and color stability and were then subjected to aging in an aging chamber for 1,008 hours, following which they were again evaluated for hardness, color stability, and surface roughness. RESULTS: A significant change was noted in the physical and mechanical properties post-aging in all the groups. The samples with nano-TiO2 of 40-nm particle size/2% concentration had the highest hardness, while color stability and surface roughness were higher in samples with nano-TiO2 of 20-nm particle size/1% and 2% concentrations, respectively. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that 20-nm nano-TiO2 particles best maintain the ideal properties of maxillofacial silicone elastomers and can potentially be used as alternative opacifiers when mixed with A-2186 maxillofacial silicone elastomers.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Maxilofacial , Elastómeros de Silicona , Color , Ensayo de Materiales , Óxidos , Tamaño de la Partícula
7.
Int J Prosthodont ; 34(1): 70-78, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570522

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a surface sealant agent on the color stability and surface roughness (Ra) of two denture base materials: polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and nylon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 disk-shaped specimens (10 × 2 mm) were fabricated from heat-cured PMMA and nylon denture base materials (n = 48/material). Each of the color stability and Ra tests were performed on half of the samples in each material group (n = 24), and these subgroups were then subdivided according to the surface treatment applied: 12 specimens were conventionally polished, serving as the control group, and 12 specimens received a sealant on the surface in addition to the surface polishing. Color stability was assessed through measuring the CIEL*a*b* color parameters before and after immersion in coffee solution. Ra was measured and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs were taken before and after thermocycling. Statistical analysis was done using 2-way analysis of variance (α = .05). RESULTS: The surface sealant agent significantly increased the color stability of both materials (P = .047). However, it had no significant effect on the Ra of materials before (P = .600) or after (P = .583) thermocycling. Nylon had a significantly rougher surface than PMMA both before and after thermocycling (P < .001). Similarly, SEM observations show a more irregular texture for nylon than for PMMA. CONCLUSION: Although the sealant agent had no significant effect on the Ra before or after thermocycling, it significantly decreased the color change of nylon and PMMA disks. Based on both statistical analyses and SEM observations, the Ra of PMMA was lower than nylon denture base material.


Asunto(s)
Nylons , Polimetil Metacrilato , Color , Bases para Dentadura , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie
8.
Int J Prosthodont ; 34(1): 79-87, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570523

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To measure the effect of simulated aging on stained resin-ceramic CAD/CAM materials regarding the durability of color and gloss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test specimens (n = 15 per material) were prepared out of CAD/CAM ingots from two resin nanoceramics (Lava Ultimate [LVU], Cerasmart [CER]) and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic (ENA, VITA Enamic) stained with the manufacturer's recommended staining kit using photopolymerization. Control specimens were made of feldspathic ceramic (VITA Mark II [VM2]) and stained by means of ceramic firing. Negative control specimens (n = 15) (no staining) were prepared for each group. Color and gloss measurements were performed before and after each aging cycle by means of mechanical abrasion with a toothbrush. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and paired post hoc Conover test. Changes within a group were calculated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (α = .05). RESULTS: The color difference (ΔE) was statistically significant for all stained CAD/CAM materials after simulated aging: CER (P < .001, 95% CI: 2.96 to 3.69), LVU (P = .004, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.46), ENA (P = .004, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.42), and VM2 (P < .001, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.08). Aging resulted in a statistically significant increase in gloss in the LVU group (P < 0.001, 95% CI: 13.78 to 17.29), whereas in the ENA (P < .001, 95% CI: 7.83 to 12.72), CER (P < .001, 95% CI: 2.69 to 8.44), and VM2 (P = .014, 95% CI: 0.22 to 1.87) groups, a significant decrease in gloss was noted. CONCLUSION: Color and gloss of stained resin-ceramic CAD/CAM materials changed significantly after aging by means of toothbrush abrasion in vitro.


Asunto(s)
Cerámica , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Color , Resinas Compuestas , Porcelana Dental , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie
9.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(2): 216-220, 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557510

RESUMEN

Resin cements have been widely employed for bonding all-ceramic restorations in clinical practice, its color stability is directly related to long-term prosthetic effect of restorations. Discoloration of resin cements can be attributed to two causes: endogenous factors are generally related to material compositions and initiation mechanism of polymerization; exogenous factors are mainly related to stimulation of local oral environment. Color stability of resin cements has close relationship with esthetic effect of all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this literature review was to make a presentation and discussion systematically about color stability of resin cements commonly used clinically, its influence factors and influence on all-ceramic restorations, so as to provide a reference for the application of all-ceramic restorations.


Asunto(s)
Porcelana Dental , Cementos de Resina , Cerámica , Color , Estética Dental , Ensayo de Materiales
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 15-29, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447027

RESUMEN

Purpose: The present study investigates the phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Perilla frutescens leaf extract, which acts as a reducing agent for the conversion of silver ions (Ag+) into AgNPs. P. frutescens leaf synthesized AgNPs (PF@AgNPs) were evaluated for biomedical properties including antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Materials and Methods: PF@AgNPs were synthesized using P. frutescens leaf extract and silver nitrate solution. The morphology and physical properties of PF@AgNPs were studied by spectroscopic techniques including, UV-Vis, FTIR, TEM, XRD, DLS, and TGA. Antibacterial activity of PF@AgNPs was evaluated by disk diffusion assay. Antioxidant activity of PF@AgNPs was checked by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2.2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assays. Anticancer activity of PF@AgNPs was checked by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Cytotoxic effects of PF@AgNPs on most susceptible cancer cell lines were observed by phase contrast microscopy. Results: PF@AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance peak at 461 nm. XRD pattern showed that the PF@AgNPs were face-centered cubic crystals with a mean size of 25.71 nm. TEM analysis revealed the different shapes (spherical, rhombic, triangle, and rod) of PF@AgNPs. Zeta potential value (-25.83 mV) indicated that PF@AgNPs were long-term stable and not agglomerated. A low polydispersity index value (0.389) indicated the monodispersity of PF@AgNPs. TGA revealed the high thermal stability of PF@AgNPs. PF@AgNPs exhibited maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli, followed by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. PF@AgNPs showed maximum inhibition of 68.02 and 62.93% against DPPH and ABTS-free radicals, respectively. PF@AgNPs showed significant anticancer activity against human colon cancer (COLO205) and prostate adenocarcinoma (LNCaP). PF@AgNPs exhibited apoptotic effects on LNCaP cells including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, fragmentation of nuclei, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Conclusion: The present study reports the successful synthesis of PF@AgNPs using P. frutescens leaf extract. The synthesized PF@AgNPs are FCC crystals, monodispersed, long-term stable, and non-agglomerated. The observed antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities demonstrate the potential biomedical applications of PF@AgNPs.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Perilla frutescens/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Plata/farmacología , Bacillus subtilis/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Color , Dispersión Dinámica de Luz , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Humanos , Nanopartículas del Metal/ultraestructura , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Picratos/química , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Electricidad Estática , Termogravimetría , Difracción de Rayos X
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 684, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514721

RESUMEN

Assessing the seasonal patterns of the Amazon rainforests has been difficult because of the paucity of ground observations and persistent cloud cover over these forests obscuring optical remote sensing observations. Here, we use data from a new generation of geostationary satellites that carry the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to study the Amazon canopy. ABI is similar to the widely used polar orbiting sensor, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), but provides observations every 10-15 min. Our analysis of NDVI data collected over the Amazon during 2018-19 shows that ABI provides 21-35 times more cloud-free observations in a month than MODIS. The analyses show statistically significant changes in seasonality over 85% of Amazon forest pixels, an area about three times greater than previously reported using MODIS data. Though additional work is needed in converting the observed changes in seasonality into meaningful changes in canopy dynamics, our results highlight the potential of the new generation geostationary satellites to help us better understand tropical ecosystems, which has been a challenge with only polar orbiting satellites.


Asunto(s)
Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/métodos , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Bosque Lluvioso , Imágenes Satelitales , Brasil , Color , Fotosíntesis , Estaciones del Año , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
14.
Food Chem ; 343: 128404, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406570

RESUMEN

Various drying techniques play an important role in foodstuff preservation. However, the role of different drying techniques on garlic quality is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum freeze-drying (VFD), hot air drying (HAD), infrared hot air drying (IRHAD), relative humidity drying (RHD) and pulsed vacuum drying (PVD) on the physical, rehydration, flavor, bioactive compounds and antioxidant characteristics of garlic slices. Results showed that garlic slices treated with VFD had an attractive color, low shrinkage, low hardness, and the lowest rehydration capacity. The volume shrinkage ratio, thermal stability and storage stability of garlic slices after HAD were the highest. Different dried garlic samples had different specific flavor fingerprints. IRHAD and RHD dried samples showed the highest rehydration capacity, content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The findings could provide a scientific basis to help in future large-scale production of good quality dried garlic products.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Aromatizantes/química , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Ajo/química , Color , Desecación , Ajo/metabolismo , Dureza , Análisis de Componente Principal , Temperatura , Termogravimetría , Agua/química , Agua/metabolismo
15.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104322, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460727

RESUMEN

Animal signals in multiple modalities expands the opportunity for effective communication. Among diurnal geckos of the genus Cnemaspis, chemical signalling traits preceded the evolution of visual traits. Males of all species possess chemical secreting ventral glands, but only in some species, males also express yellow gular patches. This difference in the expression of unimodal or multimodal signalling traits between closely related species provided us with an opportunity to understand the use of multimodal signals for communication. We studied receiver responses in Cnemaspis indica, a sexually monochromatic species, and in C. littoralis, a species where males possess yellow gulars. We performed behavioural trials where individuals of each species were exposed to only chemical stimuli, only visual stimuli, or both chemical and visual stimuli simultaneously from male and female conspecifics. Our results show that only chemical stimuli were necessary and sufficient to elicit responses in males and females of C. indica as well as in females of C. littoralis. However, males of the dimorphic C. littoralis required the multimodal stimulus to elicit movement-based responses. Our results suggest that the evolution of colour traits in diurnal geckos is associated with a partial shift in some receiver responses toward multimodal communication, with no addition to the behavioural repertoire.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Animales , Color , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenotipo
17.
Food Chem ; 346: 128963, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422917

RESUMEN

ß-Carotene (BC) exhibits several bioactive properties, but its application is restrained due to the unstability and low biological availability. In this study, protein fibrils were prepared from whey protein isolate fibrils (WPIF), which were used as carriers to protect and deliver BC. With the extension of heating time, the molecular weight of WPI decreased gradually. WPI was hydrolyzed into peptides which self-assembled into WPIF, resulting in significant changes in secondary structure, zeta-potential, viscosity and, antioxidant capacity. The main interactions between WPIF and BC were hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. The encapsulation efficiency of WPIF24 was increased from 76.55% to 92.11% compared to that of untreated WPI. Moreover, the simulated gastrointestinal release showed that the cumulative release of BC encapsulated by WPIF24 reached the maximum in the simulated intestine. Therefore, WPIF could be a potential delivery system for water-insoluble bioactive compounds with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and protection effect.


Asunto(s)
Proteína de Suero de Leche/química , beta Caroteno/química , Antioxidantes/química , Química Farmacéutica , Dicroismo Circular , Color , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Reología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 342: 128297, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508900

RESUMEN

Currently, the wine industry has an increasing interest in developing alternative solutions to traditional animal proteins fining agents. In this study, the impact of different protein fining agents on the turbidity, phenolic composition and color of 2-month and 12-month Syrah red wines was assessed. Wines fined with egg albumin and plant-based proteins from potato, pea, and grape seed as recent alternative, were compared to unfined control wines. Changes on turbidity, phenolic composition and color (by Differential Colorimetry) showed that animal and plant proteins differed in their clarifying efficiency and ability to interact with colorless phenolics and anthocyanins, depending on the age of wine, with important consequences on color quality and stability. Plant proteins showed lower effectiveness to reduce wine turbidity than egg albumin but modified in different way the phenolic composition, inducing lower color differences with respect to control wine and similar stability, especially potato and grape seed proteins.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas del Huevo/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Vino/análisis , Adsorción , Antocianinas/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Color , Colorimetría , Fenoles/análisis , Temperatura
19.
Food Chem ; 346: 128925, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418416

RESUMEN

Mango is a tropical fruit presenting intense postharvest metabolism. In storage at room temperature, it presents a short shelf life due to the high respiratory rate, and consequent ripening, which limits the marketing period in distant regions. This study evaluated the effect of edible coatings of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and beeswax in concentrations of 10, 20, and 40% in 'Palmer' mangoes stored for 15 days at 21 °C. The coatings controlled ripening, maintaining peel and pulp colors, firmness, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, sugars, ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, ß-carotene, and antioxidant activity. Also, they reduced weight loss, oxidative stress, and the anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) incidence, without inducing alcohol dehydrogenase activity, which suggests that coated fruit did not ferment. Treatment with 20% beeswax was the most suitable for industrial applications, increasing in six days the mangoes shelf life.


Asunto(s)
Películas Comestibles , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Derivados de la Hipromelosa/química , Derivados de la Hipromelosa/farmacología , Mangifera/química , Ceras/química , Colletotrichum/efectos de los fármacos , Color , Frutas/química , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Mangifera/microbiología
20.
Food Chem ; 346: 128889, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388668

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to prepare blue colored powders from an aqueous extract of cornflower petals. Low temperature (4 °C) aqueous extraction (1:20) and microencapsulation by freeze-drying were performed. A mixture of stabilizers (maltodextrin, guar gum, and lecithin) in a proportion of 10% to the amount of extract was used. The results indicated that the addition of 2% and 4% guar gum to maltodextrin (8-6%) significantly increased the efficiency of the process, but 4% guar gum caused the formation of amorphous particles; therefore, 2% guar gum addition was found to be the most optimal. The FT-IR and FT-Raman band characteristics for guar gum, lecithin, and maltodextrin dominated over those for anthocyanins contained in the powders made from cornflower petals. The blue powders had total phenolic content of 19.5-26.6 mg GAE/g DW. The antioxidant activity of the prepared powders measured by ABTS, CHEL, OH, and RED was high.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Centaurea/química , Minerales/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polvos/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Centaurea/metabolismo , Color , Galactanos/química , Mananos/química , Fenoles/química , Gomas de Plantas/química , Polisacáridos/química , Agua/química
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