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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546396

RESUMEN

This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Taiwan stock market and investigates whether companies with a commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) were less affected. This study uses a selection of companies provided by CommonWealth magazine to classify the listed companies in Taiwan as CSR and non-CSR companies. The event study approach is applied to examine the change in the stock prices of CSR companies after the first COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the stock prices of all companies generated significantly negative abnormal returns and negative cumulative abnormal returns after the outbreak. Compared with all companies and with non-CSR companies, CSR companies were less affected by the outbreak; their stock prices were relatively resistant to the fall and they recovered faster. In addition, the cumulative impact of the COVID-19 on the stock prices of CSR companies is smaller than that of non-CSR companies on both short- and long-term bases. However, the stock price performance of non-CSR companies was not weaker than that of CSR companies during times when the impact of the pandemic was lower or during the price recovery phase.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Comercio/economía , Cultura Organizacional , Pandemias/economía , Responsabilidad Social , Humanos , Taiwán
2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525558

RESUMEN

Prior to the 2020 outbreak of COVID-19, 70% of Australians' food purchases were from supermarkets. Rural communities experience challenges accessing healthy food, which drives health inequalities. This study explores the impact of COVID-19 on food supply and purchasing behaviour in a rural supermarket. Group model building workshops explored food supply experiences during COVID-19 in a rural Australian community with one supermarket. We asked three supermarket retailers "What are the current drivers of food supply into this supermarket environment?" and, separately, 33 customers: "What are the current drivers of purchases in this supermarket environment?" Causal loop diagrams were co-created with participants in real time with themes drawn afterwards from coded transcripts. Retailers' experience of COVID-19 included 'empty shelves' attributed to media and government messaging, product unavailability, and community fear. Customers reported fear of contracting COVID-19, unavailability of food, and government restrictions resulting in cooking more meals at home, as influences on purchasing behaviour. Supermarket management and customers demonstrated adaptability and resilience to normalise demand and combat reduced supply.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Modelos Económicos , Población Rural , Australia/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Comercio/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4738, 2020 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994397

RESUMEN

Wildlife trade is a key driver of the biodiversity crisis. Unregulated, or under-regulated wildlife trade can lead to unsustainable exploitation of wild populations. International efforts to regulate wildlife mostly miss 'lower-value' species, such as those imported as pets, resulting in limited knowledge of trade in groups like reptiles. Here we generate a dataset on web-based private commercial trade of reptiles to highlight the scope of the global reptile trade. We find that over 35% of reptile species are traded online. Three quarters of this trade is in species that are not covered by international trade regulation. These species include numerous endangered or range-restricted species, especially hotspots within Asia. Approximately 90% of traded reptile species and half of traded individuals are captured from the wild. Exploitation can occur immediately after scientific description, leaving new endemic species especially vulnerable. Pronounced gaps in regulation imply trade is having unknown impacts on numerous threatened species. Gaps in monitoring demand a reconsideration of international reptile trade regulations. We suggest reversing the status-quo, requiring proof of sustainability before trade is permitted.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/legislación & jurisprudencia , Internacionalidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reptiles , Animales , Comercio/economía , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/economía , Internet/economía , Internet/legislación & jurisprudencia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238848, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956402

RESUMEN

Consumer products are widely used as stimuli across several research fields. The use of consumer products as experimental stimuli lacks, however, the support of normative data regarding product features variability. In this work, we provide a first set of norms for people's perceptions of 150 consumer products regarding six relevant dimensions: product perceived complexity, quality objectivity, material/experiential nature, perceived price, familiarity and attitude. Products available in this normative database showed good overall distribution across the range of the dimensions evaluated. Obtained correlations between some of these dimensions provided evidence of how they can be confounded across products, further justifying the need to control for these dimensions. These norms should aid future research by allowing researchers to select products according to specific attributes and achieve appropriate experimental control. The norms here provided should also aid consumer behavior practitioners (such as marketers and advertisers) by providing insights as to how consumers perceive products along relevant dimensions.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Comercio/economía , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Percepción , Reconocimiento en Psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25169-25178, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958673

RESUMEN

Human decisions can be biased by irrelevant information. For example, choices between two preferred alternatives can be swayed by a third option that is inferior or unavailable. Previous work has identified three classic biases, known as the attraction, similarity, and compromise effects, which arise during choices between economic alternatives defined by two attributes. However, the reliability, interrelationship, and computational origin of these three biases have been controversial. Here, a large cohort of human participants made incentive-compatible choices among assets that varied in price and quality. Instead of focusing on the three classic effects, we sampled decoy stimuli exhaustively across bidimensional multiattribute space and constructed a full map of decoy influence on choices between two otherwise preferred target items. Our analysis reveals that the decoy influence map is highly structured even beyond the three classic biases. We identify a very simple model that can fully reproduce the decoy influence map and capture its variability in individual participants. This model reveals that the three decoy effects are not distinct phenomena but are all special cases of a more general principle, by which attribute values are repulsed away from the context provided by rival options. The model helps us understand why the biases are typically correlated across participants and allows us to validate a prediction about their interrelationship. This work helps to clarify the origin of three of the most widely studied biases in human decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Comercio/economía , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Motivación/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942766

RESUMEN

This paper examines the linkages in financial markets during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. For this purpose, daily stock market returns were used over the period of December 31, 2019-April 20, 2020 for the following economies: USA, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, UK, China, and Romania. The study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to explore whether the Romanian stock market is impacted by the crisis generated by novel coronavirus. Granger causality was employed to investigate the causalities among COVID-19 and stock market returns, as well as between pandemic measures and several commodities. The outcomes of the ARDL approach failed to find evidence towards the impact of Chinese COVID-19 records on the Romanian financial market, neither in the short-term, nor in the long-term. On the other hand, our quantitative approach reveals a negative effect of the new deaths' cases from Italy on the 10-year Romanian bond yield both in the short-run and long-run. The econometric research provide evidence that Romanian 10-year government bond is more sensitive to the news related to COVID-19 than the index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Granger causality analysis reveals causal associations between selected stock market returns and Philadelphia Gold/Silver Index.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Desarrollo Económico , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Betacoronavirus , China , Francia , Alemania , Humanos , Italia , Rumanía , España , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237500, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881890

RESUMEN

After the United Kingdom has left the European Union it remains unclear whether the two parties can successfully negotiate and sign a trade agreement within the transition period. Ongoing negotiations, practical obstacles and resulting uncertainties make it highly unlikely that economic actors would be fully prepared to a "no-trade-deal" situation. Here we provide an economic shock simulation of the immediate aftermath of such a post-Brexit no-trade-deal scenario by computing the time evolution of more than 1.8 million interactions between more than 6,600 economic actors in the global trade network. We find an abrupt decline in the number of goods produced in the UK and the EU. This sudden output reduction is caused by drops in demand as customers on the respective other side of the Channel incorporate the new trade restriction into their decision-making. As a response, producers reduce prices in order to stimulate demand elsewhere. In the short term consumers benefit from lower prices but production value decreases with potentially severe socio-economic consequences in the longer term.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Participación de la Comunidad , Desarrollo Económico , Factores de Tiempo , Unión Europea , Geografía , Modelos Económicos , Reino Unido
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238718, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886708

RESUMEN

Market liquidity ensures the marketability of security and is an indispensable feature of stock markets. Previous studies have emphasized the role of stock market liquidity in empirical finance. However, they have inadequately explored its multidimensional nature. This study eliminates the ambiguities related to market liquidity by precisely measuring it by using popular and proven liquidity measures. As such, the present study aims to evaluate market liquidity in terms of depth, breadth, tightness, and immediacy in the Indian equity market and also identifies crucial interdependencies between liquidity dimensions. The study selects 500 stocks constituting the NIFTY 500 index of the National Stock Exchange, India, as of 26th May 2019. The data on trading volume, bid price, ask price, the number of shares outstanding, closing share prices were retrieved for the period from 1st April 2009 to 31st March 2019. The study employs Share Turnover, Amihud Illiquidity Ratio, Relative Quoted Spreads, and Coefficient of Elasticity of Trading for liquidity measurement. The Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) model is used to establish the simultaneous relationships between liquidity dimensions. The analysis is conducted at the aggregate market level as well as across turnover based stock groups divided based on their rankings in terms of stock specific share turnover. The empirical results evidenced the presence of consistent depth, strong breadth, and immediacy but lower tightness in the Indian equity market. The market depth and tightness appear to be relevant in determining dimensional interdependencies. Also, less frequently traded stocks exhibit higher illiquidity in the wake of lower tightness. The findings of this study will assist the investors to wisely understand the multifaceted nature of market liquidity and base their trading decisions accordingly. Moreover, the regulators of the stock exchange can devise liquidity enhancing policies based on the directional movements among liquidity dimensions.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Inversiones en Salud/economía , Mercadotecnía/economía , Análisis de Regresión
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239265, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931512

RESUMEN

This study empirically examined the impact of financing innovation on technological innovation efficiency of select internet companies, that were affiliated with China between 2008 and 2017. Analysis was based on their patent and annual report data and used multiple input-output SFA model, system GMM, and panel fixed-effect model. The results are as follows. (1) There is significant variation in overall technological innovation efficiency of listed companies in the internet industry, and there is a downward trend. The technological innovation efficiency of business that use financing innovation methods is higher than those that do not. (2) The number of patents and intangible capital investment of internet businesses increase obviously every year, but there is no corresponding increase in the efficiency of technological innovation, and little intangible capital investment of non-financing innovation businesses. Thus, determining how to effectively improve the overall quality of patents and the efficiency of intangible capital investment is essential to improve the efficiency of technological innovation for Chinese internet businesses. (3) There is a term mismatch in the investment and financing of internet businesses in China. The financing structure between the financing innovation and non-financing innovation businesses has different impacts on the efficiency of technological innovation. And nowadays, more financing channels are short-term debt financing channels which invest in projects to improve the efficiency of technological innovation due to the pressure of debt repayment and the need to protect shareholders' interests. (4) In the panel regression, the coefficients of Icd and Roa are significantly negative, suggesting that the investment efficiency of internet businesses needs to be improved.


Asunto(s)
Financiación del Capital/economía , Internet/economía , Invenciones/economía , China , Comercio/economía , Humanos , Industrias/economía , Inversiones en Salud/economía
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239293, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966335

RESUMEN

Economies are frequently affected by natural disasters and both domestic and overseas financial crises. These events disrupt production and cause multiple other types of economic losses, including negative impacts on the banking system. Understanding the transmission mechanism that causes various negative second-order post-catastrophe effects is crucial if policymakers are to develop more efficient recovery strategies. In this work, we introduce a credit-based adaptive regional input-output (ARIO) model to analyse the effects of disasters and crises on the supply chain and bank-firm credit networks. Using real Japanese networks and the exogenous shocks of the 2008 Lehman Brothers bankruptcy and the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011), this paper aims to depict how these negative shocks propagate through the supply chain and affect the banking system. The credit-based ARIO model is calibrated using Latin hypercube sampling and the design of experiments procedure to reproduce the short-term (one-year) dynamics of the Japanese industrial production index after the 2008 Lehman Brothers bankruptcy and the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. Then, through simulation experiments, we identify the chemical and petroleum manufacturing and transport sectors as the most vulnerable Japanese industrial sectors. Finally, the case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake is simulated for Japanese prefectures to understand differences among regions in terms of globally engendered indirect economic losses. Tokyo and Osaka prefectures are the most vulnerable locations because they hold greater concentrations of the above-mentioned vulnerable industrial sectors.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Economía , Desastres Naturales/economía , Quiebra Bancaria/economía , Terremotos/economía , Humanos , Japón , Tokio
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 917-927, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747803

RESUMEN

Standardized classroom experiments provide evidence about how well scientific results reproduce when nearly identical methods are used. We use a sample of around 20,000 observations to test reproducibility of behaviour in trading and ultimatum bargaining. Double-auction results are highly reproducible and are close to equilibrium predictions about prices and quantities from economic theory. Our sample also shows robust correlations between individual surplus and trading order, and autocorrelation of successive price changes, which test different theories of price dynamics. In ultimatum bargaining, the large dataset provides sufficient power to identify that equal-split offers are accepted more often and more quickly than slightly unequal offers. Our results imply a general consistency of results across a variety of different countries and cultures in two of the most commonly used designs in experimental economics.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Negociación , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236354, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750058

RESUMEN

With the rising environmental concerns among consumers all over the world, sustainability has received considerable attention, and numerous enterprises are adopting various practices such as investing in energy-saving to improve sustainability in supply chains. However, many previous researches always assume that decision makers are perfectly rational and neglect the behavioral concerns of decision makers. This paper considers a two-stage sustainable supply chain with behavioral concerns in order to develop more realistic models, and mainly focuses on the energy-saving and pricing decisions in the decentralized system, as well as how to improve energy-saving level and profits. We develop decentralized decision-making models under two types of behavioral concerns: fairness concern and risk aversion, and derive the optimal strategy for each member with a Stackelberg game in which the manufacturer acts as the leader. The effect of the behavioral concerns on the optimal decisions and corresponding profits is discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis verified by numerical experiments shows that the fairness behavior always causes a negative effect on the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, while it could benefit the retailer in profits. The risk aversion behavior always benefits the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, whereas it could make the retailer suffer. Note that both the optimal energy-saving level and corresponding profit of the total supply chain under two types of behavioral concerns are lower than that in the centralized system, thereby we propose a revenue-cost-sharing contract to coordinate the supply chain, under which both the manufacturer and the retailer can achieve a win-win outcome and the energy-saving level can be improved. In addition, some managerial implications through our analytical and numerical results are summarized in this paper.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo/economía , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Toma de Decisiones , Teoría del Juego , Humanos , Asunción de Riesgos
15.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(14): e604-e611, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692096

RESUMEN

Physicians offer unique contributions to the orthopaedic implant design process by providing creative ideas and insightful clinical expertise. This article provides a brief overview of the pertinent considerations of transforming a concept into an orthopaedic implant and bringing it to the market. Implant concept choice should consider medical or surgical necessity, regional variability, market characteristics, cost of goods sold, and average selling price. Implant development requires adherence to regulatory requirements and device classification. Implant production incorporates design specifications, mechanical testing, sterilization, packaging, and marketing and sales. Orthopaedic implant company agreements determine physician compensation through royalties and/or the purchase of intellectual property. After rollout, physicians participate in monitoring for device safety. Bringing an orthopaedic implant from a concept to the market can be lengthy and complicated, but innovation is essential for advancing patient care and well-being.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Mercadotecnía/economía , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Procedimientos Ortopédicos , Médicos/economía , Prótesis e Implantes/economía , Diseño de Prótesis/economía , Compensación y Reparación , Seguridad de Equipos , Humanos , Propiedad Intelectual
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236099, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726323

RESUMEN

This paper aims at designing coordination contract in a dual channel supply chain (DCSC) which consists of a socially responsible manufacturer and a retailer. We build stylized game models under both centralized and decentralized scenarios. Then, we identify the reason for supply chain inefficiency under decentralized scenario. Further, according to the manufacturer's corporate social responsibility (CSR) coefficient, we design two different contracts to achieve coordination. We find that with the impact of CSR, social welfare under centralized scenario is always higher than that under decentralized scenario. However, profit of the whole supply chain between the two scenarios has different relationship. More specifically, when CSR coefficient is relatively low, profit under centralized scenario is higher than that under decentralized scenario. When CSR coefficient is high, profit under centralized scenario is lower than that under decentralized scenario. Due to these two cases, we respectively design revenue sharing contract with franchise fee and wholesale price contract with franchise fee and government subsidy to achieve coordination. The result suggests that encouraging the manufacturer to bear CSR properly can reach a multi-win for social welfare, consumers and supply chain members through coordination contract. However, when CSR coefficient is higher than a certain threshold, conflict between supply chain members becomes irreconcilable which results in the retailer's resistance. In this condition, only through subsidy from government or philanthropic organization can supply chain members sustain their cooperation.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Comercio/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Contratos/normas , Costos y Análisis de Costo/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos
17.
Am Heart J ; 227: 107-110, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730906

RESUMEN

We extended an earlier analysis of the gross revenue, payments, and net revenues of pharmaceutical manufacturers to include data from 2017 through 2019. In the period of 2017 to 2019, we found that gross revenue increased by 6.8% per annum, and payments from manufacturers increased by 13.5% annually, whereas net revenues for the same manufacturers increased by only 2.9% annually. By 2019, these same firms made payments of 67.4% of net revenue, or $141.4 billion, to generate $209.9 billion in net sales. We observed that list price increases and payments have been growing disproportionally to manufacturer net income despite widespread public concern about rising outpatient prescription drug prices.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
19.
Public Health ; 185: 275-282, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707470

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Extensive empirical and theoretical studies have been devoted to analyzing the relationship between tobacco and income. The price and income elasticities of demand for cigarette consumption are the main focus of studies in this body of literature. However, few empirical studies exist that analyze how economic growth affects the cigarette market, and no one has studied the effects of economic expansions and recessions. Spain, as in the other countries of the European Union, has suffered a strong recession since 2008. Therefore, this article aims to detect if income elasticity takes different values in economic growth and recession and, in addition, to check whether price elasticity in Spain is consistent with previous studies. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational epidemiological study. METHODS: In this article, the price and income elasticities of demand for cigarette consumption are measured for the Spanish cigarette market using time series data from 1957 to 2016 and by applying a non-linear autoregressive dynamics lag model. The novel specification proposed in this study is the determination of the possible effects of asymmetries in the economic shocks on cigarette consumption. RESULTS: Our results reveal that cigarette consumption maintains a notable asymmetric relationship. In particular, our results show that in expansion shocks, cigarette consumption increases (a 10% economic growth is associated with a 4.05% increase in cigarette consumption), whereas in recession shocks, cigarette consumption decreases dramatically, with a more pronounced pattern in recession phases than in expansion phases (a 10% economic decline is associated with a 58.16% decrease in cigarette consumption). On the other hand, price elasticity maintains the same behavior shown in the previous literature (a 10% price increase is associated with a 2% decrease in cigarette consumption). CONCLUSIONS: Higher cigarette prices are associated with decreased smoking. In addition, the economic recession helps in decreasing cigarette consumption. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that tax authorities have our results in mind before establishing health policies. If the authorities do not, it is possible that they will not obtain the expected results in terms of decreased tobacco consumption.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Comercio/economía , Desarrollo Económico , Recesión Económica , Unión Europea , Política de Salud , Humanos , España , Impuestos/economía , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235681, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634821

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the current international context, entrepreneurship education claims a privileged place within educational systems, given that it contributes decisively to innovation and to the set of competences demanded in the new knowledge-based economy. The state of the research in this line highlights the existing formative deficiencies at these basic education levels, despite the fact that numerous initiatives of fostering business culture have already been developed. Among the currently existing gaps, conspicuous by its absence is the lack of instruments capable of efficiently measure the basic business knowledge, needed to progressively constitute a consistent business identity stands out. In this sense, we set ourselves the construction and validation of a basic business knowledge scale for the Secondary Education stage. METHODS: This study was implemented in two phases. In the first phase, the dimensions and components of the Basic Business Knowledge Scale were identified via a systematic review of the literature following the PRISMA-P protocol and a qualitative study. In the second phase, the scale was developed and validated. On the one hand, a content validation was conducted through interviews of experts and students, studying the content validity (the Content Validity Ratio and the Content Validity Index) and the face validity (Think-aloud protocols). On the other hand, the construct validity was analyzed through an Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Then, the reliability was calculated with the Cronbach Alpha and the test stability with a test-retest. The convergent validity has been validated by the average variance extracted (AVE) and the discriminant validity between constructs was established through the AVE estimated for each construct with the squared interconstruct correlations associated with that factor. The sample was made up of 1440 students (679 girls and 761 boys) from age 11 to 17 (M = 14.6, SD = 1.597). RESULTS: The EFA and the CFA showed evidence of a first-order three-factor structure (Knowledge in Business Management (KBM), Legal Knowledge (LK) and Strategic Knowledge (SK)), and a second-order factor, Basic Business Knowledge. In the construct validity two items were eliminated due to their factor loadings being lower than .40. The results of the fit indices contributed acceptable values regarding the proposed model. The three subscales and the scale as a whole revealed a satisfactory internal consistency with Cronbach alphas over .75. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was above .90, showing an appropriate stability. The convergent validity offers values over .80 in the composite reliability (CR) and the average variance extracted (AVE) is greater than .50. Moreover, in the divergent validity, the values of the square root of the AVE are greater than the correlations with the other constructs. Finally, the Basic Business Knowledge Scale has 18 items. CONCLUSIONS: We find evidence concerning the validity and reliability of the Basic Business Knowledge Scale, tested with Spanish Secondary Education students within the compulsory stage of teaching. We believe that this Scale can contribute to a better understanding of the formation of indispensable basic culture to establish a genuine business spirit.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas de Aptitud , Comercio/economía , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Escolaridad , Estudiantes , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
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