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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 646592, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796499

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic pushes people looking for shopping alternatives, seeking to avoid handling cash in favor of a safe and quick mobile payment. At this juncture, this paper examines the determinants of the adoption of mobile payment services among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in China. The study proposes four-dimensional factors (business factors, technological competence, environment, and consumers' intentions) based on the literature review findings to understand the challenges of adopting mobile payment. A questionnaire is designed to solicit information from the participants. The findings reveal that business factors, technological competencies of SMEs in China, and the environment positively influence mobile payment adoption. Consumer intention has almost no influence on the adoption of mobile payment. Potential implications for the COVID-19 era are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Aplicaciones Móviles , Adulto , COVID-19 , China , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Yale J Biol Med ; 94(1): 159-164, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795993

RESUMEN

Black, Latinx, and Indigenous people have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus and died of COVID-19 at higher rates than White people. Individuals rated public transit, taxis, and ride-hailing as the modes of transportation putting them at greatest risk of COVID-19 infection. Cycling may thus be an attractive alternative for commuting. Amid the increase in bikeshare usage during the early months of the pandemic, bikeshare companies made changes to membership requirements to increase accessibility, targeting especially essential workers. Essential workers in the United States are disproportionately Black and Latinx, underpaid, and reliant on public transit to commute to work. We document changes made by bikeshare companies, including benefits to various groups of essential workers, and we discuss such changes in the context of longstanding racial disparities in bikeshare access. While well intended, the arbitrary delineation in eligibility for such benefits by class of essential workers unwittingly curtailed access for many who may have benefited most. Given that equity in bikeshare is an important tool to improve access to safe transportation, critical changes in the distribution, accessibility, and usability of bikeshare networks is essential. Bikeshare companies, city planners, and policy makers should collaborate with community-based bike advocates to implement changes, as vocalized by those most in need of alternative forms of transportation.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo/tendencias , COVID-19/prevención & control , Comercio/tendencias , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Justicia Social , Transportes/métodos , Ciclismo/economía , COVID-19/etnología , Comercio/organización & administración , Política de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Seguridad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Transportes/economía , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Salud Urbana
3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670442

RESUMEN

There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in "pouches". Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019-2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for "dairy" and "sweet snacks". All "dry cereals" were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Industria de Alimentos/tendencias , Alimentos Infantiles/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/análisis , Azúcares de la Dieta/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Hierro en la Dieta/análisis , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Vitamina B 12/análisis
4.
Subst Abus ; 42(2): 158-160, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709878

RESUMEN

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted life around the globe and has the potential to seriously impact alcohol consumption for individuals experiencing social isolation and pandemic-related stress. Evidence from prior epidemics suggests increased alcohol consumption during quarantine and times of high stress are associated with a greater chance of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study examines alcohol sales data to ascertain how individuals are interacting with alcohol during the pandemic.Materials and method: Monthly off premises alcohol sales data for select US alcoholic beverage control states were used to construct monthly sales patterns from 2015 to 2020. An independent samples t-test was used to determine if COVID-19 era alcohol sales were higher than those that occurred from 2015 to 2019.Results: Alcohol sales from March to August 2020 were significantly higher than sales from the same span of months from 2015 to 2019 (t=-2.47, p<.05). The associated monthly percentage increase in sales ranged from 14 to 44% with the overall trend indicating a move toward pre-pandemic sales totals.Conclusion: As COVID-19 continues to disrupt typical ways of being across the globe, the implications of increased sales of alcohol should not be overlooked. Taken together, the evidence on increased use during isolation and later AUD diagnosis coupled with the ABC state sales figures here, point to a potential increase in the development of AUD and an increase in alcohol-related harms.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comercio/tendencias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Aislamiento Social , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(2): e102-e107, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581061

RESUMEN

The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic is a consequence of international trade and globalisation, with the virus spreading along established trade and travel routes. However, the pandemic also affects international trade through reductions in both supply and demand. In this Viewpoint we describe the many implications for health and propose ways to mitigate them. Problems include reduced access to medical supplies (in particular, personal protective equipment and tests), budgetary shortfalls as a result of reduced tariffs and taxes, and a general decline in economic activity-leading, in many cases, to recessions, threats to social safety nets, and to increased precariousness of income, employment, and food security. However, in exceptional cases, the pandemic has also brought some transient benefits, including to the environment. Looking ahead, there will be great pressure to further liberalise rules on trade to encourage economic recovery, but it is essential that trade policy be informed by its many consequences for health to ensure that the benefits are maximised and threats are minimised through active identification and mitigation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Comercio , Pandemias/economía , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Comercio/economía , Comercio/tendencias , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Salud Pública/economía , Salud Pública/tendencias
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498863

RESUMEN

Owing to the convenience, reliability and contact-free feature of Mobile payment (M-payment), it has been diffusely adopted in China during the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce the direct and indirect contacts in transactions, allowing social distancing to be maintained and facilitating stabilization of the social economy. This paper aims to comprehensively investigate the technological and mental factors affecting users' adoption intentions of M-payment under the COVID-19 pandemic, to expand the domain of technology adoption under the emergency situation. This study integrated Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) with perceived benefits from Mental Accounting Theory (MAT), and two additional variables (perceived security and trust) to investigate 739 smartphone users' adoption intentions of M-payment during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The empirical results showed that users' technological and mental perceptions conjointly influence their adoption intentions of M-payment during the COVID-19 pandemic, wherein perceived benefits are significantly determined by social influence and trust, corresponding with the situation of pandemic. This study initially integrated UTAUT with MAT to develop the theoretical framework for investigating users' adoption intentions. Meanwhile, this study originally investigated the antecedents of M-payment adoption under the pandemic situation and indicated that users' perceptions will be positively influenced when technology's specific characteristics can benefit a particular situation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comercio/tendencias , Aplicaciones Móviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/economía , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245904, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513150

RESUMEN

This paper provides a thorough overview and further clarification surrounding the volatility behavior of the major six cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ripple, Litecoin, Monero, Dash and Dogecoin) with respect to world currencies (Euro, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, Swiss Franc and the Japanese Yen), the relative performance of diverse GARCH-type specifications namely the SGARCH, IGARCH (1,1), EGARCH (1,1), GJR-GARCH (1,1), APARCH (1,1), TGARCH (1,1) and CGARCH (1,1), and the forecasting performance of the Value at Risk measure. The sampled period extends from October 13th 2015 till November 18th 2019. The findings evidenced the superiority of the IGARCH model, in both the in-sample and the out-of-sample contexts, when it deals with forecasting the volatility of world currencies, namely the British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, Swiss Franc and the Japanese Yen. The CGARCH alternative modeled the Euro almost perfectly during both periods. Advanced GARCH models better depicted asymmetries in cryptocurrencies' volatility and revealed persistence and "intensifying" levels in their volatility. The IGARCH was the best performing model for Monero. As for the remaining cryptocurrencies, the GJR-GARCH model proved to be superior during the in-sample period while the CGARCH and TGARCH specifications were the optimal ones in the out-of-sample interval. The VaR forecasting performance is enhanced with the use of the asymmetric GARCH models. The VaR results provided a very accurate measure in determining the level of downside risk exposing the selected exchange currencies at all confidence levels. However, the outcomes were far from being uniform for the selected cryptocurrencies: convincing for Dash and Dogcoin, acceptable for Litecoin and Monero and unconvincing for Bitcoin and Ripple, where the (optimal) model was not rejected only at the 99% confidence level.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Modelos Económicos , Predicción
9.
Fertil Steril ; 115(1): 4-6, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413958

RESUMEN

The business of medicine continues to be an area of growing importance, particularly in reproductive medicine. We provide a synthesis of salient concepts within the spectrum of business in medicine. The topics we review include finances and accounting; business operations as related to human resources, information technology (telemedicine), organizational governance, and practice models; insurance billing and contract negotiations; and the impact of health care policy on reproductive medicine.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Medicina Reproductiva/economía , Comercio/economía , Comercio/organización & administración , Comercio/tendencias , Estados Financieros/economía , Estados Financieros/organización & administración , Estados Financieros/tendencias , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/economía , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/economía , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/organización & administración , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Medicina Reproductiva/organización & administración , Medicina Reproductiva/tendencias
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244884, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395444

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have gained support as a policy response to adverse health effects associated with SSB consumption. On July 1, 2017, Oakland, California, implemented a one-cent/ounce tax on SSBs with ≥25 calories/12 fluid ounces. This study estimated the long-term impact of the tax on taxed and untaxed beverage prices. METHODS: Data on 5,830 taxed and 5,146 untaxed beverage prices were obtained from 99 stores in Oakland and 111 stores in Sacramento (comparison site), California, in late May-June 2017 and June 2019. Linear regression difference-in-differences models were computed with store and product fixed effects, with robust standard errors clustered on store, weighted based on volume sold by beverage sweetener status, type, and size. RESULTS: Taxed beverage prices increased by 0.73 cents/ounce (95% CI = 0.47,1.00) on average in supermarkets and grocery stores in Oakland relative to Sacramento and 0.74 cents/ounce (95% CI = 0.39,1.09) in pharmacies, but did not change in convenience stores (-0.09 cents/ounce, 95% CI = -0.56,0.39). Untaxed beverage prices overall increased by 0.40 cents/ounce (95% CI = 0.05,0.75) in pharmacies but did not change in other store types. Prices of taxed individual-size soda specifically increased in all store types, by 0.91-2.39 cents/ounce (p<0.05), as did prices of untaxed individual-size soda in convenience stores (0.79 cents/ounce, 95% CI = 0.01,1.56) and pharmacies (1.66 cents/ounce, 95% CI = 0.09,3.23). CONCLUSIONS: Two years following SSB tax implementation, there was partial tax pass-through with differences by store type and by beverage type and size within store type.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Azucaradas/economía , Impuestos/economía , Impuestos/tendencias , Bebidas/economía , California , Bebidas Gaseosas/economía , Comercio/métodos , Comercio/tendencias , Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Políticas , Bebidas Azucaradas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Azucaradas/estadística & datos numéricos , Impuestos/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243547, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351796

RESUMEN

We investigated the social representation of fair price of French and English-speaking photographers using the free association method. In two independent studies, we performed a factorial analysis of correspondence of the words provided by the participants as well as a similitude analysis. The results indicated that "fair price" was mainly associated with time, effort and experience level of photographers. Both French- and English-speaking samples made similar associations around the concept of fair price but the order of importance varied. We observed some gender-related differences in both samples, although the relative number of male and female participants must be taken into consideration.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/ética , Fotograbar/economía , Profesionalismo/economía , Adulto , Comercio/tendencias , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Lenguaje , Lingüística/métodos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/ética , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Profesionalismo/ética , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003245, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Beverages, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been increasingly subject to policies aimed at reducing their consumption as part of measures to tackle obesity. However, precision targeting of policies is difficult as information on what types of consumers they might affect, and to what degree, is missing. We fill this gap by creating a typology of beverage consumers in Great Britain (GB) based on observed beverage purchasing behaviour to determine what distinct types of beverage consumers exist, and what their socio-demographic (household) characteristics, dietary behaviours, and weight status are. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cross-sectional latent class analysis to characterise patterns of beverage purchases. We used data from the 2016 GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel, a large representative household purchase panel of food and beverages brought home, and restricted our analyses to consumers who purchase beverages regularly (i.e., >52 l per household member annually) (n = 8,675). Six categories of beverages were used to classify households into latent classes: SSBs; diet beverages; fruit juices and milk-based beverages; beer and cider; wine; and bottled water. Multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to relate class membership to household characteristics, self-reported weight status, and other dietary behaviours, derived from GB Kantar FMCG. Seven latent classes were identified, characterised primarily by higher purchases of 1 or 2 categories of beverages: 'SSB' (18% of the sample; median SSB volume = 49.4 l/household member/year; median diet beverage volume = 38.0 l), 'Diet' (16%; median diet beverage volume = 94.4 l), 'Fruit & Milk' (6%; median fruit juice/milk-based beverage volume = 30.0 l), 'Beer & Cider' (7%; median beer and cider volume = 36.3 l; median diet beverage volume = 55.6 l), 'Wine' (18%; median wine volume = 25.5 l; median diet beverage volume = 34.3 l), 'Water' (4%; median water volume = 46.9 l), and 'Diverse' (30%; diversity of purchases, including median SSB volume = 22.4 l). Income was positively associated with being classified in the Diverse class, whereas low social grade was more likely for households in the classes SSB, Diet, and Beer & Cider. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was more prevalent in the class Diet (41.2%, 95% CI 37.7%-44.7%) despite households obtaining little energy from beverages in that class (17.9 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 16.2-19.7). Overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) was above average in the class SSB (66.8%, 95% CI 63.7%-69.9%). When looking at all groceries, households from the class SSB had higher total energy purchases (1,943.6 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 1,901.7-1,985.6), a smaller proportion of energy from fruits and vegetables (6.0%, 95% CI 5.8%-6.3%), and a greater proportion of energy from less healthy food and beverages (54.6%, 95% CI 54.0%-55.1%) than other classes. A greater proportion of energy from sweet snacks was observed for households in the classes SSB (18.5%, 95% CI 18.1%-19.0%) and Diet (18.8%, 95% CI 18.3%-19.3%). The main limitation of our analyses, in common with other studies, is that our data do not include information on food and beverage purchases that are consumed outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/economía , Comercio/tendencias , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Adulto , Animales , Bebidas Endulzadas Artificialmente , Cerveza , Peso Corporal , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Agua Potable , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales , Humanos , Renta , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Leche , Encuestas Nutricionales , Obesidad/psicología , Reino Unido , Vino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239113, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946463

RESUMEN

Social distancing interventions can be effective against epidemics but are potentially detrimental for the economy. Businesses that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or close physical proximity when producing a product or providing a service are particularly vulnerable. There is, however, no systematic evidence about the role of human interactions across different lines of business and about which will be the most limited by social distancing. Here we provide theory-based measures of the reliance of U.S. businesses on human interaction, detailed by industry and geographic location. We find that, before the pandemic hit, 43 million workers worked in occupations that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or require close physical proximity to other workers. Many of these workers lost their jobs since. Consistently with our model, employment losses have been largest in sectors that rely heavily on customer contact and where these contacts dropped the most: retail, hotels and restaurants, arts and entertainment and schools. Our results can help quantify the economic costs of social distancing.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Empleo/tendencias , Control de Infecciones/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Comercio/normas , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236412, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735590

RESUMEN

Competitive intelligence (CI) has attracted much attention in innovation research, but most of existing literature studies CI in technological innovations in manufacturing industry, with little empirical research in context of service businesses. This paper first analyzes CI of service businesses and then uses covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) on a data of 333 got from the survey in tourism enterprises of east China to test the effect of customer CI, opponent CI, and supplier CI on service innovations in China's service industry. Results show that opponent CI and supplier CI have positive influence on both exploratory and exploitative service innovation. Customer CI has more obvious positive influence on exploratory service innovation than on exploitative service innovation.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Empírica , Industrias/tendencias , Inteligencia , Invenciones/tendencias , China , Comercio/tendencias , Análisis Factorial , Migración Humana/tendencias , Humanos , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Programas Informáticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 90, 2020 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Pacific Island nation of Tonga (a middle-income country) introduced a sweetened beverage tax of T$0.50/L in 2013, with this increasing further in 2016 (to T$1.00/L), and in 2017 (T$1.50/L; US$0.02/oz). Given the potential importance of such types of fiscal intervention for preventing chronic disease, we aimed to evaluate the impact of these tax changes in Tonga. METHODS: Interrupted time series analysis was used to examine monthly import volumes and quarterly price and manufacturing 1 year after each tax change, compared with a counterfactual based on existing trends. Autocorrelation was adjusted for when present, and adjustments were made for changes in GDP per capita, visitor numbers, season and T$/US$ exchange rate. RESULTS: In the year after the 2013, 2016 and 2017 tax increases, the price of an indicator soft drink increased by 16.8% (95%CI: 6.3 to 29.6), 3.7% (- 0.6 to 8.3) and 17.6% (6.0 to 32.0) respectively. Imports of sweetened beverages decreased with changes of - 10.4% (- 23.6 to 9.0), - 30.3% (- 38.8 to - 20.5) and - 62.5% (- 73.1 to - 43.4) respectively. Juice imports changed by - 54.2% (- 93.2 to - 1.1), and sachet drinks by - 15.5% (- 67.8 to 88.3) after the 2017 tax increase. Tonga water bottling (T$) increased in value by 143% (69 to 334) after the 2016 tax increase and soft drink manufacturing increased by 20% (2 to 46, albeit 5% market share). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with international evaluations of sugar-sweetened beverage taxes, the taxes in Tonga were associated with increased prices, decreased taxed beverages imports, and increased locally bottled water.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/economía , Bebidas Azucaradas/economía , Impuestos , Tonga
17.
BMJ ; 370: m2436, 2020 07 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699008

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between US state policies that establish age 18 or 21 years as the minimum purchaser age for the sale of handguns and adolescent suicide rate. DESIGN: Regression discontinuity and difference-in-differences analyses. SETTING: 46 US states without policy changes between 2001 and 2017; Missouri and South Carolina, which lowered the age for handgun sales in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and West Virginia and Wyoming, which increased the age for handgun sales in 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 13 to 20 years(554 461 961 from 2001 to 2017) in the regression discontinuity analysis, and adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (168 934 041 from 2002 to 2014) in the main difference-in-differences analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Suicide rate per 100 000 adolescents. RESULTS: In the regression discontinuity analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 18 or older (relative to 21 or older) were associated with an increase in suicide rate among adolescents aged 18 to 20 years equivalent to 344 additional suicides in each state where they were in place between 2001 and 2017. In the difference-in-differences analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 21 or older were associated with 1.91 fewer suicides per 100 000 adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (95% confidence interval -3.13 to -0.70, permutation adjusted P=0.025). In the difference-in-differences analysis, there were 1.83 fewer firearm related suicides per 100 000 adolescents (-2.66 to -1.00, permutation adjusted P=0.002), with no association between age 21 handgun sales policies and non-firearm related suicides. Separate event study estimates indicated increases in suicide rates in states that lowered the age of handgun sales, with no association in states that increased the age of handgun sales. CONCLUSIONS: A clear discontinuity was shown in the suicide rate by age at age 18 in states that limited the sale of handguns to individuals aged 18 or older. State policies to limit the sale of handguns to individuals aged 21 or older were associated with a reduction in suicide rates among adolescents. Increases in suicide rates were observed after states lowered the age of handgun sales, but no effect was found in states that increased the age of handgun sales.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Armas de Fuego/legislación & jurisprudencia , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Comercio/tendencias , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Armas de Fuego/economía , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiología , Políticas , Análisis de Regresión , South Carolina/epidemiología , Suicidio/etnología , West Virginia/epidemiología , Wyoming/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(3): 320-330, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527384

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Anglo-Celtic colonists of Australia and New Zealand brought with them heavy beer-drinking customs, and each country later developed similar temperance movements and alcohol policies. Yet their beer markets differed throughout the 20th century; for example, Australian men typically drank lager with 5% alcohol-by-volume (ABV), whereas New Zealand men drank ale with 4%ABV. We investigated the public health implications of recent developments in product availability, marketing, and country-level consumption patterns. METHOD: We analyzed official data reporting beverage- and strength-specific volumes of ethanol available for sale in beer from 2000 to 2016, a period in which the countries had similar consumption trends; and did a thematic analysis of "market intelligence" reports. RESULTS: Per capita ethanol beer sales fell in both countries, accompanied by increases in market share of higher %ABV categories. Different definitions of beer strength hampered comparison between countries. In Australia, consumption of ethanol in mid-strength beer (3.01%-3.5%ABV) increased, whereas consumption of low-strength beer (<3%ABV) decreased. In New Zealand, consumption of high-strength beer (4.351%-5%ABV) increased whereas that of traditional mid-strength beer (2.501%-4.35%ABV) decreased substantially. Market reports cited consumer health concerns and demand for "craft beer" (typically high-strength) as competing influences in both markets, and reduced-alcohol beer as "the alcoholic drinks industry's-potentially lucrative-shield against accusations of irresponsibility." CONCLUSIONS: Declines in both high- and low-strength beer in Australia have potentially important implications. In New Zealand, the failure of low-strength beer to establish significant market share, along with increased consumption of high-strength beer, are noteworthy developments. Trend data on product ethanol content warrants scrutiny in public health surveillance globally, whereas research is needed on the role of ethanol content within industry strategy.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Cerveza/análisis , Etanol/análisis , Industrias/tendencias , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Comercio/tendencias , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Salud Pública
20.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 225-237, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence that alcohol warning labels (AWLs) affect population alcohol consumption. New evidence-informed AWLs were introduced in the sole government-run liquor store in Whitehorse, Yukon, that included a cancer warning (Ca), low-risk drinking guidelines (LRDGs) and standard drink (SD) messages. These temporarily replaced previous pregnancy warning labels. We test if the intervention was associated with reduced alcohol consumption. METHOD: An interrupted time series study was designed to evaluate the effects of the AWLs on consumption for 28 months before and 14 months after starting the intervention. Neighboring regions of Yukon and Northwest Territories served as control sites. About 300,000 labels were applied to 98% of alcohol containers sold in Whitehorse during the intervention. Multilevel regression analyses of per capita alcohol sales data for people age 15 years and older were performed to examine consumption levels in the intervention and control sites before, during, and after the AWLs were introduced. Models were adjusted for demographic and economic characteristics over time and region. RESULTS: Total per capita retail alcohol sales in Whitehorse decreased by 6.31% (t test p < .001) during the intervention. Per capita sales of labeled products decreased by 6.59% (t test p < .001), whereas sales of unlabeled products increased by 6.91% (t test p < .05). There was a still larger reduction occurring after the intervention when pregnancy warning labels were reintroduced (-9.97% and -10.29%, t test p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Applying new AWLs was associated with reduced population alcohol consumption. The results are consistent with an accumulating impact of the addition of varying and highly visible labels with impactful messages.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Comercio/métodos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/métodos , Etiquetado de Productos/métodos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Comercio/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/tendencias , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Embarazo , Etiquetado de Productos/tendencias , El Yukón/epidemiología
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