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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226329, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053627

RESUMEN

This study uses YouTube content to explore trends in nursing start-ups. YouTube content can be used to understand the current trends regarding interest and awareness in various fields. The study was conducted in three stages: text mining, Delphi survey, and comparison. The frequency and degree centrality of keywords were analyzed in the text mining stage. In the Delphi survey, the 100 most frequent keywords were classified using a synthesis framework for nursing start-ups. In the comparison stage, the results of text mining and the Delphi survey were matched using a 2x2 matrix. Text mining identified "area," "business," "competence," "idea," and "success" as the most commonly used keywords. The keywords that showed the highest level of classification agreement in Delphi were "motivation," "advice," "obstacle," "business," "charisma," and "result." In the comparison using a 2x2 matrix, "dream," "idea," "opportunity," "leadership," "success," "benefit," and "satisfaction" emerged. The results indicate that interest in nursing start-ups develops at an early stage. In order to encourage nursing start-ups, it is necessary to strengthen business skills such as finance and budgeting, establish active policy support for such start-ups, and develop new nursing start-up items appropriate for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Economía de la Enfermería , Enfermería/tendencias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Comercio/economía , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Datos , Minería de Datos , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227269, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895923

RESUMEN

We determine the number of statistically significant factors in a high dimensional predictive model of cryptocurrencies using a random matrix test. The applied predictive model is of the reduced rank regression (RRR) type; in particular, we choose a flavor that can be regarded as canonical correlation analysis (CCA). A variable selection of hourly cryptocurrencies is performed using the Symbolic estimation of Transfer Entropy (STE) measure from information theory. In simulated studies, STE shows better performance compared to the Granger causality approach when considering a nonlinear system and a linear system with many drivers. In the application to cryptocurrencies, the directed graph associated to the variable selection shows a robust pattern of predictor and response clusters, where the community detection was contrasted with the modularity approach. Also, the centralities of the network discriminate between the two main types of cryptocurrencies, i.e., coins and tokens. On the factor determination of the predictive model, the result supports retaining more factors contrary to the usual visual inspection, with the additional advantage that the subjective element is avoided. In particular, it is observed that the dynamic behavior of the number of factors is moderately anticorrelated with the dynamics of the constructed composite index of predictor and response cryptocurrencies. This finding opens up new insights for anticipating possible declines in cryptocurrency prices on exchanges. Furthermore, our study suggests the existence of specific-predictor and specific-response factors, where only a small number of currencies are predominant.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Predicción/métodos , Teoría de la Información , Modelos Econométricos , Algoritmos , Comercio/economía , Entropía , Modelos Logísticos , Análisis Multivariante
4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 94, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644724

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS: This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS: Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Comercio/tendencias , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/tendencias , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapéutico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Programas Nacionales de Salud/tendencias , Brasil , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Política de Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Estudios Longitudinales , Programas Nacionales de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacias/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacias/tendencias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29978-29990, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414388

RESUMEN

The developing world in general is facing so many crucial problems including global warming in recent years. Global warming has multiple consequences on each segment of the society and therefore, its root causes are important to identify. The present study examines the impact of per capita income, trade openness, urbanization, and energy consumption on CO2 emissions. Countries located in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) are considered in the study. The selection of the SAARC region is motivated by the diverse nature of its members and further lack of available empirical literature on the same relationship. Annual data from 1980 to 2016 are analyzed using appropriate panel data techniques. The results revealed the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the SAARC region. Further, the introduction of cubic function into the model indicated that the shape of the EKC is N shaped. Besides, trade openness has negative while urbanization and energy consumption have impacted CO2 emissions positively. Moreover, the causality exercise explored a bidirectional causality between urbanization, energy consumption, per capita income, and CO2 emissions. Similarly, energy consumption, per capita GDP, and urbanization are also bidirectionally related. Further, a unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, urbanization, and energy consumption to trade openness is detected. Lastly, a unidirectional causality is witnessed from per capita income to energy consumption.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Comercio/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos/economía , Desarrollo Económico , Renta , Urbanización/tendencias , Asia , Comercio/tendencias , Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos/tendencias , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Investigación Empírica , Humanos , Renta/tendencias , Modelos Teóricos
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404967

RESUMEN

Marketing unhealthy foods negatively impacts children's food preferences, dietary habits and health, prompting calls for regulations that will help to create an "enabling" food environment for children. One powerful food marketing technique is product packaging, but little is known about the nature or quality of child-targeted food products over time. This study assesses how child-targeted supermarket foods in Canada have transformed with respect to nutritional profile and types of marketing appeals (that is, the power of such marketing). Products from 2009 (n = 354) and from 2017 (n = 374) were first evaluated and compared in light of two established nutritional criteria, and then compared in terms of marketing techniques on packages. Overall, child-targeted supermarket foods did not improve nutritionally over time: 88% of child-targeted products (across both datasets) would not be permitted to be marketed to children, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and sugar levels remained consistently high. Despite this poor nutritional quality, the use of nutrition claims increased significantly over time, as did the use of cartoon characters and appealing fonts to attract children's attention. Character licensing-using characters from entertainment companies-remained consistent. The findings reveal the critical need to consider packaging as part of the strategy for protecting children from unhealthy food marketing. Given the poor nutritional quality and appealing nature of child-oriented supermarket foods, food product packaging needs to be included in the WHO's call to improve the restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Comercio/tendencias , Publicidad Directa al Consumidor/tendencias , Etiquetado de Alimentos/tendencias , Valor Nutritivo , Factores de Edad , Canadá , Niño , Ingestión de Energía , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374858

RESUMEN

Fish and seafood consumption in Australia has been growing, yet the implications of this trend across the food system, from both a health and sustainability perspective have not been fully explored. This paper aims to map out the fish and seafood food system in Australia, linking production and consumption, to articulate challenges and opportunities for enhancing the sector's contribution to future healthy and sustainable diets. We conducted a secondary analysis of publicly available datasets on fish and seafood production and consumption, triangulated and supplemented with peer-reviewed and grey literature on environmental, economic and social sustainability issues throughout the food system. A key challenge for health is the high proportion of fish and seafood consumed as discretionary food, particularly among children. Key challenges for sustainability include the narrow focus on environmental sustainability (with little consideration of the other domains), and the focus on production with little consideration for sustainability throughout post-harvest handling, processing, retail, distribution and consumption. Key opportunities for health and sustainability include the innovative use of processing and packaging technology to maximise nutritional quality; creation of markets and supply chains for a greater diversity of underutilised fish and seafood species and processing by-products; and reductions in waste and loss throughout the entire supply chain.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Peces , Manipulación de Alimentos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/tendencias , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Animales , Australia , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Bases de Datos Factuales , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
9.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219243, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283773

RESUMEN

In this paper, we explore the (in)efficiency of the continuum Bitcoin-USD market in the period ranging from mid 2010 to early 2019. To deal with, we dynamically analyse the evolution of the self-similarity exponent of Bitcoin-USD daily returns via accurate FD4 approach by a 512 day sliding window with overlapping data. Further, we define the memory indicator by the difference between the self-similarity exponent of Bitcoin-USD series and the self-similarity index of its shuffled series. We also carry out additional analyses via FD4 approach by sliding windows of sizes equal to 64, 128, 256, and 1024 days, and also via FD algorithm for values of q equal to 1 and 2 (and sliding windows equal to 512 days). Moreover, we explored the evolution of the self-similarity exponent of actual S&P500 series via FD4 algorithm by sliding windows of sizes equal to 256 and 512 days. In all the cases, the obtained results were found to be similar to our first analysis. We conclude that the self-similarity exponent of the BTC-USD (resp., S&P500) series stands above 0.5. However, this is not due to the presence of significant memory in the series but to its underlying distribution. In fact, it holds that the self-similarity exponent of BTC-USD (resp., S&P500) series is similar or lower than the self-similarity index of a random series with the same distribution. As such, several periods with significant antipersistent memory in BTC-USD (resp., S&P500) series are distinguished.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Economía/tendencias , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Economía/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Modelos Económicos
10.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218853, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318877

RESUMEN

Executives act based on their experiences, values, personality and personal interpretation of the situations which they face in their companies. Investigations in the field of Behavioral Corporate Finance have determined that there are some relations between CEOs' personal traits and financial decisions of large companies, but these results are based on indirect personal trait measurements and on public companies. To see whether such relations also exist between CEOs' personal traits and the financial structure of large private companies, we used psychometric tests to measure their level of optimism, risk attitude and affect heuristic, collected financial data for a period of fourteen years, and considered the economic situation of the country as a key factor in these relations. This paper reports the relationship of executives' personal traits with the financial structure of large Spanish companies for the period 2001-2014. We observed that executives' high optimism (and risk aversion attitude) is positively (negatively) related to long-term debt, whilst positive affect is directly associated to the financial leverage and short-term debt. This paper also reports a change of relations when taking into account the country's economic situation. In effect, by considering this new variable, executives' risk aversion is seen to be associated to financial leverage and short-term debt, whilst CEOs' positive affect is linked to long-term debt. These relations are strongly moderated and they become statistically significant in a contracting economic period. In conclusion, the links between CEOs' personal traits and financial structure of large private Spanish companies make sense when the effect of the economic situation is taken into account. Furthermore, the awareness of these links helps to understand the financial decisions taken within large Spanish companies.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Cara , Personalidad , Actitud , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Organizaciones , España
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200513

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of processed foods in nutrition transition in the Pacific is receiving some attention in the context of a significant obesity and diet-related noncommunicable disease health burden. However, trends, patterns and underlying drivers of processed food markets in the Pacific are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate recent trends and patterns of processed food markets in the region and interpret the findings by engaging key literature on relevant food systems drivers. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods approach involving two steps; (1) We analysed Euromonitor market sales data for processed food and beverage products sold from 2004-2018 for 16 countries differentiated by income level, and (2) guided by a food systems conceptual framework, we drew upon key literature to understand the likely drivers of our observations. RESULTS: We observed plateaus and declines in processed food sales in some high-income countries but increases in upper-middle and lower-middle income countries, and most rapidly in the latter. Beverage markets appear to be stagnating across all income groups. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, vegetable oils, processed meats, noodles and sweet biscuits made up the majority of sales in transitioning countries. These observations are likely a result of income growth, urbanising populations, trade and globalisation, and various policies implemented by Pacific governments. CONCLUSIONS: A processed foods nutrition transition is well underway in the Pacific region and accelerating most prominently in lower-middle income countries.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/provisión & distribución , Comercio/tendencias , Comida Rápida/provisión & distribución , Manipulación de Alimentos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/efectos adversos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/etiología , Islas del Pacífico/epidemiología
14.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(5): 326-329, 2019 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061356

RESUMEN

The National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in Japan aims to achieve a 50% reduction in the use of broad-spectrum oral antimicrobials (cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones) from 2013 to 2020. Based on the national sales data for antimicrobials, we estimated the regional antimicrobial use (AMU) from 2013-2016 and evaluated the differences in the use of broad-spectrum oral antimicrobials among three regions in which differences had been identified previously. The AMU was standardized based on the defined daily dose (DDD) and described as the DDDs/1,000 inhabitants/day (DID). Annual combined total oral and parenteral AMU during 2013-2016 was 14.9, 14.5, 14.7, and 14.6 DID, respectively. The change in mean ± standard deviation in the total AMU at the prefectural level was - 0.2 ± 0.8 DID. Among the 47 prefectures, decreasing trends were observed in 34, while in the remaining 13 prefectures increasing trends were recorded. In 2016, no significant differences in the mean usage of oral cephalosporins among the three regions were observed. The mean usage of oral macrolides in the eastern (4.1 DID) was significantly lower than that in the central region (4.7 DID) (p = 0.009) and the western (4.8 DID) (p = 0.002). The mean usage of oral quinolones in the western (3.2 DID) was significantly higher than that in the eastern (2.3 DID) (p < 0.001) and central (2.7 DID) (p = 0.001) regions. To determine appropriate targets for the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship for reducting the use of broad-spectrum oral antimicrobials, further studies are required to identify the reasons underlying these differences.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Comercio/tendencias , Utilización de Medicamentos/tendencias , Humanos , Japón
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215032, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978225

RESUMEN

This paper provides a general equilibrium approach to pricing volatility. Existing models (e.g., ARCH/GARCH, stochastic volatility) take a statistical approach to estimating volatility, volatility indices (e.g., CBOE VIX) use a weighted combination of options, and utility based models assume a specific type of preferences. In contrast we treat volatility as an asset and price it using the general equilibrium state pricing framework. Our results show that the general equilibrium volatility method developed in this paper provides superior forecasting ability for realized volatility and serves as an effective fear gauge. We demonstrate the flexibility and generality of our approach by pricing downside risk and upside opportunity. Finally, we show that the superior forecasting ability of our approach generates significant economic value through volatility timing.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Costos y Análisis de Costo/economía , Administración Financiera/normas , Inversiones en Salud/economía , Modelos Económicos , Toma de Decisiones , Administración Financiera/métodos , Humanos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823400

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are purchased through multiple channels, including general retail, online, and specialty smoke and vape shops. We examine how e-cigarette users' primary purchase place relates to e-cigarette use and smoking cessation behaviors. METHODS: Probability-based samples of the U.S. population who were current e-cigarette users were surveyed in 2014 (N = 879) and 2016 (N = 743), with responses combined for most analyses. E-cigarette use and smoking cessation behaviors were compared across users' primary purchase place. RESULTS: Higher percentages of vape shop (59.1%) and internet (42.9%) customers were current daily users of e-cigarettes compared to retail (19.7%) and smoke shop (23.2%) customers (p-values < 0.001). Higher percentages of vape shop (40.2%) and internet (35.1%) customers were also former smokers, compared to 17.7% of retail and 19.3% of smoke shop customers (p's < 0.001). Among those smoking 12 months prior to survey, smoking cessation rates were higher for vape shop (22.2%) and internet customers (22.5%) than for retail customers (10.7%, p = 0.010 and p = 0.022, respectively), even though retail customers were more likely to use FDA-approved smoking cessation aids. The percentage of customers purchasing from vape shops increased from 20.4% in 2014 to 37.6% in 2016, surpassing general retail (27.7%) as the most likely channel in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette customers differed in significant ways by channels of purchase, most notably in their smoking cessation behaviors. Previous population studies have relied mostly on retail channel data, which accounted for less than 30% of all products sold by 2016. Future studies of e-cigarette use should consider a broader set of channels.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adulto , Comercio/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos de Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Vapeo/tendencias
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211199, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730913

RESUMEN

Consumer spending on organic food products has grown rapidly. Some claim that organics have ecological, equity, and health advantages over conventional food and therefore should be subsidized. Here we explore the distributive impacts of an organic fruit subsidy that reduces the retail price of organic fruit in the US by 10 percent. We estimate the impact of the subsidy on organic fruit demand in a representative poor, middle income, and rich US household using three analytical methods; including two econometric and one machine learning. We do not find strong evidence of regressive redistribution due to our simulated organic fruit subsidy; the poor household's relative reaction to the subsidy is not much different than the reaction at the other two households. However, the infra-marginal savings from the subsidy tend to be larger in richer households.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Orgánicos/economía , Frutas/economía , Agricultura Orgánica/economía , Comercio/economía , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Comercio/tendencias , Simulación por Computador , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Financiación Gubernamental/economía , Financiación Gubernamental/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos Orgánicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático , Agricultura Orgánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultura Orgánica/tendencias , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Public Health ; 109(4): 637-639, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789776

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To estimate changes in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water consumption 3 years after an SSB tax in Berkeley, California, relative to unexposed comparison neighborhoods. METHODS: Data came from repeated annual cross-sectional beverage frequency questionnaires from 2014 to 2017 in demographically diverse Berkeley (n = 1513) and comparison (San Francisco and Oakland; n = 3712) neighborhoods. Pretax consumption (2014) was compared with a weighted average of 3 years of posttax consumption. RESULTS: At baseline, SSBs were consumed 1.25 times per day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 1.50) in Berkeley and 1.27 times per day (95% CI = 1.13, 1.42) in comparison city neighborhoods. When we adjusted for covariates, consumption in Berkeley declined by 0.55 times per day (95% CI = -0.75, -0.35) for SSBs and increased by 1.02 times per day (95% CI = 0.54, 1.50) for water. Changes in consumption in Berkeley were significantly different from those in the comparison group, which saw no significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in SSB consumption were sustained in demographically diverse Berkeley neighborhoods over the first 3 years of an SSB tax, relative to comparison cities. These persistent, longer-term reductions in SSB consumption suggest that SSB taxes are an effective policy option for jurisdictions focused on improving public health.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/economía , Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Comercio/economía , Edulcorantes/efectos adversos , Impuestos , California , Comercio/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Agua Potable , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 29(4): 759-766, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627923

RESUMEN

Orthopaedic surgeons often require highly specialized medical devices, implants, and equipment, which are usually offered by several vendors/companies. This study assesses long-term market trends for orthopaedic medical device companies and examines various implications for healthcare cost. Using S&P Capital IQ, a Wall Street database, financial data were gathered on orthopaedic device companies, ranked by worldwide sales, from 1999 to 2015. Annual sales were aggregated to calculate market share and compounded annual growth rates (CAGRs). Overall, the global orthopaedic device market grew at 12.0% CAGR from 1999 to 2008, before slowing to 2.8% from 2009 to 2015. Between 1999 and 2015, the top 5 companies increased total market share from 52.8 to 62.2%. The orthopaedic device market is not only consolidating under a few dominant players, but also growing at a decreasing rate, both of which signal a maturing industry. These trends are likely to shape patient care and healthcare costs in orthopaedic surgery in years to come.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Industrias/tendencias , Equipo Ortopédico/tendencias , Comercio/economía , Humanos , Industrias/economía , Ortopedia
20.
Int J Public Health ; 64(3): 423-430, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The use of roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette has substantially increased in most high-income countries recently. This work aims to update Italian trends on loose tobacco sales and to describe the consumer profile of predominant RYO users. METHODS: Data from the Italian Agency of Customs and State Monopolies and from PASSI (Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) were used. Information on 16,858 interviews to current smokers aged 18-69 was analyzed. RESULTS: Sales of loose tobacco increased more than sevenfold between 2004 and 2017. In 2015-2016, 11.6% of smokers reported smoking predominantly RYO cigarettes, with higher percentages among the youngest where a significant association between use of RYO and education was observed, unlike what happened in older adults. The association between economic difficulties and use of RYO was observed only in older adults. CONCLUSIONS: A growing trend in RYO cigarette sales was registered between 2004 and 2017. In young smokers, the greater use of RYO was observed among the most educated regardless of financial strain, while in older ones among those with economic difficulties.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/economía , Fumar Tabaco/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comercio/tendencias , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
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