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2.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(1): e1998, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351589

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Anxiety and sleep disorders are common in the population and anxiolytics and sedatives are widely used. Our aim was to describe the drug utilization of new users of anxiolytics and sedatives in adults including type of drug, doses, prescribers' characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: A register-based cohort study of new users (18-64 years) of anxiolytics and sedatives in 2015-2019, free of any such drug 5 years prior to inclusion. The individuals were linked to national registers on dispensed drugs and recorded diagnoses. RESULTS: In total, 764,432 new users of anxiolytics and sedatives were identified, which corresponds to an incidence of 26/1000 inhabitants and year. The proportion of new users of benzodiazepines (including both anxiolytics and sedatives) decreased, whereas the proportion of sedative antihistamines and melatonin increased. The most common drug dispensed was hydroxizin (33%) followed by benzodiazepine related drugs (zopiclone and zolpidem; 20%), propiomazine (14%) and benzodiazepines (13%). The majority (68%) of the prescriptions were from primary care. Most new users were prescribed 1-30DDDs and 52% among women and 49% among men were dispensed their drug only once during the first year. Half of the new users had a previous comorbid psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are well reflecting the recommendations in national guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Ansiolíticos , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Ansiolíticos/uso terapéutico , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/uso terapéutico , Suecia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapéutico , Comorbilidad , Prescripciones de Medicamentos
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 333: 115758, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335780

RESUMEN

We characterized the genetic architecture of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-substance use disorder (ADHD-SUD) relationship by investigating genetic correlation, causality, pleiotropy, and common polygenic risk. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used to investigate ADHD (Neff = 51,568), cannabis use disorder (CanUD, Neff = 161,053), opioid use disorder (OUD, Neff = 57,120), problematic alcohol use (PAU, Neff = 502,272), and problematic tobacco use (PTU, Neff = 97,836). ADHD, CanUD, and OUD GWAS meta-analyses included cohorts with case definitions based on different diagnostic criteria. PAU GWAS combined information related to alcohol use disorder, alcohol dependence, and the items related to alcohol problematic consequences assessed by the alcohol use disorders identification test. PTU GWAS was generated a multi-trait analysis including information regarding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and cigarettes per day. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses indicated positive genetic correlation with CanUD, OUD, PAU, and PTU. Genomic structural equation modeling showed that these genetic correlations were related to two latent factors: one including ADHD, CanUD, and PTU and the other with OUD and PAU. The evidence of a causal effect of PAU and PTU on ADHD was stronger than the reverse in the two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. Conversely, similar strength of evidence was found between ADHD and CanUD. CADM2 rs62250713 was a pleiotropic SNP between ADHD and all SUDs. We found seven, one, and twenty-eight pleiotropic variants between ADHD and CanUD, PAU, and PTU, respectively. Finally, OUD, CanUD, and PAU PRS were associated with increased odds of ADHD. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of multiple pleiotropic mechanisms to the comorbidity between ADHD and SUDs.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/genética , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Comorbilidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/complicaciones
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 22, 2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321332

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hospital readmissions among older adults are associated with progressive functional worsening, increased institutionalization and mortality. AIM: Identify the main predictors of readmission in older adults. METHODS: We examined readmission predictors in 777 hospitalized subjects (mean age 84.40 ± 6.77 years) assessed with Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), clinical, anthropometric and biochemical evaluations. Comorbidity burden was estimated by Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Median follow-up was 365 days. RESULTS: 358 patients (46.1%) had a second admission within 365 days of discharge. Estimated probability of having a second admission was 0.119 (95%C.I. 0.095-0.141), 0.158 (95%C.I. 0.131-0.183), and 0.496 (95%C.I. 0.458-0.532) at 21, 30 and 356 days, respectively. Main predictors of readmission at 1 year were length of stay (LOS) > 14 days (p < 0.001), albumin level < 30 g/l (p 0.018), values of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 40 ml/min (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure < 115 mmHg (p < 0.001), CCI ≥ 6 (p < 0.001), and cardiovascular diagnoses. When the joint effects of selected prognostic variables were accounted for, LOS > 14 days, worse renal function, systolic blood pressure < 115 mmHg, higher comorbidity burden remained independently associated with higher readmission risk. DISCUSSION: Selected predictors are associated with higher readmission risk, and the relationship evolves with time. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of performing an accurate CGA, since defined domains and variables contained in the CGA (i.e., LOS, lower albumin and systolic blood pressure, poor renal function, and greater comorbidity burden), when combined altogether, may offer a valid tool to identify the most fragile patients with clinical and functional impairment enhancing their risk of unplanned early and late readmission.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización , Readmisión del Paciente , Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Tiempo de Internación , Comorbilidad , Albúminas , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(1): 62-67, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a significant increase in global mortality rates. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 cases. In these studies, overall mortality was evaluated in patients, and no distinction was made as ward or intensive care mortality. AIM: This study aims to determine mortality-related factors in patients who died while in the ward. This could enable us to review the indications for intensive care hospitalization in possible pandemics. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted on a cohort of 237 patients who applied to our institution between January 2020 and December 2021 with the diagnosis of COVID-19. Demographic characteristics, length of stay, type of admission (emergency ward or outpatient clinic), presence of comorbidities, thoracic computerized tomography (CT) findings, and laboratory findings were extracted from the hospital database. The demographic and laboratory results of both deceased and recovered patients were compared. RESULTS: While many demographic and laboratory findings were statistically significant in the initial analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that decreased albumin levels (adjusted OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.09 - 0.57), increased troponin (adjusted OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.05), and procalcitonin (adjusted OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.04 - 11.47) levels and higher partial thromboplastin time (PTT) (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.09 - 1.28) values, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients (adjusted OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.01 - 4.69, P = 0.047), and admission to hospital from the emergency department (adjusted OR = 5.15, 95% CI = 1.45 - 18.27, P = 0.011) were significantly associated with mortality when adjusted for age. When a predictive model is constructed with these variables, this model predicted mortality statistically significant (AUC = 0.904, 95% CI = 0.856 - 0.938, P < 0.001), with a sensitivity of 77.2% (95% CI, 67.8 - 85), a specificity of 91.2% (95% CI, 85.1 - 95.4), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86.7% (95% CI, 72 - 85.3), and an negative predictive value (NPV) of 84.4% (95% CI, 79.4 - 89.6). CONCLUSION: In this study, we may predict mortality among COVID-19-diagnosed patients admitted to the ward via this model which has the potential to provide guidance for reconsidering the indications for intensive care unit (ICU) admission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalización , Comorbilidad , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Mortalidad Hospitalaria
6.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(4): 163-169, Feb. 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230572

RESUMEN

Objectives: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world since 2019. In severe cases, COVID-19 can lead to hospitalization and death. Systemic arterial hypertension and other comorbidities are associated with serious COVID-19 infection. Literature is unclear whether antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect COVID-19 outcomes. We aim to assess whether ACEI/ARB therapy is a risk factor for worse respiratory outcomes related to COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Methods: Retrospective study enrolling admitted COVID-19-diagnosed patients by RT-PCR at the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Brazil, during 2021. Patient medical records, sociodemographic, and clinical data were analyzed. Chest CT images were analyzed using CAD4COVID-CT/Thirona™ software. Results: A total of 294 patients took part in the study. A cut-off point of 66% of pulmonary involvement was found by ROC curve, with patients having higher risk of death and intubation and lower 60-day survival. Advanced age (RR 1.025, P=0.001) and intubation (RR 16.747, P<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher risk of death. Advanced age (RR 1.023, P=0.001) and the use of noninvasive ventilation (RR 1.548, P=0.037) were associated with a higher risk of intubation. Lung involvement (>66%) increased the risk of death by almost 2.5-fold (RR 2.439, P<0.001) and by more than 2.3-fold the risk of intubation (RR 2.317, P<0.001). Conclusions: Altogether, our findings suggest that ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect the risk of death and disease course during hospitalization.(AU)


Objetivos: La COVID-19, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, se ha extendido por todo el mundo desde 2019. En casos graves, la COVID-19 puede provocar hospitalización y muerte. La hipertensión arterial sistémica y otras comorbilidades se asocian con una infección grave por COVID-19. La literatura no está clara si la terapia antihipertensiva con bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina (BRA) e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (ECA) afecta los resultados de la COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la terapia BRA/ECA es un factor de riesgo de peores resultados respiratorios relacionados con COVID-19 en pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 mediante RT-PCR en el Hospital General de Fortaleza, Brasil, durante 2021. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes, datos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Las imágenes de TC de tórax se analizaron utilizando el software CAD4COVID-CT/ThironaTM. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio un total de 294 pacientes. Mediante curva ROC se encontró un punto de corte del 66% de afectación pulmonar, teniendo los pacientes mayor riesgo de muerte e intubación y menor supervivencia a 60 días. La edad avanzada (RR 1,025; P=0,001) y la intubación (RR 16,747; P<0,001) se asociaron significativamente con un mayor riesgo de muerte. La edad avanzada (RR 1,023; P=0,001) y el uso de ventilación no invasiva (RR 1,548; P=0,037) se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de intubación. La afectación pulmonar (>66%) aumentó el riesgo de muerte casi 2,5 veces (RR 2,439; P<0,001) y más de 2,3 veces el riesgo de intubación (RR 2,317, P<0,001). Conclusiones: Se concluyó que el tratamiento con BRA o ECA no afecta el riesgo de muerte y el curso de la enfermedad durante la hospitalización.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , /diagnóstico , Bloqueadores del Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión , Comorbilidad , /epidemiología , Medicina Clínica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Brasil , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Inteligencia Artificial
7.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 162(4): 182-189, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-230575

RESUMEN

La hidradenitis supurativa (HS) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica y recurrente derivada de la unidad pilosebácea, que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población general. Se caracteriza clínicamente por nódulos inflamatorios, abscesos y túneles en las áreas intertriginosas del cuerpo, especialmente en las regiones axilar, inguinal y anogenital. La etiopatogenia de la HS no está totalmente aclarada, aunque se considera que es multifactorial, y resultado de una compleja interacción entre factores genéticos, hormonales, ambientales e inmunológicos. En este sentido, determinadas citocinas proinflamatorias como el factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa (TNF-α), la interleucina (IL)-1β y la IL-17, entre otras, parecen desempeñar un papel fundamental en la patogénesis de la enfermedad. Actualmente, la HS es considerada una enfermedad inflamatoria sistémica asociada con numerosas comorbilidades, incluyendo enfermedades cardiovasculares, inmunomediadas y trastornos endocrino-metabolicos. El tratamiento de la HS debe realizarse con un enfoque individualizado y orientado al paciente, considerando modalidades de tratamiento médico y quirúrgico.(AU)


Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory disease derived from the pilosebaceous unit, that affects approximately 1% of the general population. Clinically, it is characterized by inflammatory nodules, abscesses, and tunnels in the intertriginous areas of the body, especially in the axillary, inguinal, and anogenital regions. The etiopathogenesis of HS is not completely understood, although it is considered to be multifactorial, and the result of a complex interaction between genetic, hormonal, environmental, and immunological factors. In this sense, several proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-L-1β, and IL-17, among others, appear to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Currently, HS is recognized as a systemic disease associated with numerous comorbidities, including cardiovascular, immune-mediated, and endocrine-metabolic diseases. The treatment of HS must be carried out with an individualized and patient-oriented approach, considering medical and surgical treatment modalities.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Comorbilidad , Inflamación , Hidradenitis Supurativa/diagnóstico por imagen , Hidradenitis Supurativa/etiología , Hidradenitis Supurativa/epidemiología , Medicina Clínica , Hidradenitis Supurativa/tratamiento farmacológico , Microbiota
8.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 17(1): 45-58, Feb. 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-230608

RESUMEN

La realidad actual del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) justifica un abordaje multidisciplinar y coordinado entre Atención Primaria y Atención Hospitalaria, contemplando la bidireccionalidad y la comunicación entre los dos escenarios asistenciales. El presente documento de consenso, coordinado entre el Grupo de Estudio del SIDA de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas (SEIMC-GeSIDA) y la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (semFYC), nace de esta necesidad. Aquí se resumen las recomendaciones de los cuatro bloques que lo componen: el primero trata aspectos de prevención y diagnóstico de la infección por el VIH; en el segundo se contempla la atención y el manejo clínico de las personas que viven con VIH; el tercero trata aspectos sociales, incluyendo temas legales y de confidencialidad, la calidad de vida y el papel de las ONG; por último, el cuarto bloque aborda la formación/docencia y la investigación bidireccional y compartida.(AU)


The current reality of the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection justifies a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach between primary care and hospital care. This entails a two-way relationship and communication between the two care settings. This consensus document, coordinated by the AIDS Study Group of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC-GeSIDA) and the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine (semFYC), arose because of this need. Here, the recommendations of the four blocks that comprise it are summarized: the first tackles aspects of prevention and diagnosis of HIV infection; the second contemplates the clinical care and management of people living with HIV; the third deals with social aspects, including legal and confidentiality issues, quality of life, and the role of NGOs; finally, the fourth block addresses two-way and shared training/teaching and research.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Enfermedades Transmisibles/tratamiento farmacológico , Prevención de Enfermedades , España , Medicina Comunitaria , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Atención Primaria de Salud , Comorbilidad
9.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 44(1): 77-89, ene.- feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229424

RESUMEN

We hypothesized that a poorer cardiovascular health status is related to a higher risk of hypertension-mediated organ-damage (HMOD) or hypertension-related comorbidities (HRC). We assessed the relationship between cardiovascular health metrics (CVHM) and HMOD-HRC in 243 hypertensive patients from primary care center followed for two years. We recorded the baseline CVHM score (Life's Simple 7) plus clinical data, including prevalent and incident HMOD-HRC, hospitalization and mortality. The prevalence of ideal CVHM scores was very low in both men and women. The patients with healthier CVHM scores were younger, and had a lower prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We recorded 264 cases of HMOD-HRC (225 at baseline and 39 during follow-up). Nine patients died and 64 had any-cause hospitalization during follow-up. A lower prevalence of HMOD-HRC and unfavorable outcomes was observed as the number of ideal CVHM increased (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for confounders showed a lower CVHM score (0–1) was associated with increased odds of HMOD-HRC (4.04, 95% CI 1.26–12.94; P=0.019) and composite endpoint (HMOD-HRC, death or all-cause hospitalization) (3.43, 95% CI 1.19–9.92; P=0.023). Individual components were less predictive than the cumulative CVHM score. Few hypertensive patients in this urban population had ideal CVHM scores. An inverse relationship between scores and outcomes (HMOD-HRC, death or hospitalizations) was observed. Interventions to increase this score may improve prognosis among community-based hypertensive patients (AU)


Nuestra hipótesis fue que un estado de peor salud cardiovascular está relacionado con un mayor riesgo de daño orgánico provocado por la hipertensión (DOP HTA) o de comorbilidades relacionadas con la hipertensión (CRHTA). Evaluamos la relación entre las métricas de la salud cardiovascular (MSCV) y el DOP HTA-CRHTA en 243 pacientes hipertensos procedentes de un centro de atención primaria, a quienes se realizó un seguimiento durante 2 años. Registramos la puntuación basal de MSCV (Life's Simple 7) y los datos clínicos, incluyendo DOP HTA-CRHTA prevalente e incidental, hospitalización y mortalidad. La prevalencia de puntuaciones MSCV ideales fue muy baja tanto en hombres como en mujeres. Los pacientes con puntuaciones MSCV más saludables fueron más jóvenes y tuvieron una menor prevalencia de diabetes, cardiopatías y enfermedad renal crónica. Registramos 264 casos de DOP HTA-CRHTA (225 al inicio y 39 durante el seguimiento). Nueve pacientes fallecieron y 64 fueron hospitalizados por cualquier causa durante el seguimiento. Se observó una menor prevalencia de DOP HTA-CRHTA y resultados no favorables a medida que aumentaba el MSCV ideal (p<0,05). La regresión logística multivariante ajustada a los factores de confusión reflejó una menor puntuación MSCV (0-1) asociada a un incremento de la odds ratio de DOP HTA-CRHTA (4,04, IC 95% 1,26-12,94; p=0,019) y un resultado compuesto (DOP HTA-CRHTA, muerte u hospitalización por cualquier causa) (3,43, IC 95% 1,19-9,92; p=0,023). Los componentes individuales fueron menos predictivos que la puntuación MSCV acumulada. Pocos pacientes hipertensos de esta población urbana tuvieron puntuaciones MSCV ideales. Se observó una relación inversa entre las puntuaciones y los resultados (DOP HTA-CRHTA, muerte u hospitalizaciones). Las intervenciones para incrementar esta puntuación pueden mejorar el pronóstico entre los pacientes hipertensos con base comunitaria (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , España/epidemiología , Comorbilidad
10.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 50(1): [e102090], ene.- feb. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229436

RESUMEN

Objetivos Analizar el riesgo de COVID-19 con relación a la morbilidad previa, así como el riesgo de nuevos eventos cardiovasculares (ECV) en pacientes COVID-19 y la supervivencia a un año. Metodología Estudio casos-control y estudio de cohortes prospectivo. Se incluyeron 275 pacientes aleatorizados >18 años diagnosticados de COVID-19 y se aparearon con 825 COVID-19 negativos por edad y sexo (proporción 1:3). Las variables principales fueron diagnóstico de COVID-19 y eventos post-COVID-19. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas, comorbilidad y ECV previo. Se realizaron sendos modelos predictivos de factores asociados al desarrollo de COVID-19 y de ECV post-COVID-19, así como un análisis de supervivencia a un año. Resultados Los varones con ECV previo duplican el riesgo de padecer COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 2,11; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% 1,32–3,36). En las mujeres el riesgo aumenta con la edad (OR 1,01; IC 95% 1,00–1,02), la diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 1,90; IC 95% 1,14–3,17) y el deterioro cognitivo (OR 4,88; IC 95% 2,50–9,53). La inmunosupresión actúa como factor protector en ambos sexos. La edad (OR 1,02; IC 95% 1,00–1,04), hipertensión arterial (HTA) (OR 2,21; IC 95% 1,17–4,17), la infección COVID-19 (OR 4,81; IC 95% 2,89–7,98) y el ECV previo (OR 4,46; IC 95% 2,56–7,75) predicen el desarrollo de un nuevo ECV post-COVID-19. Los pacientes COVID-19 positivos tienen menor supervivencia (mediana de siete vs. 184 días). Conclusiones El ECV previo en varones y la DM junto al deterioro cognitivo en mujeres aumentan el riesgo de presentar COVID-19. La edad, HTA, ECV previo y la infección COVID-19 predicen la aparición de un ECV (AU)


Aim To analyze the risk of COVID-19 in relation to previous morbidity; to analyze the risk of new cardiovascular events (CVE) in COVID-19 patients and one-year survival. Methodology Case–control study and prospective cohort study. Two hundred and seventy-five randomized patients >18 years old with COVID-19 were included and matched with 825 without COVID-19 by age and sex (ratio 1:3). The main variables were diagnosis of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 events. Sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and previous CVD were studied. Two predictive models of factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 CVE were performed, as well as a one-year survival analysis. Results Men with a previous CVE double the risk of suffering from COVID-19 (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.32–3.36). In women, the risk increases with age (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00–1.02), diabetes (DM) (OR 1.90; 95% CI: 1.14–3.17) and cognitive impairment (OR 4.88; 95% CI: 2.50–9.53). Immunosuppression acts as a protective factor in both sexes. Age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00–1.04), arterial hypertension (OR 2.21; 95% CI: 1.17–4.17), COVID-19 infection (OR 4.81; 95% CI: 2.89–7.98) and previous CVE (OR 4.46; 95% CI: 2.56–7.75) predict the development of a new post-COVID-19 CVE. Positive COVID-19 has lower survival (median 7 days vs. 184 days). Conclusions Previous CVE in men and DM along with cognitive impairment in women increase the risk of presenting COVID-19. Age, arterial hypertension, previous CVE, and COVID-19 infection predict the appearance of new CVE (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Análisis de Supervivencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Incidencia , Comorbilidad , España/epidemiología
12.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-5, jan.-dez. 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530657

RESUMEN

Aim: this study aimed to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment for endometriosis on the metabolic profile of women diagnosed with deep endometriosis. Methods: we conducted a prospective observational study with a sample of 30 women in the menacme diagnosed with deep endometriosis who underwent videolaparoscopic surgery in a reference center in Brazil between October 2020 and December 2021. A total of 30 women performed clinical and laboratory tests regarding their metabolic profile on two occasions, during preoperative tests and six months after video-laparoscopy. Results: patients had lower average levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Cholesterol (LDL-c), Triglycerides (TGC), and Fasting Glycemia (FG) after the surgical procedure. The average TC level was 8.2% lower after surgery, LDL-c was 12.8% lower, TGC was 10.9% lower, and FG was 7.3% lower. The results showed a statistically significant difference for all these parameters (p < 0.001). Conclusions: video-laparoscopy was associated with a favorable lipid profile compared to the preoperative lipid profile, with a significant improvement in the average levels of LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TGC, and FG. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to determine whether surgical treatment for endometriosis can improve the metabolic parameters of women with endometriosis and favor a lower predisposition to atherogenesis.


Objetivo: Aeste estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do tratamento cirúrgico da endometriose no perfil metabólico de mulheres com diagnóstico de endometriose profunda. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo observacional prospectivo com uma amostra de 30 mulheres na menacme, com diagnóstico de endometriose profunda, que foram submetidas à videolaparoscopia em um centro de referência no Brasil, entre outubro de 2020 e dezembro de 2021. As mulheres realizaram exames clínicos e laboratoriais quanto ao seu perfil metabólico em duas ocasiões, durante exames pré-operatórios e seis meses após a videolaparoscopia. Resultados: as pacientes apresentaram níveis médios mais baixos de Colesterol Total (CT), Colesterol de Baixa Densidade (LDL-c), Triglicerídeos (TGC) e Glicemia de Jejum (GJ) após o procedimento cirúrgico. O nível médio de CT foi 8,2% menor após a cirurgia, o LDL-c foi 12,8% menor, o TGC foi 10,9% menor e a GJ foi 7,3% menor. Os resultados mostraram diferença estatisticamente significativa para todos esses parâmetros (p < 0,001). Conclusões: a videolaparoscopia foi associada a um perfil lipídico favorável em comparação ao perfil lipídico pré-operatório, com melhora significativa nos níveis médios de LDL-c, HDL-c, CT, TGC e GJ. Estudos de acompanhamento a longo prazo são necessários para determinar se o tratamento cirúrgico da endometriose pode melhorar os parâmetros metabólicos de mulheres com endometriose e favorecer uma menor predisposição à aterogênese.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Endometriosis , Comorbilidad , Panel Metabólico Completo
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 333: 115768, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325161

RESUMEN

Using a future event fluency task, the current study sought to examine future event construction in PTSD and to identify clinical profiles associated with altered event construction. Thirty-eight trauma exposed war-zone veterans with (n=25) and without (n=13) PTSD generated within one minute as many positive and negative future events as possible in the near and distant future. The PTSD group generated fewer specific, but not generic, events than the no-PTSD group, a difference that was amplified for positive events as a result of comorbid depression. Clinical correlates of event construction varied as a function of event valence.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Veteranos , Humanos , Comorbilidad
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 45(2): 319-324, 2024 Feb 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413075

RESUMEN

With the increasing life expectancy and lifestyle changes of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the significance of comorbidities of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in disease progression and health prognosis of CHB patients is gaining prominence. This study aims to explore the association between CHB and NCDs comorbidities, focusing on the impact of common metabolism-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes, on the health outcomes of CHB patients. We also summarize studies on integrating the management of comorbidities in CHB patients and provide relevant recommendations for effective management. The findings of this study serve as a foundation for understanding the clinical characteristics and prevalence trends, reducing the disease burden of comorbidities among CHB patients, and establishing a comprehensive and coordinated management system for comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatitis B Crónica , Humanos , Hepatitis B Crónica/epidemiología , Hepatitis B Crónica/terapia , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Pronóstico , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Virus de la Hepatitis B
15.
Prev Med ; 180: 107883, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307211

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Prior studies on severe maternal morbidity (SMM) have often excluded women who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), even though they are at increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes. This study compared rates of SMM during delivery and postpartum among DHH and non-DHH women. METHODS: This nationally representative retrospective cohort study used hospital discharge data from the 2004-2020 Health Care and Cost Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The risk of SMM with and without blood transfusion during delivery and postpartum among DHH and non-DHH women were compared using modified Poisson regression analysis. The study was conducted in the United States in 2022-2023. RESULTS: The cohort included 9351 births to DHH women for the study period, and 13,574,382 age-matched and delivery year-matched births to non-DHH women in a 1:3 case-control ratio. The main outcomes were SMM and non-transfusion SMM during delivery and postpartum. Relative risks were sequentially adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, hospital-level characteristics, and clinical characteristics. In unadjusted analyses, DHH women were at 80% higher risk for SMM (RR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.63-2.02, p < 0.001) during delivery and postpartum compared to non-DHH women. Adjustment for socio-demographic and hospital characteristics attenuated risk for SMM (RR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.38-1.72, p < 0.001). Adjustment for the Elixhauser comorbidity score further attenuated the risk of SMM among DHH women (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate a critical need for inclusive preconception, prenatal, and postpartum care that address conditions that increase the risk for SMM among DHH people.


Asunto(s)
Periodo Posparto , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Audición
16.
Redox Biol ; 70: 103060, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310682

RESUMEN

There is a complex interrelationship between the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Comorbidities of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with mental disorders, and vice versa, are prevalent. Adults with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression have a higher risk of developing CVD, and people with CVD have an increased risk of being diagnosed with mental disorders. Oxidative stress is one of the many pathways associated with the pathophysiology of brain and cardiovascular disease. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is one of the major generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells, as it is the enzyme that specifically produces superoxide. This review summarizes recent findings on the consequences of NOX activation in thrombosis and depression. It also discusses the therapeutic effects and pharmacological strategies of NOX inhibitors in CVD and brain disorders. A better comprehension of these processes could facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of the comorbidity of thrombosis and depression.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Trombosis , Animales , Humanos , NADPH Oxidasas/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrés Oxidativo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Trombosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Comorbilidad , Mamíferos/metabolismo
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 242, 2024 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a direct impact on the clinical manifestation and prognosis of active tuberculosis disease (TB) and is known to increase the chance of developing the condition. We sought to determine the prevalence of DM in adult Ugandan patients with recently diagnosed TB and the associated sociodemographic, anthropometric, and metabolic characteristics of TB-DM comorbidity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted at the adult TB treatment centres of three tertiary healthcare facilities in Uganda, we screened adult participants with recently diagnosed TB (diagnosed in < 2 months) for DM. All participants were screened with five tests; initially with a random blood glucose (RBG) test, and then later with fasting blood glucose (FBG), laboratory-based glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), point-of-care (POC) HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if the RBG was ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. The WHO guidelines for diagnosing and managing DM were used to support the DM diagnosis. To identify the factors associated with DM-TB comorbidity, logistic regression was used. RESULTS: A total of 232 participants with recently diagnosed TB were screened for DM. Of these, 160 (69%) were female. The median (IQR) age, body mass index, and RBG of all study participants was 35 (27-42) years, 19.2 (17.6-21.3) kg/m2, and 6.1 (5.5-7.2) mmol/l, respectively. About half of the participants (n = 117, 50.4%) had RBG level ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. Of these, 75 (64.1%) participants returned for re-testing. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 32 participants, corresponding to a prevalence of 13.8% (95% CI 9.9-18.9). A new diagnosis of DM was noted in 29 (90.6%) participants. On logistic regression, age ≥ 40 years was associated with increased odds of TB and DM comorbidity (AOR 3.12, 95% CI 1.35-7.23, p = 0.008) while HIV coinfection was protective (AOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.74, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: TB and DM comorbidity was relatively common in this study population. Routine screening for DM in adult Ugandan patients with recently diagnosed TB especially among those aged ≥ 40 years and HIV-negative patients should be encouraged in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculosis , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiología , Hemoglobina Glucada , Glucemia/metabolismo , Estudios Transversales , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Prevalencia
18.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e080408, 2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of mental health comorbidity in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Representative population, routinely collected primary care data from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database (2015-2019). PARTICIPANTS: Patients with IBD aged 5-25 years with mental health conditions were compared with patients with IBD of the same age without mental health conditions. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes comprised quality-of-life indicators (low mood, self-harm, parasuicide, bowel symptoms, absence from school or work, unemployment, substance use and sleep disturbance), IBD interventions (medication, abdominal surgery, stoma formation and nutritional supplements) and healthcare utilisation (primary care interactions and hospital admissions). RESULTS: Of 1943 individuals aged 5-25 years with IBD, 295 (15%) had a mental health comorbidity. Mental health comorbidity was associated with increased bowel symptoms (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.82; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.52), sleep disturbance (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.63; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.62), substance use (aHR 3.63; 95% CI 1.69 to 7.78), primary care interactions (aIRR 1.33; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.58) and hospital admissions (aIRR 1.87; 95%CI 1.29 to 2.75). In individuals ≥18 years old, mental health comorbidity was associated with increased time off work (aHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.99). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health comorbidity in children and young adults with IBD is associated with poorer quality of life, higher healthcare utilisation and more time off work. It is imperative that affected young patients with IBD are monitored and receive early mental health support as part of their multidisciplinary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study protocol was specified and registered a priori (ClinicalTrials.gov study identifier: NCT05206734).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Niño , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Estudios de Cohortes , Salud Mental , Calidad de Vida , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/complicaciones , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/epidemiología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Comorbilidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
19.
Clin Cardiol ; 47(2): e24235, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unhoused patients face significant barriers to receiving health care in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. For unhoused patients with heart failure who are in extremis, there is a lack of data regarding in-hospital outcomes and resource utilization in the setting of cardiogenic shock (CS). HYPOTHESIS: Unhoused patients hospitalized with CS have increased mortality and decreased use of invasive therapies as compared to housed patients. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried from 2011 to 2019 for relevant ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes to identify unhoused patients with an admission diagnosis of CS. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes between patients were compared. Binary logistic regression was used to adjust outcomes for prespecified and significantly different baseline characteristics (p < .05). RESULTS: We identified a weighted sample of 1 202 583 adult CS hospitalizations, of whom 4510 were unhoused (0.38%). There was no significant difference in the comorbidity adjusted odds of mortality between groups. Unhoused patients had lower odds of receiving mechanical circulatory support, left heart catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, or pulmonary artery catheterization. Unhoused patients had higher adjusted odds of infectious complications, undergoing intubation, or requiring restraints. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, despite having fewer traditional comorbidities, unhoused patients have similar mortality and less access to more aggressive care than housed patients. Unhoused patients may experience under-diuresis, or more conservative care strategies, as evidenced by the higher intubation rate in this population. Further studies are needed to elucidate long-term outcomes and investigate systemic methods to ameliorate barriers to care in unhoused populations.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Choque Cardiogénico , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Choque Cardiogénico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogénico/epidemiología , Choque Cardiogénico/terapia , Pacientes Internos , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Hospitales , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Estudios Retrospectivos
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