Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26.932
Filtrar
1.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398078

RESUMEN

This N = 173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey - an open science effort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gobierno , Humanos , Personalidad , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Confianza
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113593, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276269

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 crisis has resulted in disruption of everyday life worldwide but the impact and response to the pandemic have not been uniform. Many countries rapidly deployed physical-distancing mandates to curb the spread of the virus; others did not. Social distancing strategies are necessary to reduce the transmission of the virus but there may be unintended consequences. We examined psychological distress in four societies with distinct public health strategies (South Korea, Hong Kong, France and the United States) to identify common and region-specific factors that may contribute to mental health outcome during the pandemic. From March to July of 2020, a survey of demographics, general health, mental health, loneliness and social networks was conducted. Overall, younger age, greater concern for COVID, and more severe loneliness predicted worse psychological outcome but the magnitudes of these effects varied across the four regions. Objective measures of social isolation did not affect mental health. There were also notable differences in psychological outcome; Hong Kong, with very strict social distancing protocols plus ongoing political unrest, suffered the most drastic deterioration of mental health. To prepare for an impending mental health crisis, concerted efforts to reduce loneliness should be integrated into a comprehensive public health strategy.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Comparación Transcultural , Soledad , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Red Social , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242912, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259513

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to establish a Korean version of the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI-K) for Korean-speaking patients facing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the CSI-K. We recruited a total of 269 patients with knee OA who were scheduled to undergo TKA for the study. CSI-K and pain-related outcomes, including the pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC) pain sub-scores, were measured. Since central sensitization (CS) is closely related to the quality of life (QOL) and limited functionality as well as pain, the patient's function was measured using the WOMAC function sub-scores, and QOL was measured using the EuroQol five-dimension test (EQ-5D). Reliability and validity were evaluated. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to begin the data reduction to validate the existing questionnaire translation. The internal consistency was excellent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.941. The test-retest reliability was acceptable-to-excellent with an ICC of 0.888. As expected, the CSI scores correlated strongly with the WOMAC pain scores (r = 0.524, p < 0.001) and moderately with the pain VAS (r = 0.496, p < 0.001), the WOMAC function (r = 0.408, p < 0.001), and the EQ-5D scores (r = 0.437, p < 0.001). EFA resulted in a six-factor model. The findings demonstrate that the CSI was successfully trans-culturally adapted into a simplified Korean version (CSI-K) that was reliable and valid for Korean-speaking patients who awaiting TKA for knee OA.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/psicología , Sensibilización del Sistema Nervioso Central , Comparación Transcultural , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/fisiopatología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/psicología , Anciano , Intervalos de Confianza , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , República de Corea
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13037-13043, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378055

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis that gender stereotypes influence human behaviour and relational well-being is widely accepted in the literature. However, a comparison based on scientific assumptions is necessary to deeply understand the mechanisms activated by stereotypes in conditions of stress. The global health emergency from COVID-19 offers the opportunity to compare countries with different socio-cultural conditions, whose population has been subjected to the same stressful event during the lockdown phase. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The same questionnaire was disseminated in both Italy and Turkey during their respective lockdown phases. 140,000 interviews were collected in Italy and 10,000 in Turkey, a number big enough to obtain useful information for a comparative analysis in relation to behaviours, attitudes and well-being, also using the recursive regression models. RESULTS: The results, based on scientific data, show that gender stereotypes are much more rooted in Turkey than in Italy, where the emancipation process of the population is more advanced, producing profound social changes and decreasing differences between men and women in terms of behaviour and reactions to difficult situations, such as the present one. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotypes, which are hostile to any opposite evidence, affect individual behaviours and attitudes to the point that, within a specific context, they play a protective role against the uncertainty during a period of health emergency, inducing people to seek shelter in pre-established and widespread behavioural models. According to the data analysis, this has happened in Turkey more than in Italy. The results show that within a culture still strongly pervaded by these social conditioning, especially at the presence of low levels of education, the adherence to gender roles constitutes a "protective factor" of the individual well-being against external stress factors.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Estereotipo , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Comparación Transcultural , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Religión , Medio Social , Turquia
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e190, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261713

RESUMEN

AIMS: The use of mechanical restraint is a challenging area for psychiatry. Although mechanical restraint remains accepted as standard practice in some regions, there are ethical, legal and medical reasons to minimise or abolish its use. These concerns have intensified following the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Despite national policies to reduce use, the reporting of mechanical restraint has been poor, hampering a reasonable understanding of the epidemiology of restraint. This paper aims to develop a consistent measure of mechanical restraint and compare the measure within and across countries in the Pacific Rim. METHODS: We used the publicly available data from four Pacific Rim countries (Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United States) to compare and contrast the reported rates of mechanical restraint. Summary measures were computed so as to enable international comparisons. Variation within each jurisdiction was also analysed. RESULTS: International rates of mechanical restraint in 2017 varied from 0.03 (New Zealand) to 98.9 (Japan) restraint events per million population per day, a variation greater than 3000-fold. Restraint in Australia (0.17 events per million) and the United States (0.37 events per million) fell between these two extremes. Variation as measured by restraint events per 1000 bed-days was less extreme but still substantial. Within all four countries there was also significant variation in restraint across districts. Variation across time did not show a steady reduction in restraint in any country during the period for which data were available (starting from 2003 at the earliest). CONCLUSIONS: Policies to reduce or abolish mechanical restraint do not appear to be effecting change. It is improbable that the variation in restraint within the four examined Pacific Rim countries is accountable for by psychopathology. Greater efforts at reporting, monitoring and carrying out interventions to achieve the stated aim of reducing restraint are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Aislamiento de Pacientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Restricción Física/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Coerción , Comparación Transcultural , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japón , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda , Estados Unidos
6.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190150, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174987

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Thyroidectomy-Related Voice Questionnaire (TVQ) to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: We divided the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation into the following stages: two independent translations; synthesis of the translations; analysis by an expert committee; pretest; back-translation; final synthesis; and final version. We performed the pretest with 20 patients before or after thyroidectomy. We characterized the sample by means of descriptive analysis, and calculated the agreement between the experts by the Item Content Validity Index (I-CVI) and the Questionnaire Content Validity Index (Q-CVI). RESULTS: Throughout the translation and cross-cultural adaptation, the instrument required operational, semantic, idiomatic, and syntactic/grammatical equivalences, especially after the analyses by the experts and the target population. The I-CVI and Q-CVI were mostly acceptable. The back-translation was equivalent to the original version. The comparison between the original, translated, and back-translated versions made possible the final version. CONCLUSION: We translated and adapted the TVQ to Brazilian Portuguese. The questionnaire is suitable for the next steps of the validation process.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Tiroidectomía , Brasil , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones
7.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190204, 2020.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174989

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To adapt the Australian singing voice protocol, Evaluation of Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) to Chilean Spanish. METHODS: A translation of the EASE to Chilean Spanish was performed and later back translated; these were reviewed by a committee made up of 4 Speech-Language pathologists who created the first version in Chilean Spanish (EASE-CL). The EASE-CL is made up of 22 items, the same as the original, which are answered according to a Likert frequency scale, to which, during its adaptation, the option 'not applicable' was added in order to identify the instructions that were not understood or inappropriate for the vocabulary of Chilean singers. This version was applied to 21 professional singers in the Valparaiso Region. During this application there were no suggestions to change any of the instructions. RESULTS: The EASE-CL reflects the original English both in the number of items and in the domains. CONCLUSION: The cultural and linguistic equivalence of the EASE protocol in Chilean Spanish was demonstrated and the EASE-CL version came to be.


Asunto(s)
Canto , Trastornos de la Voz , Australia , Chile , Comparación Transcultural , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones , Trastornos de la Voz/diagnóstico
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241196, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206664

RESUMEN

Research in music and emotion has long acknowledged the importance of extra-musical cues, yet has been unable to measure their effect on emotion communication in music. The aim of this research was to understand how extra-musical cues affect emotion responses to music in two distinguishable cultures. Australian and Cuban participants (N = 276) were instructed to name an emotion in response to written lyric excerpts from eight distinct music genres, using genre labels as cues. Lyrics were presented primed with genre labels (original priming and a false, lured genre label) or unprimed. For some genres, emotion responses to the same lyrics changed based on the primed genre label. We explain these results as emotion expectations induced by extra-musical cues. This suggests that prior knowledge elicited by lyrics and music genre labels are able to affect the musical emotion responses that music can communicate, independent of the emotion contribution made by psychoacoustic features. For example, the results show a lyric excerpt that is believed to belong to the Heavy Metal genre triggers high valence/high arousal emotions compared to the same excerpt primed as Japanese Gagaku, without the need of playing any music. The present study provides novel empirical evidence of extra-musical effects on emotion and music, and supports this interpretation from a multi-genre, cross-cultural perspective. Further findings were noted in relation to fandom that also supported the emotion expectation account. Participants with high levels of fandom for a genre reported a wider range of emotions in response to the lyrics labelled as being a song from that same specific genre, compared to lower levels of fandom. Both within and across culture differences were observed, and the importance of a culture effect discussed.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Música/psicología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Australia , Comunicación , Comparación Transcultural , Señales (Psicología) , Drama , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoacústica , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242501, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196671

RESUMEN

Previous research on cross-cultural differences in visual attention has been inconclusive. Some studies have suggested the existence of systematic differences in global and local attention and context sensitivity, while others have produced negative or mixed results. The objective in this study was to examine the similarities and differences in holistic and analytic cognitive styles in a sample of Czech and Taiwanese university students. Two cognitive tasks were conducted: a Compound Figures Test and a free-viewing scene perception task which manipulated several focal objects and measured eye-movement patterns. An analysis of the reaction times in the Compound Figures Test showed no clear differences between either sample. An analysis of eye-movement metrics showed certain differences between the samples. While Czechs tended to focus relatively more on the focal objects measured by the number of fixations, the Taiwanese subjects spent more time fixating on the background. The results were consistent for scenes with one or two focal objects. The results of a correlation analysis of both tasks showed that they were unrelated. These results showed certain differences between the samples in visual perception but were not as systematic as the theory of holistic and analytic cognitive styles would suggest. An alternative model of cross-cultural differences in cognition and perception is discussed.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Comparación Transcultural , República Checa , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Estudiantes , Taiwán , Universidades , Visión Ocular/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241107, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147233

RESUMEN

Methods for estimating the scope of unjustified inequality differ in their sensitivity to address institutional and structural deficiencies. In the case of gender wage gaps, adjusting adequately for individual characteristics requires prior assessment of several important deficiencies, primarily whether a given labor market is characterized by gendered selection into employment, gendered segmentation and whether these mechanisms differ along the distribution of wages. Given that countries are characterized by differentiated prevalence of these deficiencies, ranking countries on gender wage gaps is a challenging task. Whether a country is perceived as more equal than others depends on the interaction between the method of adjusting gender wage gap for individual characteristics and the prevalence of these deficiencies. We make the case that this interaction is empirically relevant by comparing the country rankings for the adjusted gender wage gap among 23 EU countries. In this relatively homogeneous group of countries, the interaction between method and underlying deficiencies leads to substantial variation in the extent of unjustified inequality. A country may change its place in the ranking by as much as ten positions-both towards greater equality and towards greater inequality. We also show that, if explored properly, this variability can yield valuable policy insights: changes in the ranking positions across methods inform on the policy priority of the labor market deficiencies across countries in relative terms.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Empleo/economía , Equidad de Género , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Unión Europea/economía , Unión Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241288, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175858

RESUMEN

The present study aims to collect data about the prevalence of cyberbullying and the role of self-esteem, empathy, and social skills in predicting cybervictimization and cyberaggression in two different countries: Spain and Ecuador. Additionally, it compares the similarities found in both countries. A wide sample of adolescents from Secondary Education (N = 24943; mean age = 13.92; SD = 1.30, girls = 49.9%) from both countries (Spain = 14,206 and Ecuador = 10,737) took part by filling in a set of self-reports. Weighted analyses and structural equation models were used. The results revealed that 8.8% were cybervictims, 3.1% were cyberaggressors and 4.9% cybervictims-cyberaggressors in Spain; whereas 8.7% were cybervictims, 5.1% were cyberaggressors and 14.3% were cybervictims-cyberaggressors in Ecuador. Cybervictimization could be predicted in both countries by means of self-deprecation and social skills, although the meaning of some skills was different depending on the country. Cyberaggression could be predicted in both countries by means of empathy, assertiveness, and conflict-resolution skills, as well as by communicative and relational skills. Self-deprecation was a predictor of cyberaggression only in Spain. These results are discussed, and educational inferences are drawn for prevention.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Ciberacoso/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Intervalos de Confianza , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalencia , España/epidemiología
12.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 48(12): 1112-1118, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221152

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish version of the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) that is conceptually equivalent to the original questionnaire, as well as acceptable, reliable, valid, and responsive for use in Chilean patients with dentofacial deformities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The recommended standard methodology, with direct and back-translation, was used. A prospective longitudinal multicenter study of adult patients diagnosed with dentofacial deformity was carried out, self-administrating OQLQ, OHIP-14 (Oral Health Impact Profile), and SF-36 (Short Form 36 Health Survey) during the presurgery visit in order to examine construct validity. To evaluate reproducibility, questionnaires were re-administered 4 weeks later to subjects with a stable dental condition. Responsiveness was assessed among subjects followed up until 3 months after surgery. RESULTS: Of the 230 patients under presurgical orthodontic treatment included in the study, 216 completed the questionnaire, 142 formed the reliability sub-sample, and 30 were evaluated 3 months after surgery. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.78 to 0.94 and test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.84 to 0.91 (p = 0.001) by dimension. The correlation matrix between OQLQ dimensions and SF-36 and OHIP-14 confirmed most of the associations previously hypothesized as moderate (rs > 0.4). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the same structure as the original instrument, considering four dimensions. Responsiveness was demonstrated by the large improvement observed in the global score 3 months after surgery: mean change ±SD = -15.1 ± 18.05 and standard response mean = -0.84 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of OQLQ has demonstrated good levels of reliability, validity, and responsiveness - similar to those of the original questionnaire.


Asunto(s)
Deformidades Dentofaciales , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Deformidades Dentofaciales/cirugía , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 116, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237172

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To adapt the Leisure Attitude Measurement to the Brazilian culture and to evaluate the face and content validity of the Brazilian version for older population. METHODS: Methodological study of cross-cultural adaptation in five stages: initial translation; synthesis of translations; back translation; evaluation by a committee of experts using a face and content validity assessment instrument; pre-test with 36 elderly, selected by convenience, with the application of a pre-test evaluation instrument. Data were analyzed descriptively and internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: Evidenced face and content validity of the adapted version, as well as its equivalence with the original version. In the pretest, the elderly were 71.5 years old on average, 66.7% were women, 47.2% had a stable union, 66.7% lived with family members, 47.2% had 12 or more years of education and 58.3% received two minimum wages or more. The instrument revealed good internal consistency with a coefficient of 0.95 for the total global instrument and 0.88, 0.92 and 0.88 for the cognitive, affective and behavioral domains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument's adaptation to the Brazilian culture was successful and allows to assess the attitude of the elderly in relation to leisure in a reliable manner, even though the results are a preliminary version, to be concluded after the psychometric analysis. The instrument could be incorporated in various health fields in Brazil and will allow the production of standardized data, comparison between cultures and strategies to promote positive attitudes towards leisure.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Actividades Recreativas/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Traducciones , Anciano , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5539, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053019

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To translate and make cross-cultural adaptation of NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© tool to Portuguese, and to analyze its semantic validity. METHODS: A methodological research about NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© tool cross-cultural adaptation, translated from Spanish into Portuguese and measurement of semantic validity. The cross-cultural adaptation process was conducted according to Beaton recommendations, including translation, translation synthesis, back-translation, and analysis of semantic, idiomatic, conceptual, and cultural equivalence of translated and back-translated tool versions, resulting in a pre-final version, which was submitted to a pre-test (n=35). Contend Validity Index was calculated to analyze semantic validity. RESULTS: Cross-cultural adaptation process allowed us to prepare the final version of this tool, which was named NECPAL-BR. Collected data from pre-testing step enabled the analysis of semantic validity. The Content Validity Index observed at this step was 0.94. CONCLUSION: The semantic validity of the tool in its Portuguese version was confirmed; therefore, it may assist in screening chronic progressive disease patients, aiming to provide early palliative care. It may also be used to develop clinical and team performance indicators, and be employed as a care management tool designed to optimize resources.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Semántica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Humanos , Portugal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Traducciones
15.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200100, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053093

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The assessment of the degree to which health professionals, workers and organizations are ready to implement changes in health services deserves special attention, especially related to new technologies, public policies and innovation. The objectives of this study were to conduct a Brazilian Portuguese Brazil cross-cultural adaptation of the ORIC questionnaire and to initiate the study of its psychometric properties. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study, the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) questionnaire, containing 12 questions, was translated and later applied to a sample of workers from traditional primary health care units undergoing transformation to family health units. Statistical analysis included Cronbach's alpha, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation model using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. RESULTS: Workers from ten health units participated in the study (n = 150). The analysis confirmed two main factors (Effectiveness and Commitment) with Eigenvalues > 1. Rotation by the orthogonal method showed that the instrument questions confirmed the factors analyzed by the original instrument. The total Cronbach's Alpha of ORIC was 0.94, showing excellent reliability. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese Brazil version of the ORIC-Br questionnaire showed good psychometric properties and can be used in health services to measure organizational readiness, considered as an indicator of the potential success in implementing change.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Innovación Organizacional , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Portugal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22743, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126312

RESUMEN

Strategies to increase appropriateness of EoL care, such as shared decision making (SDM), and advance care planning (ACP) are internationally embraced, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic. However, individuals preferences regarding EoL care may differ internationally. Current literature lacks insight in how preferences in EoL care differ between countries and continents. This study's aim is to compare Dutch and Japanese general publics attitudes and preferences toward EoL care, and EoL decisions. Methods: a cross-sectional survey design was chosen. The survey was held among samples of the Dutch and Japanese general public, using a Nationwide social research panel of 220.000 registrants in the Netherlands and 1.200.000 in Japan. A quota sampling was done (age, gender, and living area). N = 1.040 in each country.More Japanese than Dutch citizens tend to avoid thinking in advance about future situations of dependence (26.0% vs 9.4%; P = .000); say they would feel themselves a burden for relatives if they would become dependent in their last phase of life (79.3% vs 47.8%; P = .000); and choose the hospital as their preferred place of death (19.4% vs 3.6% P = .000). More Dutch than Japanese people say they would be happy with a proactive approach of their doctor regarding EoL issues (78.0% vs 65.1% JPN; P = .000).Preferences in EoL care substantially differ between the Netherlands and Japan. These differences should be taken into account a) when interpreting geographical variation in EoL care, and b) if strategies such as SDM or ACP - are considered. Such strategies will fail if an international "one size fits all" approach would be followed.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Cuidado Terminal/psicología , Adulto , Planificación Anticipada de Atención , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Adulto Joven
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 323, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008394

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) limitations are associated with reduced health-related quality of life for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). For these people, the assessment of IADL is crucial to the diagnostic process, as well as for the evaluation of new interventions addressing MCI. The Amsterdam IADL Questionnaire Short Version (A-IADL-Q-SV) is an established assessment tool with good psychometric properties that has been shown to be robust to cultural differences in Western countries. The aims of this study were to: (1) cross-culturally adapt and validate the A-IADL-Q-SV for the German-speaking population of Switzerland; (2) investigate its cultural comparability; and (3) evaluate further psychometric properties. METHODS: The A-IADL-Q-SV German was pretested on clinicians and participants in a memory clinic setting. The psychometric properties and cultural comparability of the questionnaire were investigated in memory clinic settings including participants with MCI or mild dementia, as well as participants with normal cognition recruited from the community. Item response theory (IRT) was applied to investigate measurement invariance by means of differential item functioning to assess item bias. Additionally, the test-retest reliability on scale level, the construct validity through hypothesis testing and the discriminant validity of the A-IADL-Q-SV German were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-six informants of participants with normal cognition, MCI or mild dementia completed the A-IADL-Q-SV German. The basic assumptions for IRT scoring were met. No meaningful differential item functioning for culture was detected between the Swiss and Dutch reference samples. High test-retest reliability on scale level (ICC 0.93; 95% CI 0.9-0.96) was found. More than 75% of the observed correlations between the A-IADL-Q-SV German and clinical measures of cognition and functional status were found to be in the direction and of the magnitude hypothesized. The A-IADL-Q-SV German was shown to be able to discriminate between participants with normal cognition and MCI, as well as MCI and mild dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The A-IADL-Q-SV German is a psychometrically robust measurement tool for a Swiss population with normal cognition, MCI and mild dementia. Thus, it provides a valuable tool to assess IADL functioning in clinical practices and research settings in Switzerland. Trial registration This study was registered retrospectively in July 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04012398).


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Demencia/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría/instrumentación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Suiza , Traducciones
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 328, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028349

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS) is a commonly used outcome tool, which helps to identify the adherence rate of exercises and reasons for adherence and non-adherence. There is no evidence of the availability of any measurement tools to assess exercise adherence in the Nepalese context and cultural background. Therefore, we conducted a cross-cultural adaptation of the EARS into the Nepali language and investigated its reliability and validity. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation of the EARS was done based on Beaton guidelines. Psychometric properties were evaluated among 18 participants aged 18 years or older with pre-diabetes or confirmed diagnosis of any disease who were prescribed with home exercises by physiotherapists. Any disease that limited participants from doing exercise and individuals unwilling to participate were excluded. Reliability was evaluated through internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to explore construct validity and confirm its unidimensionality. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was analyzed to identify cut-off score, sensitivity and specificity of the tool. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha was 0.94 for EARS-adherence behavior. The EFA of 6-items adherence behavior revealed the presence of one factor with an eigenvalue exceeding one. The scree-plot suggested for extraction of only one factor with strong loading (75.84%). The Area Under the Curve was 0.91 with 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.00 at p = 0.004. The cutoff score was found 17.5 with 89% sensitivity and 78% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The EARS was cross-culturally adapted to the Nepali language. The reliability and construct validity of the Nepali version of the EARS were acceptable to assess exercise adherence in Nepali-speaking individuals. This validated tool might facilitate the evaluation of exercise-related interventions. Future studies could investigate other psychometric properties of the Nepali EARS.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Ejercicio/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal , Psicometría/instrumentación , Calidad de Vida , Curva ROC , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Traducciones
19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 343, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076904

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study was focused on translation and cultural adaptation of the English Lequesne Algofunctional index (LAI) into Bengali for patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and testing reliability and validity of the Bengali version of the LAI. METHODS: This study was carried out in the Department of Rheumatology, BSM Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Using the forward-backward method the English LAI was translated into Bengali including cultural adaptation. For pretesting, A sample of 40 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis were screened using the Bengali version of LAI. Following the pretest, 130 consecutive patients with symptomatic knee OA completed the interviewer administered Bengali LAI, the validated Bengali version of SF-36, Visual Analogue Scale for Pain, Distance Walked and Activities of Daily Living. For the retest 60 randomly selected patients from the cohort were administered the Bengali LAI 7 days later. An item by item analysis was performed. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa coefficient, construct validity was measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: It took 3.25 ± 0.71 min to complete the Bengali LAI and the mean score was 9.23 ± 4.58. For the Bengali LAI Cronbach's alpha score was 0.88, test-retest reliability assessed by ICC was 0.97. For construct validity, excellent convergent validity was achieved (ρ = 0.93) but the divergent validity was moderate (ρ = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: The Bengali LAI showed excellent convergent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, only the divergent validity was moderate. So, the Bengali LAI can be applied as a HRQoL assessment tool for primary knee OA patients.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Anciano , Bangladesh , Estudios de Cohortes , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Traducciones
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 326, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest in using the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT), developed in England, to measure quality-of-life outcomes of long-term care (LTC-QoL) service provision in national and cross-national studies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the original ASCOT service user measure into German and to evaluate its content and construct validity in Austrian home care service users. METHODS: The translation and cultural adaptation process followed the ISPOR TCA guidelines. We used qualitative data from six cognitive debriefing interviews with Austrian recipients of home care services to assess linguistic and content validity. In addition, cross-sectional survey data (n = 633) were used to evaluate construct validity by testing hypothesized associations established in a previous study for the original English ASCOT service user instrument. RESULTS: Cognitive debriefing interviews confirmed that the German adaptation of the ASCOT service user instrument was understood as intended, although two domains ('Control over daily life' and 'Dignity') and selected phrases of the response options were challenging to translate into German. All ASCOT domains were statistically significantly associated with related constructs and sensitive to service user sub-group differences. CONCLUSIONS: We found good evidence for a valid cross-cultural adaptation of the German version of ASCOT for service users. The analysis also supports the construct validity of the translated instrument and its use in evaluations of QoL-effects of LTC service provision in German-speaking countries. Further research on the reliability and feasibility in different care settings is encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio/normas , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Calidad de Vida , Servicio Social/normas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Austria , Comparación Transcultural , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Traducción , Traducciones
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA