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3.
5.
Urology ; 135: 28-31, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628969

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To address information overload for trainees, a concise electronic case-based urology learning program (CBULP) was developed. Previous qualitative assessments suggested CBULP's potential efficacy/utility. Herein we assess CBULP more stringently by evaluating test performance before/after reviewing a CBULP curriculum covering core concepts in testicular cancer. METHODS: Eleven of 33 CBULP testicular cancer cases were strategically selected for this curriculum. A 26 question multiple-choice test was developed to assess fundamental knowledge about testis cancer tumor biology and evaluation/management. Pretest was administered to PGY4/PGY1 residents at 2 pilot urology-training programs, and medical students interested in Urology. Participants were given 4 weeks to review the curriculum and the test was then repeated. A control group (4 PGY1s) was administered the pretest and repeat test in an analogous manner without provision of the CBULP curriculum. RESULTS: Twenty individuals took the pretest (7 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 5 PGY4s), and 17 (85%) took the post-test (5 medical students, 8 PGY1s, and 4 PGY4s,). As expected, PGY4s performed significantly better than the other 2 groups on the pre- and post-test. However, significant improvement in test performance was seen across all groups that utilized the CBULP curriculum (P <.02), with highest increase demonstrated by PGY1 residents (4.75 more questions correct, P = .002). The control arm did not demonstrate significant improvement (P = .20). CONCLUSION: Significant improvement in test performance was observed after completion of the CBULP testicular series. This study suggests that CBULP can be an efficacious and clinically useful educational resource for urologic residents and students interested in the field.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Urología/educación , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Instrucción por Computador/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/patología , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia
6.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 163-168, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698535

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate the self-perceived preparedness of final-year dental undergraduate students in dental public universities in Malaysia. METHODS: Final-year dental undergraduate students from six dental public universities in Malaysia were invited to participate in an online study using a validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale DU-PAS. RESULTS: In total, about 245 students responded to the online questionnaire yielding a response rate of 83.05%. The age range of the respondents was 23-29 years with a mean age of 24.36 (SD 0.797). The total score obtained by the respondents was ranged from 48 to 100 with a mean score of 79.56 (SD 13.495). Weaknesses were reported in several clinical skills, cognitive and behavioural attributes. CONCLUSIONS: The preparedness of undergraduate students at six dental institutions in Malaysia was comparable to students from developed countries. The dental undergraduate preparedness assessment scale is a useful tool, and dental institutions may be used for self-assessment as well as to obtain feedback from the supervisors.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Odontología , Universidades , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Educación en Odontología , Humanos , Malasia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 26-35, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518467

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Electives have been shown to contribute to both the professional and personal development of students in specific areas of interest outside the standard curriculum. The School of Oral Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand introduced electives as a pedagogy in the Bachelor of Dental Sciences (BDS) and Bachelor of Oral Health Sciences (BOHSc) curricula in 2010 and 2014, respectively. However, since its introduction, the relevance of these electives in the BDS and BOHSc curricula has not been investigated. METHODS: This research was designed as an evaluation study that used a questionnaire survey administered to 76 dental and oral hygiene graduates (BDS and BOHSc). RESULTS: Of the initial 76 questionnaires that were distributed, 55 (BDS = 38, BOHSc = 17) were returned, giving a response rate of 72.4%. Almost all the participants (92.7%) agreed that the electives enabled them to develop better interpersonal skills; 80.0% and 82.7% agreed that their clinical skills, and knowledge of key concepts in dental practice, respectively, had improved upon completion of the elective. In appraising the elective programme, 87.0% of the graduates agreed that the content and outcome of the elective programme should be reviewed and changed. CONCLUSION: Obtaining empirical data on the impact of electives on clinical knowledge, skill and behaviour of dental graduates will enhance the relevance of electives in dental education. Findings by this study reveal that the actual impact of the electives on dental graduates was desirable and corresponded with the intended impact. The problematic areas that were identified will inform future planning.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Odontología , Higiene Bucal , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 5-16, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278815

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality-based platforms are becoming increasingly popular in education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of undergraduate dental students with the introduction of the Moog Simodont dental trainer (VR) within the pre-clinical curriculum in the direct restoration module of the operative dentistry course using manual and digital methods. METHODS: Thirty-two randomly selected year 2 undergraduate students were divided into two groups: group 1, exposed to the Moog Simodont dental trainer (VR) and group 2, no exposure to VR. All students were then evaluated in carrying out a Class I preparation in a single-blinded fashion. All preparations were evaluated by three assessors using a traditional manual approach and a digital software. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using chi-square test (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: The number of students who performed satisfactory preparations was more in group 1 (12/16), compared to group 2 (7/16). The percentage of satisfactory domains was significantly higher in group 1, compared to group 2, both in the manual evaluation (83.9% (94/112) and 59.8% (67/112) in groups 1 and 2, respectively) and in the digital evaluation (85.7% (96/112) and 55.4% (62/112) in groups 1 and 2, respectively) (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the manual and digital methods of evaluation with regard to the percentage of satisfactory or unsatisfactory preparations (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Moog Simodont dental trainer (VR) significantly improved the satisfactory performance of students. The virtual reality simulator may be a valuable adjunct in the undergraduate direct restorations course and for remedial student.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Odontología , Realidad Virtual , Competencia Clínica , Simulación por Computador , Operatoria Dental , Educación en Odontología , Humanos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
9.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 118-125, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Expanded applications and increasing volumes of complex endovascular procedures have increased the risk of unintended intraoperative fragmentation and retention of catheters and sheaths. We describe a series of retained or fragmented endovascular devices, a quality improvement program to address this unmet need for improved detection of catheter fragmentation, and the results of this program. METHODS: Cases utilizing endovascular devices that resulted in a retained catheter fragment were identified and analyzed during divisional quality improvement review. One consistent area of concern was operating room (OR) staff unfamiliarity with verifying the integrity of an endovascular device. In response, a slide-based training protocol of focused, endovascular nursing education was implemented. Following perceived lack of improvement after this approach, we developed a handheld visual reference display of the tips of common catheters and sheaths. Staff was surveyed before and after intervention to assess the educational value of the display and the impact on staff device familiarity. RESULTS: All 4 described cases resulted in an unplanned return to the OR for retrieval of the fragmented catheter or sheath. No thromboembolic complications were observed, although associated intra-arterial thrombus was noted in 2 cases. Thirty-four OR nurses were polled to trial the visual reference display initiative, with 70% of those reporting primary surgical assignments outside of cardiovascular ORs. Introduction of the new visual reference display improved staff confidence in their ability to identify a broken device (2.4-3.7, P < .001). This improvement was most significant in OR staff with primary assignments in noncardiovascular services. CONCLUSION: Current OR standard operating procedures fail to address the potential for unintentionally retained catheters and wires during endovascular procedures. Our novel visual reference display of common endovascular items rather than conventional in-service training improved the ability of staff to identify device fragmentation at the time of the index procedure.


Asunto(s)
Remoción de Dispositivos , Procedimientos Endovasculares/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Endovasculares/instrumentación , Falla de Equipo , Cuerpos Extraños/cirugía , Dispositivos de Acceso Vascular , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Competencia Clínica , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Cuerpos Extraños/diagnóstico por imagen , Cuerpos Extraños/etiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Enfermería de Quirófano , Reoperación , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 49-53, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755741

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Testicular torsion treatment rests on the horns of a dilemma, with widespread national variation in whether the responsible surgical specialty is general surgery or urology, even in hospitals with both general surgery and urology emergency service assets. This study aimed to quantify higher surgical trainee operative experience and confidence in managing suspected testicular torsion in a single UK deanery (Wales). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anonymised logbook data were obtained via the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme version 10 using the head of school report function for all general surgery (n=53) and urology (n=15) higher surgical trainees, which were combined with the distribution of an electronic self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Median operative scrotal explorations recorded for all general surgery higher surgical trainees and senior general surgery higher surgical trainees (ST7+) was 7 (range 1-22) and 10 (range 1-22), compared with 21 (range 9-64, p=0.00104) and 24 (19-64, p<0.001) for urology higher surgical trainees. The questionnaire response rate was 64.6% (general surgery 31/50, urology 11/15). Confidence levels in assessing adult and paediatric patients were lower in general surgery when compared with urology higher surgical trainees: median adult confidence rate 7/10 compared with 9/10, and paediatric confidence rate 7/10 compared with 8/10 (p<0.001 and p=0.053, respectively). All higher surgical trainees preferred urology as the accountable hospital specialty when both assets were available. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: General surgery higher surgical trainees receive less than 50% of the operative exposure of urology higher surgical trainees in emergency scrotal surgery, which has important implications for curriculum competence development and patient safety.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía General/educación , Torsión del Cordón Espermático/cirugía , Urología/educación , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Niño , Competencia Clínica/normas , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía General/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales de Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatría/educación , Pediatría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Urólogos/educación , Urólogos/normas , Urología/estadística & datos numéricos , Gales
11.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(1): 45-51, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809456

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine if increasing the percentage of nurses with bachelor degrees (BSNs) and/or certified nurses leads to improved patient outcomes, specifically the number of reported falls. BACKGROUND: Research suggests a link between higher levels of education and expertise and positive patient outcomes, including falls. The Institute of Medicine recommends an increase in BSN nurses. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis using data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators from 2010 to 2016 from multiple medical centers in Central and Southern Illinois. RESULTS: With every 1-unit increase in the percentage of BSN nurses or certified nurses, a reduction in total patient falls per 1000 patient-days can be expected in the amount of 0.02 to 0.04 and 0.01 to 0.03, respectively, all else held constant. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements to patient outcomes may be optimized with increased percentages of nurses with bachelor degrees and/or certifications.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Certificación , Competencia Clínica , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Administración de la Seguridad
12.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 41-42, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860486

RESUMEN

A simulation focused on nursing theory was designed to replace one clinical day experience for 37 senior-level baccalaureate students. Pretest-posttest self-evaluations were used in the study to rate student confidence in using Locsin's technology competency as caring in nursing theory and in describing critical care equipment and monitoring technology. A dependent t-test showed improvements in confidence using theory in practice after the simulation and debriefing session. Using one-on-one debriefing sessions, students and faculty had an opportunity to discuss how nursing theory can guide nursing practice. Intentionally developed simulation and debriefing experiences can provide students experience using nursing theory.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Teoría de Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Competencia Clínica , Humanos , Autoevaluación
13.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 52-53, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860490

RESUMEN

This article summarizes a pilot simulation using standardized patients that was designed to develop skills necessary to care for the critically ill mental health patient nearing the end of life. Although the simulation was found to be a valuable teaching strategy, additional research, with a rigorous design, is recommended to further develop this teaching method. The authors suggest adopting a theoretical framework for debriefing that would elicit emotions, address the emotional needs of students, and assist them to develop coping strategies and skills necessary to care for patients at the end of life.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica , Trastornos Mentales , Cuidado Terminal , Competencia Clínica , Emociones , Humanos , Salud Mental , Simulación de Paciente , Cuidado Terminal/normas
14.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 54-56, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860491

RESUMEN

For a new ambulatory care nursing course in an undergraduate baccalaureate program, a standardized patient simulation was created to support the clinical component of the course. The goals were for students to enhance their critical thinking skills, apply the nursing process to an ambulatory setting, apply learned skills to the non-acute care setting, and increase their confidence. The simulation format included three stations: skills refresher, telehealth, and clinic. Volunteers from faculty, clinical preceptors, and nursing management acted as clients for the mock clinical settings. Feedback was positive and supported this simulation as an educational option.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Enseñanza Mediante Simulación de Alta Fidelidad , Competencia Clínica , Humanos , Estudiantes de Enfermería
15.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): E3-E7, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860501

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this literature review was to determine the state of the science related to clinical informatics competencies of registered nurses and to determine best practices in educational strategies for both nursing students and faculty. BACKGROUND: Continued emphasis on the provision of evidence-based patient care has implications for requisite informatics-focused competencies to be threaded throughout all levels of nursing educational programs. METHOD: Whittemore and Knalf's five-step integrative review process guided this research. An extensive search yielded 69 publications for critical appraisal. RESULTS: Results suggest nursing educational programs do not adhere to standardized criteria for teaching nursing informatics competencies. Another identified literature gap was the scarcity of research related to informatics training requirements for nurse educators. CONCLUSION: Findings support the need for continued research to provide clear direction about the expected clinical informatics competencies of graduate nurses and what training faculty need to facilitate student learning.


Asunto(s)
Informática Médica , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Informática Aplicada a la Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Competencia Clínica , Docentes de Enfermería , Humanos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1171: 25-35, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823237

RESUMEN

Health care professionals must not only have knowledge, but also be able to organise, synthesise and apply this knowledge in such a way that it promotes the development of clinical reasoning. Panels of Virtual patients (VPs) are widely being used in health professions education to facilitate the development of clinical reasoning. VPs can also be used to teach wider educational outcomes such as communication skills, resource utilisation and longitudinal patient care. This chapter will define virtual patients and examine the evidence behind their use in health professions learning and teaching. The chapter will discuss virtual patient design, such as gamification. Finally, the chapter will discuss where this pedagogical innovation is best integrated into assessment and potential barriers to implementation into existing curricula.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Empleos en Salud , Realidad Virtual , Competencia Clínica , Educación Médica/tendencias , Empleos en Salud/educación , Humanos , Aprendizaje
17.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(12): 1585-1592, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786991

RESUMEN

AIMS: Arthroplasty skills need to be acquired safely during training, yet operative experience is increasingly hard to acquire by trainees. Virtual reality (VR) training using headsets and motion-tracked controllers can simulate complex open procedures in a fully immersive operating theatre. The present study aimed to determine if trainees trained using VR perform better than those using conventional preparation for performing total hip arthroplasty (THA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 24 surgical trainees (seven female, 17 male; mean age 29 years (28 to 31)) volunteered to participate in this observer-blinded 1:1 randomized controlled trial. They had no prior experience of anterior approach THA. Of these 24 trainees, 12 completed a six-week VR training programme in a simulation laboratory, while the other 12 received only conventional preparatory materials for learning THA. All trainees then performed a cadaveric THA, assessed independently by two hip surgeons. The primary outcome was technical and non-technical surgical performance measured by a THA-specific procedure-based assessment (PBA). Secondary outcomes were step completion measured by a task-specific checklist, error in acetabular component orientation, and procedure duration. RESULTS: VR-trained surgeons performed at a higher level than controls, with a median PBA of Level 3a (procedure performed with minimal guidance or intervention) versus Level 2a (guidance required for most/all of the procedure or part performed). VR-trained surgeons completed 33% more key steps than controls (mean 22 (sd 3) vs 12 (sd 3)), were 12° more accurate in component orientation (mean error 4° (sd 6°) vs 16° (sd 17°)), and were 18% faster (mean 42 minutes (sd 7) vs 51 minutes (sd 9)). CONCLUSION: Procedural knowledge and psychomotor skills for THA learned in VR were transferred to cadaveric performance. Basic preparatory materials had limited value for trainees learning a new technique. VR training advanced trainees further up the learning curve, enabling highly precise component orientation and more efficient surgery. VR could augment traditional surgical training to improve how surgeons learn complex open procedures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1585-1592.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/educación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Ortopedia/educación , Entrenamiento Simulado/métodos , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizaje , Londres , Masculino , Desempeño Psicomotor , Método Simple Ciego
18.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(6): 33-42, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The gap between the expectation and the development of role competency is a dilemma that nurse practitioners (NPs) face in clinical settings. PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the perceived importance and actual practice of the role competencies of NPs and to compare the differences between the ideal and practical domains as well as related factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional design study used Q-sort to collect data. A 56-item "Nurse Practitioner Role Capacity Questionnaire" was used as the research tool. Two questionnaires: Perceptions of Important Role Competencies and Actual Execution of Role Competencies were distributed to NPs twice, at times that were 2 weeks apart. A total of 40 participants were recruited, including 21(52.5%) internal medicine NPs and 19 (47.5%) surgical medicine NPs. RESULTS: The significant differences that were identified in this study between the perceived importance and actual practice of role competencies were, by domain: medical assistance (t = -5.62, p < .001), clinical research (t = 4.14, p < .001), professional consultation (t = 2.29, p = .027), and direct care (t = 2.21, p = .033). The correlative factors for these differences were: education level (t = -2.17, p = .036) and membership in the Nurse Practitioner Association (t = -2.36, p = .017). NPs with higher levels of education and with membership in the Nurse Practitioner Association earned higher scores for self-expectation in important clinical competency. CONCLUSIONS: NPs face discrepancies in their role expectations, in important part due to their role as providers of medical assistance in clinical practical settings. NPs need to learn and demonstrate the roles and functions of advanced nursing practice to enhance nursing professionalism profoundly.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Enfermeras Practicantes/psicología , Rol de la Enfermera/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Q-Sort , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 587-596, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826293

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In many locations, communication between patients and doctors is already actively taught as part of undergraduate medicine at many. Informed consent prior to surgery is a particular reason for communication that calls for differentiated feedback to students. Within the framework of communication training, the aim was to compare the feedback given from 5 different sources (by a medical expert, by tutors, by student peers, by the student obtaining informed consent and by the simulated patients) using evaluation checklists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 171 medical students in their eighth semester at the University of Würzburg participated in a training module in obtaining informed consent prior to surgery. 50 students out of this group conducted a conversation. The emphasis laid on "communication" and "risks". Students were able to prepare using teaching materials from the University's own e-learning platform. The statistical evaluation focussed on assessing the test quality of the checklists, the scores in the scales, and interrater agreement based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The checklists delivered satisfactory test values with respect to internal consistency, item difficulty and discriminatory index. The average scores from the five raters only differed significantly with respect to communicative skills, whereby the students seeking informed consent were strict in their self-assessment. The student raters where highly consistent with the expert rater. With respect to "risks and complications", there was high agreement between all raters. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate that, within the highly specific setting of a simulation and after subtile preparation, a trained student tutor can provide just as effective feedback as a medical expert. Feedback from tutors or peers may be furnished with greater prominence in future, given the overall high agreement in the 360-degree feedback.


Asunto(s)
Consentimiento Informado , Estudiantes de Medicina , Lista de Verificación , Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Humanos
20.
Zentralbl Chir ; 144(6): 597-605, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826294

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Practical skills are very important for medical doctors, but, for many practical skills, the optimal teaching form is not yet known. Surgical education and training can be compared to high performance sports, since complex movements and differentiated coordination have to be united perfectly in both disciplines. Thus, it would be useful to integrate into medical training methods that have been established and analysed in detail in sports sciences. The aim of the present study was to perform an analysis of the comparative effectiveness of mental training and the traditional "see one, do one" approach - with respect to both the acquired expertise, as well as the personnel and material costs. METHODS: Third year undergraduate medical students were randomised into two groups while participating in a practical skills training session: The control group was taught using the "see one, do one" approach, but the intervention group used mental training. As an example of a complex surgical skill, wound care was selected, as it consists of applying a local anaesthetic, the sterile covering and preparation of a wound, as well as performing a simple interrupted suture. The learning success was recorded at 3 measuring times: Directly after the training in an introductory OSCE (time point 1), two weeks after training using a free recall test (time point 2) as well as 5 - 14 weeks after training in an overall OSCE (time point 3). RESULTS: 123 students participated in the study. At the first time point, the students of the "mental training" group showed significantly better results in performing the sterile covering and wound preparation ("see one, do one" group 67.4% + 11.1; mental training group 71.6 + 10.6, p = 0.035). At other stations and at other time points there were no significant differences between the two groups. The cost analysis shows a potential saving of 4067.68 € per semester due to the resource-saving handling of materials and personnel. CONCLUSION: Mental training represents a teaching method that can be used with good results in curricular teaching in the field of surgery, which goes hand in hand with a reduction in personnel and material costs.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Competencia Clínica , Humanos
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