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1.
Science ; 384(6697): 740-741, 2024 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753804

RESUMEN

Using tools increases foraging success in sea otters and protects their teeth from damage.


Asunto(s)
Salud Bucal , Nutrias , Animales , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Diente
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10415, 2024 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710945

RESUMEN

Primates employ different tools and techniques to overcome the challenges of obtaining underground food resources. Humans and chimpanzees are known to tackle this problem with stick tools and one population of capuchin monkeys habitually uses stone tools. Although early hominids could have used stones as digging tools, we know little about when and how these could be useful. Here, we report a second primate population observed using stone tools and the first capuchin monkey population to habitually use the 'stick-probing' technique for obtaining underground resources. The bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) from Ubajara National Park, Brazil, use 'hands-only' and 'stone-digging' techniques for extracting underground storage organs and trapdoor spiders. Males also use 'stick-probing' and 'stone-stick' techniques for capturing trapdoor spiders. Tool use does not increase success in obtaining these resources. Stone-digging is less frequent in this population than in the only other known population that uses this technique. Females use stones in a lower proportion of their digging episodes than males in both populations. Ecological and cultural factors potentially influence technique choice and sex differences within and between populations. This population has a different pattern of underground food exploration using tools. Comparing this population with others and exploring the ecological and cultural factors under which capuchin monkeys employ different tools and techniques will allow us to better understand the pressures that may have shaped the evolution of those behaviors in primates.


Asunto(s)
Cebinae , Conducta Alimentaria , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Cebinae/fisiología , Brasil , Cebus , Alimentos
3.
PLoS Biol ; 22(5): e3002609, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713644

RESUMEN

Tool use is considered a driving force behind the evolution of brain expansion and prolonged juvenile dependency in the hominin lineage. However, it remains rare across animals, possibly due to inherent constraints related to manual dexterity and cognitive abilities. In our study, we investigated the ontogeny of tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a species known for its extensive and flexible tool use behavior. We observed 70 wild chimpanzees across all ages and analyzed 1,460 stick use events filmed in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire during the chimpanzee attempts to retrieve high-nutrient, but difficult-to-access, foods. We found that chimpanzees increasingly utilized hand grips employing more than 1 independent digit as they matured. Such hand grips emerged at the age of 2, became predominant and fully functional at the age of 6, and ubiquitous at the age of 15, enhancing task accuracy. Adults adjusted their hand grip based on the specific task at hand, favoring power grips for pounding actions and intermediate grips that combine power and precision, for others. Highly protracted development of suitable actions to acquire hidden (i.e., larvae) compared to non-hidden (i.e., nut kernel) food was evident, with adult skill levels achieved only after 15 years, suggesting a pronounced cognitive learning component to task success. The prolonged time required for cognitive assimilation compared to neuromotor control points to selection pressure favoring the retention of learning capacities into adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano , Pan troglodytes , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Pan troglodytes/fisiología , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Côte d'Ivoire , Cognición/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología
4.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 35, 2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656554

RESUMEN

Cognition is a powerful adaptation, enabling animals to utilise resources that are unavailable without manipulation. Tool use and food processing are examples of using cognition to overcome the protective mechanisms of food resources. Here, we describe and examine the flexibility of proto-tool use (defined as the alteration of an object through object-substrate manipulation) for food processing in a cooperatively breeding bird, the Arabian babbler (Argya squamiceps). Field observations demonstrate that the birds transport different caterpillar species to different substrate types depending on the processing method needed to prepare the caterpillar for eating. Species with toxic setae (e.g. Casama innotata) are transported to be rubbed on rough substrates (e.g. sand) before consumption, while other species (e.g. Hyles livornica) are transported to be pounded against hard substrates until their inner organs are removed and only their external body part is consumed. These results are among the few to describe flexible proto-tool use for food processing in wild animals. They thereby contribute to the taxonomic mapping of proto-tool use and food processing in non-human species, which is a fundamental step to advance comparative studies on the evolution of these behaviours and their underlying cognitive mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Passeriformes , Animales , Passeriformes/fisiología , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Cognición , Conducta Predatoria , Femenino , Masculino
5.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 36, 2024 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683398

RESUMEN

It was recently found that not only tool-specialized New Caledonian crows, but also Goffin cockatoos can manufacture physical objects in accordance with a mental template. That is, they can emulate features of existing objects when they manufacture new items. Both species spontaneously ripped pieces of card into large strips if they had previously learned that a large template was rewarded, and small strips when they previously learned that a small template was rewarded. Among New Caledonian crows, this cognitive ability was suggested as a potential mechanism underlying the transmission of natural tool designs. Here, we tested for the same ability in another non-specialised tool user-Hooded crows (Corvus cornix). Crows were exposed to pre-made template objects, varying first in colour and then in size, and were rewarded only if they chose pre-made objects that matched the template. In subsequent tests, birds were given the opportunity to manufacture versions of these objects. All three crows ripped paper pieces from the same colour material as the rewarded template, and, crucially, also manufactured objects that were more similar in size to previously rewarded, than unrewarded, templates, despite the birds being rewarded at random in both tests. Therefore, we found the ability to manufacture physical objects relative to a mental template in yet another bird species not specialized in using or making foraging tools in the wild, but with a high level of brain and cognitive development.


Asunto(s)
Cuervos , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Recompensa , Cognición
6.
Primates ; 65(3): 145-150, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488904

RESUMEN

Tool use diversity is often considered to differentiate our two closest living relatives: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (P. paniscus). Chimpanzees appear to have the largest repertoire of tools amongst nonhuman primates, and in this species, many forms of tool use enhance food and water acquisition. In captivity, bonobos seem as adept as chimpanzees in tool use complexity, including in the foraging context. However, in the wild, bonobos have only been observed engaging in habitual tool use in the contexts of comfort, play, self-directed behaviour and communication, whilst no tool-assisted food acquisition has been reported. Whereas captive bonobos use tools for drinking, so far, the only report from the wild populations comes down to four observations of moss sponges used at Lomako. Here, we present the first report of tool use in the form of water scooping by a wild bonobo at LuiKotale. An adult female was observed and videotaped whilst using an emptied Cola chlamydantha pod to scoop and drink water from a stream. We discuss the conditions for such observations and the importance of looking out for rare behaviours and attempt to put the observation into the context of the opportunity versus necessity hypotheses. By adding novel information on tool use, our report contributes to the ongoing efforts to differentiate population-specific traits in the behavioural ecology of the bonobo.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Femenino , Pan paniscus , Pan troglodytes , Alimentos
7.
Micron ; 180: 103614, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457947

RESUMEN

In this manuscript, we explore the potential of studying metal residues in cut marks generated by copper and bronze knives. The method was developed in the forensic sciences for use with modern metals in order to identify microscopic particles of metal tools on bone surfaces. However, the study of residues in archaeological materials can be challenging due to the ways in which the bone remains may have been manipulated, both in the past and in more recent times. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we detected microscopic fragments of bronze and copper knives along with contamination both inside and outside of the cut marks made by those knives. Copper and bronze residues were identified embedded in the bone inside the incisions and, in two cases, they left greenish stains caused by metal oxidation. In contrast, modern contamination of undetermined origin was found unattached to the bone and had a chemical composition not compatible with that of the knives. The amount of residue was influenced by the quantity of soft tissue between the bone and the knife during the butchering tasks. Bone cooking does not seem to influence the preservation of the residues. We anticipate that the approach used in this first exploratory study will emerge as a promising method for identifying the use of metal tools in archaeological bone remains.


Asunto(s)
Cobre , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Microscopía , Metales/química , Huesos
8.
Primates ; 65(3): 159-172, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520479

RESUMEN

The latest advances in artificial intelligence technology have opened doors to the video analysis of complex behaviours. In light of this, ethologists are actively exploring the potential of these innovations to streamline the time-intensive behavioural analysis process using video data. Several tools have been developed for this purpose in primatology in the past decade. Nonetheless, each tool grapples with technical constraints. To address these limitations, we have established a comprehensive protocol designed to harness the capabilities of a cutting-edge artificial intelligence-assisted software, LabGym. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of LabGym for the analysis of primate behaviour, focusing on Japanese macaques as our model subjects. First, we developed a model that accurately detects Japanese macaques, allowing us to analyse their actions using LabGym. Our behavioural analysis model succeeded in recognising stone-handling-like behaviours on video. However, the absence of quantitative data within the specified time frame limits the ability of our study to draw definitive conclusions regarding the quality of the behavioural analysis. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first instance of applying the LabGym tool specifically for the analysis of primate behaviours, with our model focusing on the automated recognition and categorisation of specific behaviours in Japanese macaques. It lays the groundwork for future research in this promising field to complexify our model using the latest version of LabGym and associated tools, such as multi-class detection and interactive behaviour analysis.


Asunto(s)
Macaca fuscata , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Inteligencia Artificial , Conducta Animal , Programas Informáticos
9.
Value Health ; 27(4): 500-507, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307388

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy and validity of the Determination of Diabetes Utilities, Costs, and Effects (DEDUCE) model, a Microsoft-Excel-based tool for evaluating diabetes interventions for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The DEDUCE model is a patient-level microsimulation, with complications predicted based on the Sheffield and Risk Equations for Complications Of type 2 diabetes models for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. For this tool to be useful, it must be validated to ensure that its complication predictions are accurate. Internal, external, and cross-validation was assessed by populating the DEDUCE model with the baseline characteristics and treatment effects reported in clinical trials used in the Fourth, Fifth, and Ninth Mount Hood Diabetes Challenges. Results from the DEDUCE model were evaluated against clinical results and previously validated models via mean absolute percentage error or percentage error. RESULTS: The DEDUCE model performed favorably, predicting key outcomes, including cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes. The model performed well against other models. In the Mount Hood 9 Challenge comparison, error was below the mean reported from comparator models for several outcomes, particularly for hazard ratios. CONCLUSIONS: The DEDUCE model predicts diabetes-related complications from trials and studies well when compared with previously validated models. The model may serve as a useful tool for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of diabetes technologies.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucosa/uso terapéutico , Glucemia , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea , Análisis Costo-Beneficio
10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 28, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Selective reporting of results from only well-performing cut-offs leads to biased estimates of accuracy in primary studies of questionnaire-based screening tools and in meta-analyses that synthesize results. Individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) of sensitivity and specificity at each cut-off via bivariate random-effects models (BREMs) can overcome this problem. However, IPDMA is laborious and depends on the ability to successfully obtain primary datasets, and BREMs ignore the correlation between cut-offs within primary studies. METHODS: We compared the performance of three recent multiple cut-off models developed by Steinhauser et al., Jones et al., and Hoyer and Kuss, that account for missing cut-offs when meta-analyzing diagnostic accuracy studies with multiple cut-offs, to BREMs fitted at each cut-off. We used data from 22 studies of the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 4475 participants, 758 major depression cases). We fitted each of the three multiple cut-off models and BREMs to a dataset with results from only published cut-offs from each study (published data) and an IPD dataset with results for all cut-offs (full IPD data). We estimated pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each cut-off and the area under the curve. RESULTS: Compared to the BREMs fitted to the full IPD data, the Steinhauser et al., Jones et al., and Hoyer and Kuss models fitted to the published data produced similar receiver operating characteristic curves; though, the Hoyer and Kuss model had lower area under the curve, mainly due to estimating slightly lower sensitivity at lower cut-offs. When fitting the three multiple cut-off models to the full IPD data, a similar pattern of results was observed. Importantly, all models had similar 95% CIs for sensitivity and specificity, and the CI width increased with cut-off levels for sensitivity and decreased with an increasing cut-off for specificity, even the BREMs which treat each cut-off separately. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple cut-off models appear to be the favorable methods when only published data are available. While collecting IPD is expensive and time consuming, IPD can facilitate subgroup analyses that cannot be conducted with published data only.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Humanos , Depresión/diagnóstico , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina
11.
J Chem Inf Model ; 64(7): 2705-2719, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258978

RESUMEN

Bacterial promoters play a crucial role in gene expression by serving as docking sites for the transcription initiation machinery. However, accurately identifying promoter regions in bacterial genomes remains a challenge due to their diverse architecture and variations. In this study, we propose MLDSPP (Machine Learning and Duplex Stability based Promoter prediction in Prokaryotes), a machine learning-based promoter prediction tool, to comprehensively screen bacterial promoter regions in 12 diverse genomes. We leveraged biologically relevant and informative DNA structural properties, such as DNA duplex stability and base stacking, and state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) strategies to gain insights into promoter characteristics. We evaluated several machine learning models, including Support Vector Machines, Random Forests, and XGBoost, and assessed their performance using accuracy, precision, recall, specificity, F1 score, and MCC metrics. Our findings reveal that XGBoost outperformed other models and current state-of-the-art promoter prediction tools, namely Sigma70pred and iPromoter2L, achieving F1-scores >95% in most systems. Significantly, the use of one-hot encoding for representing nucleotide sequences complements these structural features, enhancing our XGBoost model's predictive capabilities. To address the challenge of model interpretability, we incorporated explainable AI techniques using Shapley values. This enhancement allows for a better understanding and interpretation of the predictions of our model. In conclusion, our study presents MLDSPP as a novel, generic tool for predicting promoter regions in bacteria, utilizing original downstream sequences as nonpromoter controls. This tool has the potential to significantly advance the field of bacterial genomics and contribute to our understanding of gene regulation in diverse bacterial systems.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Bacterias/genética , ADN/genética , Aprendizaje Automático , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas
12.
J Gen Intern Med ; 39(Suppl 1): 127-135, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient portals play an increasingly critical role in engaging patients in their health care. They have the potential to significantly impact the health of those living with chronic diseases, such as HIV, for whom consistent care engagement is both critical and complex. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to examine the longitudinal relationships between individual portal tool use and health-related outcomes in patients living with HIV. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data to examine the relationship between patient portal tool use and key HIV-specific, health-related outcomes in patients engaged in care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) through the application of marginal structural models. PARTICIPANTS: A national sample of patients living with HIV (PLWH) active in VA care who were registered to use the VA's patient portal, My HealtheVet (MHV; n = 18,390) between 10/1/2012 and 4/1/2017. MAIN MEASURES: The MHV tools examined were prescription refill (including prescription refill of an antiretroviral (ART) medication and any medication), secure messaging, view appointments, and view labs. Primary outcomes were viral load test receipt, viral load suppression, and ART medication adherence (measured as proportion of days covered). KEY RESULTS: The use of prescription refill for any medication or for ART was positively associated with ART adherence. Secure messaging was positively associated with ART adherence but not with viral load test receipt or viral load suppression. The use of view appointments was positively associated with ART adherence and viral load test receipt but not viral load suppression. The use of view labs was positively associated with viral load suppression but not ART adherence or viral load test receipt. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the valuable role patient portals may play in improving health-related outcomes among PLWH and have implications for patients living with other types of chronic disease.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Portales del Paciente , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Humanos , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Carga Viral , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación
13.
Am J Primatol ; 86(4): e23594, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38196199

RESUMEN

Tool-using primates often show sex differences in both the frequency and efficiency of tool use. In species with sex-biased dispersal, such within-group variation likely shapes patterns of cultural transmission of tool-use traditions between groups. On the Panamanian islands of Jicarón and Coiba, a population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus imitator)-some of which engage in habitual stone tool use-provide an opportunity to test hypotheses about why such sex-biases arise. On Jicarón, we have only observed males engaging in stone tool use, whereas on Coiba, both sexes are known to use tools. Using 5 years of camera trap data, we provide evidence that this variation likely reflects a sex difference in tool use rather than a sampling artifact, and then test hypotheses about the factors driving this pattern. Differences in physical ability or risk-aversion, and competition over access to anvils do not account for the sex-differences in tool-use we observe. Our data show that adult females are physically capable of stone tool use: adult females on Coiba and juveniles on Jicarón smaller than adult females regularly engage in tool use. Females also have ample opportunity to use tools: the sexes are equally terrestrial, and competition over anvils is low. Finally, females rarely scrounge on left-over food items either during or after tool-using events, suggesting they are not being provisioned by males. Although it remains unclear why adult white-faced capuchin females on Jicarón do not use stone-tools, our results illustrate that such sex biases in socially learned behaviors can arise even in the absence of obvious physical, environmental, and social constraints. This suggests that a much more nuanced understanding of the differences in social structure, diet, and dispersal patterns are needed to explain why sex-biases in tool use arise in some populations but not in others.


Asunto(s)
Cebus capucinus , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Femenino , Animales , Masculino , Cebus , Conducta Alimentaria , Alimentos
14.
Am J Primatol ; 86(4): e23595, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224002

RESUMEN

Populations of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) vary in their tool use behaviors, with some of this divergence regarded as culturally determined. The use of stone tools, primarily to crack open encased foods, is widespread among bearded capuchins living in dry habitats (Caatinga and Cerrado). Significant diversity in targets, processed foods, material, and size of tools is observed across populations. However, so far, only a few sites have been systematically studied, and we are still distant from a representative picture of the range of variation in capuchins' culture. In this study, we did a systematic assessment of stone tool use sites in the Ubajara National Park (UNP), in the Caatinga region of Ceará, Brazil, recording and measuring stone tools, processed foods, and available lithic resources as part of an extensive comparative research, the CapCult project. We found indirect and direct evidence that capuchin monkeys at UNP customarily use hammerstones and anvils to process at least two species of palm nuts, macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) and the harder babaçu (Attalea speciosa). Most of the anvils were rock surfaces and had leftovers of only one palm nut species. The hammerstones used to process both palm nuts were not significantly different in weight, although the ones used for Ac. aculeata were longer. We found a higher frequency of nut-cracking sites in the drier lowland area of the park, reflecting differences in the density of the most common palm species, Ac. aculeata, and availability of raw stone material. The stone tool use observed in UNP is within the scope of previously reported in savannah capuchin populations. Our study widens the knowledge of stone tool-use diversity in wild capuchin monkeys, which could contribute to shaping conservation policy, including cultural traits.


Asunto(s)
Arecaceae , Cebinae , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Nueces , Cebus , Brasil , Parques Recreativos
15.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 88, 2024 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216631

RESUMEN

In mammals and birds, tool-using species are characterized by their relatively large telencephalon containing a higher proportion of total brain neurons compared to other species. Some teleost species in the wrasse family have evolved tool-using abilities. In this study, we compared the brains of tool-using wrasses with various teleost species. We show that in the tool-using wrasses, the telencephalon and the ventral part of the forebrain and midbrain are significantly enlarged compared to other teleost species but do not contain a larger proportion of cells. Instead, this size difference is due to large fiber tracts connecting the dorsal part of the telencephalon (pallium) to the inferior lobe, a ventral mesencephalic structure absent in amniotes. The high degree of connectivity between these structures in tool-using wrasses suggests that the inferior lobe could contribute to higher-order cognitive functions. We conclude that the evolution of non-telencephalic structures might have been key in the emergence of these cognitive functions in teleosts.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Telencéfalo , Prosencéfalo , Corteza Cerebral , Mesencéfalo , Mamíferos
16.
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 183(3): e24835, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37671610

RESUMEN

The new field of primate archaeology investigates the technological behavior and material record of nonhuman primates, providing valuable comparative data on our understanding of human technological evolution. Yet, paralleling hominin archaeology, the field is largely biased toward the analysis of lithic artifacts. While valuable comparative data have been gained through an examination of extant nonhuman primate tool use and its archaeological record, focusing on this one single aspect provides limited insights. It is therefore necessary to explore to what extent other non-technological activities, such as non-tool aided feeding, traveling, social behaviors or ritual displays, leave traces that could be detected in the archaeological record. Here we propose four new areas of investigation which we believe have been largely overlooked by primate archaeology and that are crucial to uncovering the full archaeological potential of the primate behavioral repertoire, including that of our own: (1) Plant technology; (2) Archaeology beyond technology; (3) Landscape archaeology; and (4) Primate cultural heritage. We discuss each theme in the context of the latest developments and challenges, as well as propose future directions. Developing a more "inclusive" primate archaeology will not only benefit the study of primate evolution in its own right but will aid conservation efforts by increasing our understanding of changes in primate-environment interactions over time.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Humanos , Arqueología , Primates , Conducta Social
18.
Am J Primatol ; 86(2): e23580, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38012960

RESUMEN

Stone tool use is a rare behavior across nonhuman primates. Here we report the first population of common long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) who customarily used stone tools to open rock oysters (Saccostrea forskali) on a small island along the Thai Gulf in Koh Ped (KPE), eastern Thailand. We observed this population several times during the past 10 years, but no stone-tool use behavior was observed until our survey during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in July 2022. KPE is located in Pattaya City, a hotspot for tourism in Thailand. Tourists in this area frequently provided large amounts of food for the monkeys on KPE. During the COVID-19 curfew, however, tourists were not allowed to access the island, and monkeys began to face food scarcity. During this time, we observed stone-tool use behavior for the first time on KPE. Based on our observations, the first tool manipulation was similar to stone throwing (a known precursor of stone tool use). From our observations in March 2023, we found 17 subadult/adult animals performing the behavior, 15 of 17 were males and mostly solitary while performing the behavior. The M. f. fascicularis subspecies was confirmed by distribution, morphological characteristics, and mtDNA and SRY gene sequences. Taken together, we proposed that the stone tool use behavior in the KPE common long-tailed macaques emerged due to the COVID-19 food scarcity. Since traveling is no longer restricted many tourists have started coming back to the island, and there is a high risk for this stone tool-use behavior to disappear within this population of long-tailed macaques.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Masculino , Animales , Femenino , Macaca fascicularis , Tailandia/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Alimentos
19.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 244: 107982, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute Ischaemic Stroke (AIS), a significant global health concern, results from occlusions in cerebral arteries, causing irreversible brain damage. Different type of treatments exist depending on the size and location of the occlusion. Challenges persist in achieving faster diagnosis and treatment, which needs to happen in the first hours after the onset of symptoms to maximize the chances of patient recovery. The current diagnostic pipeline, i.e. "drip and ship", involves diagnostic via advanced imaging tools, only available in large clinical facilities, which poses important delays. This study investigates the feasibility of developing a machine learning model to diagnose and locate occluding blood clots from velocity waveforms, which can be easily be obtained with portable devices such as Doppler Ultrasound. The goal is to explore this approach as a cost-effective and time-efficient alternative to advanced imaging techniques typically available only in large hospitals. METHODS: Simulated haemodynamic data is used to conduct blood flow simulations representing healthy and different AIS scenarios using a population-based database. A Machine Learning classification model is trained to solve the inverse problem, this is, detect and locate a potentially occluding thrombus from measured waveforms. The classification process involves two steps. First, the region where the thrombus is located is classified into nine groups, including healthy, left or right large vessel occlusion, left or right anterior cerebral artery, and left or right posterior cerebral artery. In a second step, the bifurcation generation of the thrombus location is classified as small, medium, or large vessel occlusion. RESULTS: The proposed methodology is evaluated for data without noise, achieving a true prediction rate exceeding 95% for both classification steps mentioned above. The inclusion of up to 20% noise reduces the true prediction rate to 80% for region detection and 70% for bifurcation generation detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential effectiveness and efficiency of using haemodynamic data and machine learning to detect and locate occluding thrombi in AIS patients. Although the geometric and topological data used in this study are idealized, the results suggest that this approach could be applicable in real-world situations with appropriate adjustments. Source code is available in https://github.com/ahmetsenemse/Acute-Ischaemic-Stroke-screening-tool-.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Trombosis , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Humanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagen , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Hemodinámica
20.
Biol Lett ; 19(12): 20230411, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38087941

RESUMEN

Foraging innovations in animals involving the processing of resources that are already edible in an unprocessed state, yet of improved quality in a processed state, are rare but important to study the evolution of food preparation. Here, we present the first scientific report of food dunking behaviours in parrots by Goffin's cockatoos, a model species for innovative problem solving. Observations during lunch showed seven out of 18 cockatoos placing their food into water and soaking it prior to consumption. This was largely done with dry rusk which was eaten almost exclusively when dunked. Furthermore, their transport effort and waiting times before retrieving food from the water indicate their willingness to invest considerable time to prepare a soaked rusk piece of a higher texture quality. Our present results suggest that the function of this behaviour is to soak the food. Because only some individuals dunked food and dunking has not been observed in the wild, we believe this to be a spontaneous foraging innovation either by one or multiple individuals.


Asunto(s)
Cacatúas , Loros , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Humanos , Animales , Solución de Problemas , Agua
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