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1.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 27(1): 121-134, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814890

RESUMEN

Background: Physical deconditioning and inactivity following spinal cord injury (SCI) are associated with multiple cardiometabolic risks. To mitigate cardiometabolic risk, exercise is recommended, but it is poorly established whether arm cycling exercise (ACE) or functional electrical stimulation (FES) leg cycling yields superior benefits. Objectives: To determine the adaptations of 16 weeks of FES cycling and ACE on exercise energy expenditure (EEE), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and obesity after SCI. Methods: Thirteen physically untrained individuals were randomly assigned to FES (n = 6) or ACE (n = 7) exercise 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention EEE, peak oxygen consumption (absolute and relative VO2Peak), and work were assessed using indirect calorimetry, while body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Main effects were found for peak power (p < .001), absolute (p = .046) and relative (p = .042) VO2Peak, and peak work (p = .013). Compared to baseline, the ACE group increased in EEE (+85%, p = .002), peak power (+307%, p < .001), VO2Peak (absolute +21%, relative +22%, p ≤ .024), peak work (19% increase, p = .003), and total body fat decreased (-6%, p = .05). The FES group showed a decrease in percentage body fat mass (-5%, p = .008). The ACE group had higher EEE (p = .008), peak power (p < .001), and relative VO2Peak (p = .025) compared to postintervention values in the FES group. Conclusion: In the current study, ACE induced greater increases in EEE and CRF, whereas ACE and FES showed similar results on body fat. Exercise promotional efforts targeting persons with SCI should use both FES and ACE to reduce sedentary behavior and to optimize different health parameters after SCI.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Terapia por Estimulación Eléctrica/métodos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Obesidad/terapia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/terapia , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Terapia Combinada , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e25020, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725883

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the relationships between omentin-1, body composition and physical activity (PA) levels in older women.Eighty-one older women (age = 64 ±â€Š6years; body mass index = 24.2 ±â€Š3.2 kg/m2; body fat percentage = 36.1 ±â€Š5.7%) participated in this study. We divided the subjects into overweight/obesity and normal weight group. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum omentin-1 concentration was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. PA levels were obtained by using accelerometers. In addition, anthropometric and insulin resistance values were determined.Omentin-1 level in overweight/obesity group was significantly lower than in the normal weight group (P < .01). Analysis of all subjects showed that serum omentin-1 was negatively correlated with body weight, BMI (body mass index), waist circumference (WC), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio), percentage of body fat, total body fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) (r = -.571, -0.569, -0.546, -0.382, -0.394, -0.484, -0.524, all P < .01), respectively. We also found a negative correlation between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total body FM (r = -.233, P < .05). However, no significant correlation was found between omentin-1 and sedentary behavior and MVPA (both P > .05). Moreover, the relationship between omentin-1, body composition and PA was analyzed by using multiple linear stepwise regressions. The results showed that serum omentin-1 concentration was inversely correlated with total body FM (ß = -0.334, P = .004) in multiple linear stepwise regression analysis.We found that total body FM was inversely related to serum omentin-1 concentration and PA levels, but there was no correlation between omentin-1 and PA levels. These results showed that PA may participate in the regulation of body composition, which may be also affected by serum omentin-1. However, the mechanism by which PA affects body composition may not be through omentin-1 and was more likely through other metabolic pathways.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Citocinas/sangre , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Lectinas/sangre , Absorciometría de Fotón , Acelerometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/sangre , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(3): jrm00165, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of tai chi on metabolic control and body composition indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature. METHODS: Electronic resource databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Two reviewers selected studies and independently evaluated method-ological quality. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that tai chi had significant effects in improving metabolic indices, such as fasting blood glucose (mean differ-ence (MD) = -1.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.42 to 0.66; p < 0.01) and total cholesterol (MD = -0.50; 95% CI -0.86 to -0.13; p < 0.01) compared with conventional clinical therapy. Most in-dices did not support the use of tai chi over aerobic exercise, except for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD = -0.24; 95% CI -0.49 to 0.00; p < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (MD = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Tai chi had better effects on metabolic control and body composition indicators than clinical conventional therapy, but only on HbA1c and HDL were superior than that of aerobic exercise. The best time-window for tai chi intervention may differ with different metabolic indices.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Tai Ji/métodos , Adulto , Humanos
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 60-66, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198841

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: el objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar las relaciones entre la actividad física vigorosa y la composición corporal en personas mayores que asistían a centros de atención primaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: este estudio se caracteriza por ser un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo y transversal de 654 adultos mayores (288 hombres y 366 mujeres), la mayoría de ellos de 60 a 69 años (59 %), que asistían a centros de atención primaria en la ciudad de Maringá, Brasil. Los participantes fueron evaluados con el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ), mediciones antropométricas y un cuestionario sociodemográfico para caracterizar la muestra. RESULTADOS: los ancianos que practican actividad física en los centros de atención primaria con intensidad vigorosa presentan mediciones más bajas de circunferencia abdominal, cintura, cadera, cuádriceps y pantorrilla en comparación con las personas mayores que practican actividad física de baja a moderada intensidad. CONCLUSIONES: la práctica de actividad física vigorosa está relacionada con bajos perímetros corporales (abdominal, cadera, cintura, pantorrilla) en las personas adultas mayores atendidas en centros de atención primaria


OBJECTIVE: the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship between vigorous physical activity and body composition in older people who attend primary care centers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: this study is characterized by being a descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study in 654 older adults (288 men and 366 women), most of them between 60 and 69 years of age (59 %), attending primary care centers in the city of Maringá, Brazil. The participants were evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), anthropometric measurements, and a sociodemographic questionnaire to characterize the sample. RESULTS: older adults who practice physical activities in primary care centers with vigorous intensity are associated with lower abdominal circumference, waist, hip, quadriceps, and calf measurements when compared to older people with low or moderate levels of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: the practice of vigorous physical activity is related to low body perimeters (abdominal, hip, waist, calf) in older adults who attend primary care centers


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estado Nutricional , Estudios Transversales , Circunferencia Abdominal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Promoción de la Salud
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 100-108, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198846

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: los jóvenes universitarios enfrentan diversas situaciones sociales que generan cambios en los estilos de vida. Estos están asociados a desequilibrios en la ingesta dietética, caracterizada por una gran densidad calórica, lo que produce sobrepeso. Al mismo tiempo, se conoce la relación entre los patrones de consumo y la composición corporal, pero existe un vacío en la población universitaria colombiana. Así pues, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la relación del patrón de consumo de alimentos con la composición corporal en universitarios. MÉTODO: estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal con una muestra de 189 estudiantes. Se incluyeron variables sociodemográficas obtenidas por encuesta, variables de composición corporal derivadas de la bioimpedancia, y los grupos de alimentos y sus categorías por el método del recordatorio de 24 horas. Se realizó un modelo de regresión logística multinomial para explicar la composición corporal de acuerdo con el consumo de los grupos de alimentos. RESULTADOS: se obtuvieron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el consumo de alimentos y la composición corporal para la grasa visceral y el consumo de huevos, carnes, embutidos y granos (p = 0,024), y para el consumo de azúcares con respecto a la masa ósea (p = 0,029) y la masa muscular (p = 0,013). El modelo de regresión múltiple mostró que el consumo de azúcar incrementa la probabilidad de tener grasa visceral (OR = 2,71) y la probabilidad de clasificar a una persona como obesa (OR = 2,55). El consumo de huevos, carnes, embutidos y granos favorece la clasificación de la grasa visceral como aceptable (OR = 0,14). El consumo de frutas y verduras incrementa la probabilidad de presentar un alto porcentaje de agua (OR = 5,41) y la clasificación del porcentaje de grasa como bajo (OR = 3,60). CONCLUSIONES: el consumo de frutas y verduras se corresponde con un porcentaje bajo de grasa; no obstante, su ingesta se vincula proporcionalmente con altos niveles de agua corporal. Se deben realizar estudios que establezcan asociaciones entre la composición corporal y el consumo de alimentos, teniendo en cuenta la ingesta específica que pueda establecer una correlación con mayor precisión


INTRODUCTION: young university students face a social dynamics that has generated complex lifestyles and, especially, an imbalance in the intake of macro and micronutrients, characterized by having a high caloric density intake, which results in significant excess of weight. It is unknown if these consumption patterns are related to body composition. This research aimed to determine the relationship between pattern of food consumption and body composition in university students. METHOD: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample of 189 students. Sociodemographic variables obtained by a survey, body composition variables obtained by bioimpedance, and food groups and their categories obtained via a 24-hour reminder method were included. A multinomial logistic regression model was performed to explain body composition according to consumption of food groups. RESULTS: statistically significant associations were obtained between food consumption and body composition for visceral fat and consumption of eggs, meats, sausages and grains (p = 0.024), and consumption of sugars with bone mass (p = 0.029) and muscle mass (p = 0.013). The multiple regression model showed that sugar consumption increases the risk of having visceral fat (OR = 2.71), and increases the probability of being classified as an obese person (OR = 2.55). Consumption of eggs, meats, sausages, and grains favors an acceptable percentage of visceral fat (OR = 0.14). The consumption of fruits and vegetables increases the risk of having a high percentage of water (OR = 5.41), and low fat percentage (OR = 3.60). CONCLUSIONS: the consumption of sugars seems to have a close relationship with variables of body composition such as visceral fat, bone mass, and muscle mass. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was related to a low percentage of fat; however, their consumption is proportionally related to high levels of body water. Studies to establish associations between body composition and food consumption should be carried out taking into account specific intakes in order to establish a more accurate association


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Consumo de Alimentos/normas , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías Alimentarias , Estudios Transversales , Modelos Logísticos , Obesidad/clasificación , Análisis de Datos
6.
Metabolism ; 117: 154709, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476636

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that thrifty subjects, characterized by a greater decrease in 24 h energy expenditure (24hEE) during short-term fasting, have less capacity for cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) during 24 h of mild cold exposure. OBJECTIVE: As cold-induced brown adipose tissue activation (CIBA) is a determinant of CIT, we sought to investigate whether thrifty individuals also have reduced CIBA. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy subjects (age: 29.8 ±â€¯9.5y, body fat: 27.3 ±â€¯12.4%, 63% male) were admitted to our clinical research unit and underwent two 24hEE assessments in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and fasting conditions at thermoneutrality to quantify their degree of thriftiness. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans were performed after exposure to 16 °C for 2 h to quantify peak CIBA. RESULTS: A greater decrease in 24hEE during fasting was associated with lower peak CIBA (r = 0.50, p = 0.01), such that a 100 kcal/day greater reduction in 24hEE related to an average 3.2 g/mL lower peak CIBA. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that reduced CIBA is a metabolic trait of the thrifty phenotype which might explain reduced CIT capacity and greater predisposition towards weight gain in individuals with a thrifty metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Calorimetría Indirecta/métodos , Frío , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Ayuno/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Termogénesis/fisiología , Adulto Joven
7.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 40(1): 2, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468239

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Body composition (BC) influences respiratory system mechanics, provoking air flow limitation (AFL). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of AFL in small- and medium-caliber airways with BC in young adults. METHODS: Eighty-three individuals were recruited (40 men and 43 women). To determine AFL, the following measurements were taken: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% (FEF25-75%), airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway resistance (sRaw). The measured BC variables were body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), and fat-free mass (FFM). Binary logistical regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the AFL variables and %BF, BMI, and %FFM, adjusting for weight and gender. RESULTS: Among men, a relationship was observed between Raw and %BF (r = 0.728; p < 0.0001) and sRaw and BMI (r = 0.617; p < 0.0001). Among women, significant relationships were reported between Raw and BMI (r = 0.615; p < 0.0001) and sRaw and BMI (r = 0.556; p < 0.0001). Among participants with a BMI over 30 kg/m2, higher risks of increased Raw (OR = 26.8; p = 0.009) and sRaw (OR = 9.3; p = 0.002) were observed. Furthermore, higher %BF was associated with greater risks for increased Raw (OR = 14.04; p = 0.030) and sRaw (OR = 4.14; p = 0.028). In contrast, increased %FFM (OR = 0.14; p = 0.025) was a protective factor for lung function. CONCLUSION: Increased %BF is associated with increased AFL in small-caliber airways. Furthermore, increased %FFM is associated with decreased risk for Raw and sRaw in women. Therefore, evidence indicates that increased %FFM is a protective factor for adequate lung function.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia de las Vías Respiratorias/fisiología , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado/fisiología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
8.
Metabolism ; 114: 154399, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationships of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent androgen than testosterone (T), with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Our objectives were to evaluate the relationships of T, DHT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with BMD, fracture risk, and lean body mass (LBM). METHODS: We evaluated 1128 older men free of cardiovascular disease in a prospective cohort study using data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. T and DHT were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and SHBG by fluoroimmunoassay. Our outcomes included incident hip fracture (n = 106) over a median of 10.2 years and BMD and LBM by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n = 439). RESULTS: In Cox regression models mutually adjusted for T, SHBG, and covariates, each standard deviation increment in DHT (0.23 ng/ml) was associated with a 26% lower risk of hip fracture (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.00, p = 0.049). Similarly, SHBG was associated with fracture in mutually adjusted models (aHR HR 1.26, 95% CI, 1.01-1.58, p = 0.045). In contrast, T (aHR, 1.16, 95% CI, 0.86-1.56, p = 0.324) was not significantly associated with fracture in mutually adjusted models. T, DHT and SHBG were not associated with BMD. T and DHT were both positively associated with LBM in individual models. CONCLUSIONS: In older men, DHT was inversely associated with hip fracture risk and SHBG was positively associated with hip fracture risk, while T was not. Future studies should elucidate the mechanisms by which DHT affects bone health.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Densidad Ósea/fisiología , Dihidrotestosterona/sangre , Fracturas de Cadera/epidemiología , Testosterona/sangre , Absorciometría de Fotón , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Fémur/diagnóstico por imagen , Fracturas de Cadera/metabolismo , Articulación de la Cadera/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Riesgo , Globulina de Unión a Hormona Sexual/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23642, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327343

RESUMEN

Malnutrition and cachexia affects the majority of cancer patients and significantly worsens their quality of life and prognosis. However, the diagnostic criteria of malnutrition and cachexia remain a topic under constant debate. To overcome this hurdle, diagnostic tools to objectively detect and quantify the loss of muscle and fat mass are needed. Computed tomography (CT)-based measurement is currently considered the golden standard. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an economical, non-invasive tool but it is seen controversial in patients with cancer and malnutrition because of possible estimation errors.BIA and CT-based analysis of body mass compartments were performed 172 times in 118 cancer patients, within the nutrition program of our institution. Prevalence of malnutrition was determined according to the global leadership initiative on malnutrition criteria. Data obtained for muscle and fat mass from both BIA and CT were correlated using Pearson's ρ. All analyses were performed with an explorative significance level of 5%.45.7% of the cohort were classified as "malnourished." No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups regarding demographic data. Median body mass index, Karnofsky performance status, and nutritional risk score were lower in the malnourished group. Values for muscle and fat mass by BIA and CT were significantly lower in malnourished patients. Correlation of the measured parameters were highly significant between CT-based and BIA measurement. In the overall cohort, correlation of measured muscle mass values by CT and BIA was significant with Pearson's ρ = 0.794 (P < .01). Looking at patients without malnutrition only, Pearson's ρ was 0.754 (P < .01). The correlation of measured fat mass values was equally significant, with Pearson's ρ of 0.748 (P < .01) in the overall cohort and 0.771 (P < .01) in patients with malnutrition.To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing BIA to CT-based body mass analysis in a large cohort of cancer patients with malnutrition. The results suggest that BIA is a valid diagnostic tool for the assessment of muscle and fat mass, even in patients with malnutrition, and could be implemented for the early detection and short-term follow-up of malnutrition and cachexia.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Impedancia Eléctrica , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/normas , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Caquexia/etiología , Caquexia/patología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrición/etiología , Desnutrición/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332449

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To develop an equation to provide the peak power (PP) through a specific stimulus performed in an aquatic environment, as well as to correlate morphological, anthropometric and strength variables with rowing performance. METHODS: The sample consisted of 16 elite young rowing athletes of both sexes (15.7 ± 1.21 years). The strength of upper limbs and lower limbs was verified. To analyze the PP, a 100-m Sprint test was performed on an indoor rowing type ergometer, and after a 72-hour wash-out, the test was repeated in an aquatic environment on a vessel equipped with a global position system. Body composition was analyzed by examining bone densitometry with an X-ray source and maturation was verified by anthropometry. RESULTS: The tests for water sprint and indoor rowing showed significant reliability (ICC = 0.695; p = 0.0007). The PP aquatic showed reliability with that acquired in indoor rowing (ICC = 0.897; p<0.0001) and was related to maturation (p<0.05). The morphology, anthropometry and strength of the upper limbs were related to the sprint and peak strength in both tests (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The equation for the PP in aquatic environment presented by the present study is highly reliable with an indoor ergometer digital ergometer.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia Física/fisiología , Deportes Acuáticos/fisiología , Adolescente , Atletas , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Ergometría , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Agua
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1150-1156, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198306

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: en pacientes con obesidad severa y mórbida se ha observado que la evaluación por bioimpedanciometría (BIA) genera una subestimación de la masa grasa (MG) y del peso perdido como MG después de la cirugía bariátrica, sobreestimándose la pérdida de masa libre de grasa (MLG) y la masa muscular. OBJETIVO: evaluar la confiabilidad de la BIA para estimar el agua corporal total (ACT), la MLG, la MG y sus cambios después de 6 meses de un baipás gástrico en Y de Roux (BPGYR) en pacientes con obesidad severa y mórbida. MÉTODOS: 36 adultos con indicación de BPGYR se estudiaron prospectivamente. Se midió el ACT por deuterio (D) y se calcularon la MLG y MG. Con BIA de doble frecuencia (5 y 200 kHz) (Bodystat Dualscan(R)) se estimaron la MG, la MLG, el ACT, el agua extracelular (AEC), el agua intracelular (AIC) y la relación AEC/AIC. RESULTADOS: antes del BPGYR, la BIA sobreestimó el ACT en 2,6 ± 4,3 L (p = 0,002) y la MLG en 3,5 ± 5,7 kg (p = 0,002), y subestimó el %MG en 2,98 ± 4,7% (p = 0,002). La relación AEC/AIC mostró una correlación positiva con la sobreestimación de la MLG por BIA (r = 0,49; p = 0,002). Después de la cirugía, las diferencias entre BIA y D no fueron significativas y el error de estimación de la MLG no se correlacionó con la relación AEC/AIC. CONCLUSIONES: la BIA genera una subestimación de la MG como la reportada, la cual se atenúa después de la reducción de peso, subestimando el peso perdido como MG y sobreestimando la pérdida de MLG. Futuras investigaciones podrán evaluar si estos errores se reproducen con otros equipos de BIA


INTRODUCTION: in patients with severe and morbid obesity it has been observed that bioimpedance (BIA) assessment generates an underestimation of fat mass (FM) and weight loss as FM after bariatric surgery, overestimating the loss of fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle mass. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and its changes after 6 months of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), in patients with severe and morbid obesity. METHODS: thirty-six patients approved for RYGBP were prospectively studied. TBW was measured by deuterium (D), and FM and FFM were calculated. A dual-frequency BIA device (5 and 200 kHz) (Bodystat Dualscan(R)) was used to estimate FM, FFM, TBW, extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW), and ECW/ICW ratio. RESULTS: before RYGBP, BIA overestimated TBW by 2.6 ± 4.3 L (p = 0.002) and FFM by 3.5 ± 5.7 kg (p = 0.002), and underestimated FM% by 2.98 ± 4.7% (p = 0.002). The ECW/ICW ratio showed a significant and positive correlation with the difference BIA-D for FFM (r = 0.49; p = 0.002). After surgery, the differences between BIA and D were not significant, and the estimation error of FFM did not correlate with the ECW/ICW ratio. CONCLUSIONS: BIA generates an underestimation of FM as reported in patients with severe and morbid obesity, which is attenuated after weight reduction, underestimating weight loss as FM and overestimating FFM loss. Future research may assess whether these errors are reproduced by other BIA devices


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Anastomosis en-Y de Roux/métodos , Agua Corporal/fisiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Impedancia Eléctrica , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Cirugía Bariátrica/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Distribución de la Grasa Corporal/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1179-1185, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198310

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: the nutritional status of cancer patients should be screened regularly due to their high risk of malnutrition, which impairs patient quality of life (QoL). Therefore, an assessment of nutritional status is strongly necessary. Recently, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria for assessing the severity of malnutrition were published (2019). OBJECTIVES: the primary aim of this study was the assessment of nutritional status and QoL in advanced cancer patients. A secondary aim was to investigate the impact of malnutrition severity on QoL in these patients. METHODS: this study included 33 advanced cancer patients (head/neck, esophageal, gastric) from the Nutritional Counselling Centre Copernicus in Gdansk, and the Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. The assessment of nutritional status was conducted with the 2019 GLIM criteria and the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) method. QoL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTS: according to the SGA method, most of the patients were malnourished (42.42 %) or severely malnourished (42.42 %). Based on the GLIM criteria, 69.7 % of patients (n = 23) were severely malnourished. Among all participants, the highest impairments of QoL were observed in the environmental and psychological domains of the self-assessed satisfaction with own health questionnaire. Severe malnutrition significantly impairs QoL in the psychological (GLIM stage 2, p = 0.0033; SGA C, p = 0.0310) and somatic domains (GLIM stage 2, p = 0.0423). CONCLUSIONS: most patients with advanced cancer are malnourished or severely malnourished. Overall, the QoL of these patients is impaired. The severity of malnutrition has an impact on the QoL of cancer patients, which is observed as an impairment of mainly psychological and somatic aspects. This is the first study assessing the impact of malnutrition severity, as based on the new 2019 GLIM criteria, on the QoL of advanced cancer patients


INTRODUCCIÓN: el estado nutricional de los pacientes con cáncer debe examinarse regularmente debido al alto riesgo de desnutrición, lo que perjudica la calidad de vida (QoL) de los pacientes. Por lo tanto, la evaluación del estado nutricional es muy necesaria. Recientemente se han publicado los criterios de la Iniciativa de Liderazgo Global sobre Desnutrición (GLIM) de 2019, que evalúan la gravedad de la desnutrición. OBJETIVOS: los objetivos principales de este estudio fueron la evaluación del estado nutricional y la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer avanzado. El objetivo secundario fue investigar el impacto de la gravedad de la desnutrición en la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: este estudio incluyó a 33 pacientes con cáncer avanzado de cabeza/cuello, esófago y gástrico del Centro de Asesoría Nutricional Copernicus de Gdansk y el Departamento de Oncología Quirúrgica de la Universidad de Medicina de Gdansk, Polonia. La evaluación del estado nutricional se realizó con los criterios GLIM 2019 y el método de evaluación subjetiva global (SGA). La calidad de vida se evaluó mediante el cuestionario Quality of Life-BREF de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTADOS: según el método SGA, la mayoría de los pacientes estaban desnutridos (42,42 %) o gravemente desnutridos (42,42 %). Según los criterios GLIM, el 69,7 % de los pacientes (n = 23) estaban gravemente desnutridos. Entre todos los participantes se observó un mayor deterioro de la calidad de vida en la autoevaluación de la satisfacción con la salud, en los dominios ambiental y psicológico. La desnutrición severa afecta significativamente a la calidad de vida en el dominio psicológico (etapa GLIM 2, p = 0,0033; SGA C, p = 0,0310) y somático (etapa GLIM 2, p = 0,0423). CONCLUSIONES: la mayoría de los pacientes con cáncer avanzado están desnutridos o gravemente desnutridos. En general, la calidad de vida de estos pacientes está alterada. La gravedad de la desnutrición repercute sobre la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer, lo que se observa como un deterioro principalmente en los aspectos psicológicos y somáticos. Este es el primer estudio que evalúa el impacto de la gravedad de la desnutrición, según los nuevos criterios GLIM 2019, sobre la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer avanzado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Desnutrición/diagnóstico , Evaluación Nutricional , Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Composición Corporal/fisiología
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 958-963, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198011

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: the anthropometric characteristics of international stand-up paddle (SUP) boarders are relevant aspects when it comes to their performance. However, very little research has been carried out within this sport, almost none regarding the body composition and anthropometric characteristics of SUP practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this research will be to describe the anthropometric profile of international SUP boarders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a cross-sectional design in thirty-one international SUP boarders (34.2 ± 12.4 years). Height, body mass, 8 skinfolds, 2 bone diameters, and 5 perimeters were measured, and corrected perimeters were calculated by the same two level-2 internationally certified anthropometrists. Anthropometric measurements were taken following the International Society of Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) protocol. Body fat mass (FM) was calculated using Carter, Faulkner, Yuhasz, and Withers equations, whereas muscle mass (MM) was estimated using the Lee 2000 equation. Somatotype was calculated by applying the Heath and Carter equation. Bioimpedance (BIA) measurements were also recorded. RESULTS: international SUP athletes had a body mass of 74.6 (6.6) kg, a body fat percentage of 7.6 % (2.1 %) (Carter), 11.3 % (3.5 %) (Faulkner), 7.6 % (2.1 %) (Yuhasz), and 9.0 % (3.6 %) (Whiters), and skinfold sums of 48.2 (20.6) mm for 6, and 57.8 (22.2) mm for 8 skinfolds. Muscle mass was 47.3 % (2.6 %) and somatotype was ecto-mesomorphic with values of 1.9 (0.9) for endomorphy, 5.4 (1.0) for mesomorphy, and 2.4 (0.9) for ectomorphy. BIA results for FM were 11.7 % (4.4 %), and for MM were 50.0 % (2.9 %). CONCLUSION: these results suggest that a low body fat percentage and high muscle mass are representative characteristics of international stand-up paddlers, as well as a balanced mesomorphic somatotype. According to these, a low skindfold sum and high arm muscle mass may represent key factors for performance in this sport because of their relation to acceleration and stroke force


INTRODUCCIÓN: las características antropométricas de los atletas internacionales de stand-up paddle (SUP) son aspectos relevantes para su rendimiento. Sin embargo, se han realizado muy pocas investigaciones dentro de este deporte, y casi ninguna cuando se trata de la composición corporal y las características antropométricas de los palistas de SUP. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación será describir el perfil antropométrico de los palistas internacionales de SUP. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se reunieron treinta y un palistas internacionales de SUP (34,2 ± 12,4 años). Se midieron la altura, la masa corporal, 8 pliegues de piel, 2 diámetros de huesos y 5 perímetros, y se corrigieron otros 2 perímetros, por los mismos dos antropometristas certificados como ISAK 2. Las mediciones antropométricas se realizaron siguiendo el protocolo de la Sociedad Internacional para el Avance de la Cinantropometría (ISAK). La masa grasa (FM) se calculó utilizando las ecuaciones de Carter, Faulkner, Yuhasz y Withers, mientras que la masa muscular (MM) se calculó utilizando la ecuación de Lee 2000. El somatotipo se obtuvo aplicando la ecuación de Heath y Carter. Se registraron también las mediciones mediante bioimpedancia (BIA). RESULTADOS: los atletas internacionales de SUP tenían una masa corporal de 74,6 (6,6) kg, un porcentaje de grasa corporal de 7,6 % (2,1 %) (Carter), 11,3 % (3,5 %) (Faulkner), 7,6 % (2,1 %) (Yuhasz) y 9,0 % (3,6 %) (Whiters) y sumas de pliegues cutáneos de 48,2 (20,6) mm para 6, y 57,8 (22,2) mm para 8 pliegues cutáneos. La masa muscular era del 47,3 % (2,6 %) y el somatotipo era ectomesomórfico con valores de 1,9 (0,9) para la endomorfia, 5,4 (1,0) para la mesomorfia y 2,4 (0,9) para la ectomorfia. Los resultados de la BIA fueron del 11,7 % (4,4 %) para la FM y del 50,0 % (2,9 %) para la MM. CONCLUSIÓN: estos resultados sugieren que un bajo porcentaje de grasa y un elevado porcentaje de masa muscular, junto a un somatotipo mesomórfico equilibrado, son características antropométricas representativas de los atletas internacionales de SUP. Así mismo, y de acuerdo con estos resultados, un bajo sumatorio de pliegues y una elevada masa muscular del brazo pueden ser factores clave en el rendimiento de este deporte, debido a su relación con la aceleración y la fuerza de la palada


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Somatotipos/fisiología , Deportes , Estudios Transversales , Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 970-976, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198013

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: although obesity has been consistently associated with lower 25-OH hydroxyvitamin D-25(OH)D-levels, little is known about the effect of weight change on serum 25(OH)D levels. METHODS: the present analysis was based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Percent weight changes were calculated from participant-reported maximum lifetime weight and weight in the past year and 10 years ago. Subsequently, general linear models adjusted for potential confounders were assembled to examine 25(OH)D concentrations across percent weight change categories. RESULTS: a total of 6,237 participants with a mean age of 57.5 (SE, 0.2) years comprised the study sample. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects who have gained weight ≥ 5 % in the past year and 10 years before had on average 4.5 and 5.1 nmol/L lower 25(OH)D levels than those with a stable weight, respectively. Moreover, this association persisted even among participants with adequate vitamin D intake. Notably, subjects who lost weight > 5 % from their maximum reported weight had significantly higher 25(OH)D levels than those who did not. CONCLUSION: subjects with a stable weight and those who lost weight ≥ 5% from their maximum reported lifetime weight had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than those who did not. Thus, maintaining a healthy weight over time may be an effective strategy to reach optimal serum 25(OH)D levels


ANTECEDENTES: aunque la obesidad se ha asociado consistentemente con niveles más bajos de 25-OH-vitamina D (25(OH)D), poco se sabe sobre el efecto del cambio de peso en los niveles de 25(OH)D. MÉTODOS: el presente análisis se basó en datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Examen de Salud y Nutrición. Los cambios porcentuales en el peso se calcularon a partir del peso medido actual y el peso máximo reportado, peso en el último año, y hace 10 años. Se usaron modelos lineales generales ajustados por posibles cofactores para examinar las concentraciones de 25(OH)D de acuerdo con el porcentaje de cambio ponderal. RESULTADOS: un total de 6.237 participantes con una edad promedio de 57,5 años constituyen la muestra del estudio. Los sujetos que aumentaron de peso ≥ 5 % en el año anterior y en los 10 años previos tuvieron en promedio 4,5 y 5,1 nmol/L menos de 25(OH)D que aquellos con peso estable, respectivamente. Además, esta asociación persistió incluso entre los participantes con una ingesta adecuada de vitamina D. Por el contrario, los sujetos que perdieron ≥ 5 % de su peso máximo reportado tuvieron niveles más altos de 25(OH)D comparados con aquellos que no perdieron peso. CONCLUSIÓN: los sujetos con un peso estable y aquellos que perdieron ≥ 5 % de su peso máximo reportado tuvieron concentraciones significativamente más altas de 25(OH)D frente a aquellos que aumentaron de peso. Por lo tanto, mantener un peso saludable con el tiempo puede ser una estrategia eficaz para alcanzar niveles óptimos de 25(OH)D


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Vitamina D/sangre , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Encuestas Nutricionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sedentaria , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 1022-1027, sept.-oct. 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198018

RESUMEN

Low-carbohydrate diets are frequently used to improve performance in endurance sports, often with contradictory results. This study aimed to assess whether a low-carbohydrate diet can outperform an isocaloric conventional diet for improving body composition and performance in a sample of twenty-six trained male road cyclists (previous experience in cyclosportive events, 7.6 ± 4.4 years; age, 26.9 ± 4.9 years; weekly training volume, 7.8 ± 2.9 hours; height, 176 ± 7 centimeters; body fat percentage, 9.7 ± 0.8 %; weight, 65.3 ± 2.3 kg). Detraining and pretreatment periods in which nutrition and training were standardized were followed by an eight-week long intervention in which cyclists consumed either a low-carbohydrate diet (15 % of calories from carbohydrates) or a conventional endurance sports diet while maintaining the same training volumes and intensities. Body composition was assessed through electrical impedance, and performance was evaluated through a twenty-minute time trial performed on a smart bike trainer. The results revealed an overall improvement over time in absolute and relative power, body mass, and body fat for both groups, whilst the improvement in absolute power was comparable. The improvements seen in relative power (p = 0.042), body mass (p = 0.006), and body fat (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the low-carbohydrate group. We concluded that eight weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet significantly reduced body weight and body fat percentage, and improved 20-minute relative power values in a sample of road cyclists when compared to an isocaloric conventional diet


Las dietas bajas en carbohidratos se usan con frecuencia para mejorar el rendimiento en los deportes de resistencia, a menudo con resultados contradictorios. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar si una dieta baja en carbohidratos puede superar a una dieta convencional isocalórica para mejorar la composición corporal y el rendimiento en una muestra de veintiséis ciclistas de carretera masculinos entrenados (experiencia previa en eventos cicloportivos, 7,6 ± 4,4 años; edad, 26,9 ± 4,9 años; volumen de entrenamiento semanal, 7,8 ± 2,9 horas; altura, 176 ± 7 centímetros; porcentaje de grasa corporal, 9,7 ± 0,8 %; peso, 65,3 ± 2,3 kg). Los períodos de desentrenamiento y pretratamiento, en los que se estandarizaron la nutrición y el entrenamiento, fueron seguidos por una intervención de ocho semanas de duración en la que los ciclistas consumieron una dieta de bajo contenido en carbohidratos (15 % de calorías de los carbohidratos) o una dieta convencional para deportes de resistencia, manteniendo los mismos volúmenes de entrenamiento e intensidades. La composición corporal se evaluó a través de la impedancia eléctrica y el rendimiento se evaluó a través de una prueba contrarreloj de veinte minutos realizada en un rodillo de bicicleta inteligente. Los resultados revelaron una mejora general en el tiempo en cuanto a potencia absoluta y relativa, masa corporal y grasa corporal para ambos grupos, mientras que la mejora en potencia absoluta fue comparable. Las mejoras de la potencia relativa (p = 0,042), la masa corporal (p = 0,006) y la grasa corporal (p = 0,01) fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo bajo en carbohidratos. Se concluye que ocho semanas de una dieta baja en carbohidratos redujeron significativamente el peso corporal y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, y mejoraron los valores de potencia relativa de 20 minutos en una muestra de ciclistas de carretera en comparación con una dieta convencional isocalórica


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Ciclismo/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Impedancia Eléctrica , Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta , Atletas
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 1072-1086, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198024

RESUMEN

Aunque el agua es un nutriente esencial para la vida y el componente más abundante de nuestro cuerpo, recibe escasa atención en las recomendaciones dietéticas y las guías clínicas. Existen inconvenientes para determinar las cifras óptimas, tanto para la cantidad de agua que debe contener el cuerpo como para su ingesta. La ingesta y eliminación del agua dependen de factores no constantes y difíciles de medir, a su vez compensados por la capacidad del organismo para la homeostasis. Dada la falta de evidencia científica para el establecimiento de recomendaciones, se han estimado las "ingestas adecuadas" (para mantener un estado de hidratación adecuado) utilizando datos de ingestas de agua en grupos de personas sanas. La Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria (EFSA) también considera la osmolaridad deseable en la orina para estimar la ingesta adecuada de agua en los adultos. Los estudios clínicos han mostrado en general beneficios con una hidratación adecuada y perjuicios con sus desequilibrios, ya sean cuantitativos (deshidratación y sobrehidratación) o cualitativos (agua extracelular e intracelular). Desafortunadamente, estos estudios son escasos y suelen tener diseños deficientes, ya sean transversales, de casos y controles o prospectivos, utilizando muestras pequeñas o métodos indirectos para evaluar el estado de hidratación. En este artículo se presenta información de actualización respecto a: 1) la adherencia a las recomendaciones de consumo de agua y sugerencias para mejorarla; 2) técnicas disponibles para medir el estado de hidratación y sus aplicaciones clínicas; 3) efectos de la hidratación/deshidratación en las actividades físicas o cognitivas y en las enfermedades crónicas; y 4) normativa española sobre calidad y salubridad del agua


Water is an essential nutrient for life and the most abundant component in the human body. However, its dietary recommendations or clinical management guidelines do not receive as much attention as they deserve. In addition, there are some obstacles to establishing optimal values, both for the amount of water the body must contain and for water ingestion. Water intake and elimination depend on unsteady factors that are difficult to measure and, at the same time, compensated by the body's ability to regulate homeostasis. Since scientific evidence is lacking for establishing recommendations, "adequate intakes" (to maintain an adequate hydration state) have been estimated using data on water intake from groups of healthy people. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also considers desirable the use of urine osmolarity to estimate the adequacy of water intake in adults. Clinical studies have generally shown the benefits of adequate hydration and the damage caused by water imbalance, whether quantitative (dehydration and overhydration) or qualitative (extracellular and intracellular water). Unfortunately, these studies are few and often have poor cross-sectional, case-control, or prospective designs, and use small samples or indirect methods to assess hydration status. This article presents up-to-date information on subjects such as: 1) compliance with water consumption recommendations and suggestions for improvement; 2) techniques available to measure hydration status and their clinical applications; 3) effects of hydration/dehydration on physical or cognitive activities and chronic diseases; and 4) existing Spanish regulations on the quality and salubrity of water


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Ingestión de Líquidos/fisiología , Agua/administración & dosificación , Medicina Preventiva , Agua Corporal/fisiología , Necesidades Nutricionales , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Bebidas , Deshidratación/prevención & control , Deshidratación/terapia , Estado de Salud , Grupos de Riesgo
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933145

RESUMEN

Eating disorders (EDs) represent a disparate group of mental health problems that significantly impair physical health or psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to present some evidence about the prevalence of eating-disordered behavior (EDB) in adolescents, and explore its associations with body image (BI), body composition (BC) and physical activity (PA) in this age group. Data from 780 adolescents participating in a health behavior in school-aged children (HBSC) study conducted in Slovakia in 2018 were used (mean age 13.5 ± 1.3; 56% boys). Differences in mean values of numerical indicators were evaluated using the independent samples t-test. Differences between nominal variables were assessed by the chi-square test. Pearson correlation was used to describe the associations between all the selected variables. EDB was positively screened in 26.7% (208/780) of adolescents, with a higher prevalence in girls (128/344, 37.2%) than in boys (80/436, 18.3%). Significantly higher means of BI, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage (BFP), body fat mass index (BFMI), fat free mass index (FFMI), and SCOFF questionnaire score (SCOFF QS) were found in those positively screened for EDB. Pearson correlation analysis revealed positive associations between EDB and BI, BW, BMI, BFM, BFP and BFMI. The prevalence of EDB is high in Slovak adolescents. Positive associations between EDB, BI, BMI and fat-related body composition parameters support the idea of a more integrated approach in EDs and obesity prevention and treatment. At the same time, gender differences suggest the need for considering gender-specific strategies aimed at girls and boys separately.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Eslovaquia/epidemiología
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22036, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957321

RESUMEN

Studies about the effects of metabolically healthy obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have yielded conflicting results. These heterogeneous results could be due to the limited usefulness of BMI in measuring general adiposity, as body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect body composition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body shape on CVD outcomes across different obesity phenotypes, and to provide an explanation for the heterogeneous effects of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype on CVD.We analyzed data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a population-based cohort study conducted between 2001 and 2012. We divided the participants into 4 groups: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), MHO, metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). To assess body shape, we calculated the z-score of the log-transformed a body shape index (LBSIZ). We computed Pearson correlation coefficients to examine the association of LBSIZ with muscle mass index, percentage of total fat mass (%Total FM), and percentage of abdominal fat mass (%Abdominal FM). We also used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the effect of LBSIZ on CVD events according to the obesity phenotypes.A total of 9460 participants were assessed in this study. The incidence of CVD was 8.53 cases per 1000 person-year. LBSIZ showed strong positive correlation with %Total FM and %Abdominal FM, but negative correlation with muscle mass index. In Cox regression, MHO individuals did not show increased risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.73). However, MHO individuals in the 3rd (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.28-4.51) and 4th (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.99-6.74) quarters of LBSIZ showed significantly higher risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals in the 1st quarter of LBSIZ. Moreover, LBSIZ showed a linear relationship with CVD among MHO individuals.While the MHO individuals showed similar CVD risk to the MHNO individuals, CVD risk increases with LBSIZ among the MHO individuals. LBSIZ appears to be a useful measure for CVD risk assessment in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies, especially for MHO patients.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Obesidad Metabólica Benigna/epidemiología , Obesidad Metabólica Benigna/patología , Adiposidad , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238706, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915820

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to determine the level of morphological asymmetry among the general population of Polish youth as it correlates to sex and body type. The anthropometric characteristics of a group of 618 Polish youths (354 males aged 19.5 ± 1.2 years and 264 females aged 19.2 ± 1.2 years) were evaluated to assess their somatotypes using the Heath-Carter method. Body composition was calculated using the bioelectrical impedance method, and the absolute asymmetry index was used for comparisons between the right and left sides of the body. Significant differentiation was observed between all morphological characteristics (≤ 0.0001) and two body types (≤ 0.0001) among sexes. Females and males largely exhibited endomorphic and mesomorphic somatotypes, respectively. The findings demonstrated that dominant somatotype and sex both affect the level of fat mass asymmetry in the arms and legs. Furthermore, significant variations in the levels of asymmetry between sexes were observed in fat mass in both the arms and legs, with greater variation observed in the arms. In the case of muscle mass, no great differences were observed between men, women, or body types. This study provides new data on the morphological asymmetry of given body composition according to somatotype and sex. This study has potential medical implications, given that a large degree of inter-limb imbalance could be shown to have a negative effect on health; the findings of the present study would therefore be important for arriving at an understanding of how to prevent such imbalances, or to mitigate their negative effects.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Conducta Sexual/fisiología , Somatotipos/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometría , Impedancia Eléctrica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Somatotipos/psicología , Adulto Joven
20.
Orv Hetil ; 161(35): 1466-1474, 2020 08.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822325

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. Organic food contains fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products. Recent studies suggest that the gut-liver axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, so probiotics could be a therapeutic tool. Comparing the health effects of yoghurt from organic origin with so-called conventional yoghurt is difficult, because there is no biomarker that would signal the difference with good specificity and sensitivity. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate numerous biomarkers to evaluate the difference between yoghurt from conventional and organic origin and their health effects in NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a prospective, cohort study consisting of 37 (age = 51.73 ± 11.82, male = 21, female = 16) patients with NAFLD at the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine of the Semmelweis University, Budapest. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography and the exclusion of other etiololgy. The patients were examined also with shear wave elastography to evaluate the hepatic fibrosis stage. We divided the patients randomly into two groups. The patients consumed individually daily 300 grams of yoghurt from organic (n = 21) or conventional (n = 16) origin for 8 weeks. We collected 37 routine laboratory data, measured 4 cytokines, 3 markers of the redox-homeostasis and 14 body composition values before, after, and 12 weeks after the yoghurt consumption. RESULTS: We found a mild elevation of vitamin D and a minimal reduction of LDL after the yoghurt consumption, but in the other 35 routine laboratory data there was no statistical difference. Adiponectin and leptin levels were elevated after the yoghurt consumption in the "conventional group". In contrast, we found significant decrease of adiponectin levels in the "organic group" after the treatment. Only the adiponectin tendency was different in the two groups. The induced free radical content was also statistically lower after the yoghurt consumption. In the body composition measurements, there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that adiponectin could be a possible biomarker to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic treatment in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our work can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between organic yoghurt consumption and health outcomes. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1466-1474.


Asunto(s)
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Probióticos/farmacología , Yogur/microbiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Alimentos Orgánicos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico por imagen , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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