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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 54-66, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1155514

RESUMEN

A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo compreender o envolvimento paterno no contexto do divórcio/separação conjugal na perspectiva do pai separado. Realizou-se um Grupo Focal com seis pais (homens) separados e os dados foram analisados através da análise categorial temática, utilizando-se do software Atlas.ti 5.0 para organização dos dados. A perspectiva sistêmica contribuiu com a compreensão do fenômeno como um processo de transformações contínuas e recursivas, contingentes com a história de interações dos participantes. Emergiram da análise dos dados três categorias: Percepções do pai sobre o seu envolvimento com a criança; Características do envolvimento paterno do pai separado e Construção da paternidade no pós-divórcio. Os resultados demonstraram relações de interdependência entre fatores individuais, relacionais e contextuais.


The present research aimed to understand paternal involvement in the context of divorce/separation from the perspective of the separated father. A Focal Group with six separated fathers (men) was carried out and the data were analyzed through the thematic categorical analysis using Atlas.ti 5.0 software for data organization. The systemic perspective contributed to the understanding of the phenomenon as a process of continuous and recursive transformations, contingent on the history of interactions of the participants. Three categories emerged from the data analysis: Perceptions of the father about his involvement with the child; Characteristics of parental involvement of the separated father and Post-Divorce Construction of Paternity. The results showed relationships of interdependence between individual, relational and contextual factors.


La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo compreender la participación paterno en el contexto del divorcio/separación conyugal en la perspectiva del padre separado. Se realizo un Grupo Focal con seis padres (hombres) separados y los datos fueron analizados a través del análisis categorial temático, utilizando el software Atlas.ti 5.0 para la organización de los datos. La perspectiva sistémica contribuyó com la comprensión del fenómeno como um proceso de transformaciones continuas y recursivas, contingentes con la historia de interacciones de los participantes. Se emergieron del análisis de los datos três categorías: Percepciones del padre sobre su implicación com el niño; Características de la participación paterno del padre separado y Construcción de la paternidade en el pos-divorcio. Los resultados demostraron relaciones de interdependencia entre factores individuales, relacionales y contextuales.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Paternidad , Divorcio , Composición Familiar , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Análisis de Datos
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 1): e210016, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886889

RESUMEN

AIM: This research analyzed a joint spatial distribution and explored the possible associations between epidemiological aspects and feminicide rates, in towns of the Sergipe State in Northeastern Brazil. METHODOLOGY: An exploratory ecological study investigated the global spatial autocorrelation of epidemiological aspects with femicide rates from towns in Sergipe State, Brazil, (n = 75), in the 2013-2017 period, using the "global" and "local" Moran statistic method and a multiple spatial regression. The exposure variables included socioeconomic and demographic conditions, services and health condition, and femicide rates. We used the software Stata 11.0, SPSS 18.0 and GeoDa 0.95-i. RESULTS: The spatial distribution of femicide rates was not random and showed high spatial autocorrelation and predominance of significant spatial groupings of towns with the highest mortality rates due to femicide in the central region of Sergipe State. In the multiple regression analysis, the percentage of women in charge of families and the Municipal Human Development Index were positively associated with the femicide rates in towns in Sergipe's municipalities in the studied period (p < 0.05). The opposite situation occurred between the Income Concentration Index (GINI) and the femicide rates. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that has analyzed the factors associated with the spatial clusters of femicide rates in a geographical space where there is a predominance of patriarchal culture. There was a femicide increase in locations with the lowest social inequality, the highest human development and authority exercised by women in the family environment.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Renta , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112412, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823447

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the impact of a 50% reduction of filter media depth in Household Slow Sand Filters (HSSFs) on continuous flow to remove physicochemical and microbiological parameters from river water. Furthermore, simple pre-treatment and disinfection processes were evaluated as additional treatments. Two filter models with different filtration layer depths were evaluated: a traditional one with 50 cm media depth (T-HSSF) and a compact one (C-HSSF) with 25 cm. HSSFs were fed with pre-treated river water (24-h water sedimentation followed by synthetic fabric filtration) for 436 days at a constant filtration rate of 0.90 m3 m-2 day-1 with a daily production of 48 L day-1. Sodium hypochlorite (2.0 mg L-1 of NaOCl 2.5% for 30 min) was used to disinfect the filtered water. Water samples were analysed weekly for parameters such as turbidity, organic matter, colour and E. coli, among others. Removal of protozoan cysts and oocysts by the HSSFs were also evaluated. After pretreatment, turbidity from the HSSF river water was reduced to 13.2 ± 14.6 NTU, allowing the filters to operate. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference (p > 0.05) between T-HSSF and C-HSSF efficiencies in all evaluated parameters throughout operation time. Hence, media depth reduction did not hinder continuous HSSF performance for almost all the evaluated parameters. However, it may have affected Giardia cysts retaining, which passed through the thinner media on one evaluation day. Disinfection was effective in reducing remaining bacteria from filtered water; however, it was ineffective to inactivate protozoa. The reduction in the filtration layer did not affect the overall filtered water quality or quantity showing that a compact HSSF model may be a viable option for decentralized water treatment.


Asunto(s)
Arena , Purificación del Agua , Escherichia coli , Composición Familiar , Filtración , Dióxido de Silicio
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217373, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825836

RESUMEN

Importance: An accurate understanding of the distributional implications of public health policies is critical for ensuring equitable responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health threats. Objective: To identify and quantify the association of race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities of state-specific lockdowns with 6 well-being dimensions in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled, repeated cross-sectional study used data from 14 187 762 households who participated in phase 1 of the population-representative US 2020 Household Pulse Survey (HPS). Households were invited to participate by email, text message, and/or telephone as many as 3 times. Data were collected via an online questionnaire from April 23 to July 21, 2020, and participants lived in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Exposures: Indicators of race/ethnicity, sex, and income and their intersections. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unemployment; food insufficiency; mental health problems; no medical care received for health problems; default on last month's rent or mortgage; and class cancellations with no distance learning. Race/ethnicity, sex, income, and their intersections were used to measure distributional implications across historically marginalized populations; state-specific, time-varying population mobility was used to measure lockdown intensity. Logistic regression models with pooled repeated cross-sections were used to estimate risk of dichotomous outcomes by social group, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: The 1 088 314 respondents (561 570 [51.6%; 95% CI, 51.4%-51.9%] women) were aged 18 to 88 years (mean [SD], 51.55 [15.74] years), and 826 039 (62.8%; 95% CI, 62.5%-63.1%) were non-Hispanic White individuals; 86 958 (12.5%; 95% CI, 12.4%-12.7%), African American individuals; 86 062 (15.2%; 95% CI, 15.0%-15.4%), Hispanic individuals; and 50 227 (5.6%; 95% CI, 5.5%-5.7%), Asian individuals. On average, every 10% reduction in mobility was associated with higher odds of unemployment (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), food insufficiency (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), mental health problems (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1), and class cancellations (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Across most dimensions compared with White men with high income, African American individuals with low income experienced the highest risks (eg, food insufficiency, men: OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.8-3.7; mental health problems, women: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1; medical care inaccessibility, women: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9; unemployment, men: OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.5-3.2; rent/mortgage defaults, men: OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 4.7-7.1). Other high-risk groups were Hispanic individuals (eg, unemployment, Hispanic men with low income: OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and women with low income across all races/ethnicities (eg, medical care inaccessibility, non-Hispanic White women: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, African American and Hispanic individuals, women, and households with low income had higher odds of experiencing adverse outcomes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders. Blanket public health policies ignoring existing distributions of risk to well-being may be associated with increased race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805068

RESUMEN

Off-farm diversification offers an important pathway out of poverty while health-impaired rural farmers can hardly seize the opportunity in developing countries. This paper investigates how chronic illness shapes livelihood structure and income generation in rural China. Our sample consists of 3850 rural households in Southern China and we rely on instrumental variable regressions to identify causal effects. We find that farmers with chronic illness tend to diversify towards local off-farm employments, rather than migrants, since local off-farm employments are more likely to act in a strategically complementary way to farming. Further analysis shows that income returns of diversification tend to be substantially higher for the health-impaired. While the relationship between diversification and income presents a conventional inverted U shape for the healthy, it is best categorized as upward sloping with diminishing marginal effects for farmers with chronic illness.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Renta , Agricultura , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos , Población Rural
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802946

RESUMEN

Anemia is highly prevalent in all strata of populations in India, with established evidence of intergenerational anemia. The state of Madhya Pradesh was selected to study childhood anemia as the population is mostly rural, with many tribal districts, and has the highest infant mortality rate in India. This study aims to understand the maternal, social and household factors that affect anemia among children aged 6 months to 5 years by analyzing the the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 2015-2016. Children aged 6-59 months with estimated hemoglobin levels were included in this study. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to understand associations between childhood anemia and various socioeconomic factors. Two models to understand the presence of anemia and the levels of anemia were computed. Higher likelihood of having severe childhood anemia was observed among children of younger mothers (15- to 19-year-old mothers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 4.06, less educated (uneducated mothers aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.13, 4.48) and belonged to a scheduled tribe (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.07, 3.29). Strong associations between anemia in mothers and their children suggest intergenerational anemia which has long-term effects. Malnourished children (severe stunting aOR 3.19, 95% CI 2.36, 4.31) and children born with very low birth weight (aOR 4.28, 95% CI 2.67, 6.87) were more likely to have anemia. These findings strongly suggest more proactive interventions including prenatal healthcare for women and monitoring of the nutrition children at the community level to combat childhood anemia. Evaluations of existing programs should be conducted to understand the gaps in reducing anemia and malnutrition in children.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Composición Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806412

RESUMEN

Household smoke-exposure risk (SER) can be defined through the assessment of cooking fuels (smoke and no smoke-producing) and cooking places (indoor and outdoor) related information, which represent different levels of household air pollution. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and geographical variations in smoke-exposure risks (SERs) associated with indoor and outdoor cooking practices and use of smoke-producing and non-smoke-producing cooking fuels in Tanzania. We further investigated the social and spatial features associated with household SERs. We defined an indicator variable, the household SER, using country-level, cross-sectional data on cooking fuels and cooking places obtained from the 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and then estimated zone-level average SERs. We used an ordered logistic regression model to assess the social and spatial characteristics associated with household SER. We identified 76.4% of the 12,425 households that practiced indoor cooking using smoke-producing fuels as having a high SER. High-level SER was more prevalent in the Central, Southern highland, and Southwest highland zones. Overall, wealthier households, female-headed households, and households with higher education attainments were more likely to be categorized as households with very low SER. Meanwhile, households headed by older individuals and with larger family sizes were less likely to be in the very low SER category. The prevalence of high SER is a major public health concern in Tanzania. Improved cooking stoves and cleaner fuels should be adopted simultaneously to minimize the adverse effects associated with household SER.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Culinaria , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Humo/efectos adversos , Tanzanía/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806645

RESUMEN

Smoking is still a serious economic, health, and social problem despite various efforts to curb its prevalence. We examined the influence of financial literacy and financial education on the smoking behavior in the United States in terms of the use of rational decision-making abilities to reduce irrational behavior. We hypothesized that financial literacy and financial education, as proxies for rational decision making, would reduce the likelihood of smoking. We used data from the Preference Parameters Study (PPS) of Osaka University conducted in the United States in 2010 and applied probit regression models to test our hypothesis on a sample of 3831 individuals. We found that financially literate people are less likely to be smokers, though we found no clear role of financial education in reducing the likelihood of smoking. Further, respondents' gender, age, unemployment status, and risky health behaviors such as drinking and gambling, have a significantly positive association with smoking, while marital status, university degree, family size, household income, household assets, physical exercise, and level of happiness have a significantly negative association. Our findings suggest that financial literacy, as an instrument encouraging rational decision making, could be a tool to help reduce smoking in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Fumar , Escolaridad , Ejercicio Físico , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808628

RESUMEN

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is designed to improve household diet and food security-a pressing problem confronting low-income families in the United States. Previous studies on the issue often ignored the methodological issue of endogenous program participation. We revisit this important issue by estimating a simultaneous equation system with ordinal household food insecurity. Data are drawn from the 2009-2011 Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement (CPS-FSS), restricted to SNAP-eligible households with children. Our results add to the stocks of empirical findings that SNAP participation ameliorates food insecurity among adults only, but increases the probabilities of low and very low food security among children. These contradictory results indicate that our selection approach with a single cross section is only partially successful, and that additional efforts are needed in further analyses of this complicated issue, perhaps with longitudinal data. Socio-demographic variables are found to affect food-secure households and food-insecure households differently, but affect SNAP nonparticipants and participants in the same direction. The state policy tools, such as broad-based categorical eligibility (BBCE) and simplified reporting, can encourage SNAP participation and thus ameliorate food insecurity. Our findings can inform policy deliberations.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria , Adulto , Niño , Composición Familiar , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pobreza , Estados Unidos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808698

RESUMEN

There exists a normative representation of family meals in contemporary Western societies which is promoted as imperative through public health programs, larger discourses and by some studies in the nutritional and public health research fields. Family meals, also called domestic commensality, are represented as convivial events and are associated with positive health and wellbeing outcomes but there is minimal evidence to show they are beneficial for family members and it is not known which aspect of the family meal could be responsible for these alleged benefits. This normative family meal image is based on a representation of the family as a peaceful unit exempt from external constraints. This narrative literature review of qualitative studies of family meals seeks to put forward the underlying premises of this representation and compare it with reports about actual practices. The results emphasize that eating together is still practiced and remains valued by family members, which is in contrast to discourses lamenting the decline of the family meal. However, the valorisation and recurrence of family meals depends on class, gender and cultural positions. There is a gap between the norm of healthy or convivial and achievable family meals, which can reinforce the so-called "mental load" and "emotion work" of those in charge of feeding the family and heighten inequalities within the household. In fact, there are many challenges to family meals which originate from external constraints or are inherent aspects of family life. The results from this review suggest that we should focus on family meals by taking into account the food work surrounding it and focussing on the interactional aspects of family meals. Ethnographic methods allow the researcher to observe the diversities and complexities of commensality as well as family dynamics and, in doing so, could provide more realistic representations of eating within the family.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Comidas , Familia , Composición Familiar , Relaciones Familiares
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808857

RESUMEN

This study brings together the level of objective knowledge on water-related issues and other variables of psychological and situational nature. A random sample of 459 participants was employed, selected proportionally based on sex and age. In this sample, knowledge on the water-related issues tended to be low, particularly related to the direct source of water in the household, the type of services involved in the management, and consumption itself. In order to understand both the relationship with knowledge on water and the relative importance of all the other factors, a regression model was formulated. The highest standardised effect was for sex, followed by occupation, political leaning, and water-related emotions. The best level of knowledge was attained if the residents were male, if they were actively employed or unemployed, if their political leaning was towards the left, and if they demonstrated greater emotional involvement with the water use. Consequently, the design of programmes would need to consider that the information flow must be greater for citizens as a whole, particularly for certain groups such as women and students. It should contribute to the realistic perception of water as a problem and to seek emotional involvement.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Agua , Emociones , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes
12.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(6)2021 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés, Noruego | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876617

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Belonging to certain ethnic groups, socioeconomic status and cramped living conditions are assumed to affect the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We wanted to examine correlations between a selection of sociodemographic variables and infection rates in Oslo's districts. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Aggregated data on districts obtained from Oslo City Government's statistics database were collated with cumulative figures for PCR-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 as of 3 December 2020. We selected some variables from the living conditions indicators that showed a strong correlation with infection rates. The composite variable 'socioeconomic status' included income, education and labour market attachment. 'Household density' included the proportion of people in cramped living conditions and multi-family households. We performed an unadjusted and adjusted standard multiple linear regression analysis of the impact of immigrant ratio, socioeconomic status and household density on infection rates. RESULTS: Immigrant ratio, socioeconomic status and household density were all associated with infection rates in the districts. Pearson's correlation coefficients (95 % CI) were 0.97 (0.93 to 0.99), -0.93 (-0.97 to -0.86) and 0.88 (0.77 to 0.98) respectively, all with p <0.001. In the adjusted model, immigrant ratio was still associated with the infection rate, B = 3.95 (2.16 to 5.73), p <0.001, however there was no longer a statistically significant association between socioeconomic status or household density and infection rates. INTERPRETATION: Immigrant ratio seems to be an important risk factor for infection in Oslo. Our analysis suggests that the correlation may be due to factors other than low socioeconomic status and high household density.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Clase Social
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6052-6064, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826310

RESUMEN

Many sanitation interventions suffer from poor sustainability. Failure to maintain or replace toilet facilities risks exposing communities to environmental pathogens, yet little is known about the factors that drive sustained access beyond project life spans. Using data from a cohort of 1666 households in Kwale County, Kenya, we investigated the factors associated with changes in sanitation access between 2015 and 2017. Sanitation access is defined as access to an improved or unimproved facility within the household compound that is functional and in use. A range of contextual, psychosocial, and technological covariates were included in logistic regression models to estimate their associations with (1) the odds of sustaining sanitation access and (2) the odds of gaining sanitation access. Over two years, 28.3% households sustained sanitation access, 4.7% lost access, 17.7% gained access, and 49.2% remained without access. Factors associated with increased odds of households sustaining sanitation access included not sharing the facility and presence of a solid washable slab. Factors associated with increased odds of households gaining sanitation access included a head with at least secondary school education, level of coarse soil fragments, and higher local sanitation coverage. Results from this study can be used by sanitation programs to improve the rates of initial and sustained adoption of sanitation.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Kenia , Suelo
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923258

RESUMEN

In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Dieta/métodos , Conducta Alimentaria , Valor Nutritivo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bebidas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Pandemias , España/epidemiología , Verduras
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924821

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health emergency. Social distancing is a key approach to slowing disease transmission. However, more evidence is needed on its efficacy, and little is known on the types of areas where it is more or less effective. We obtained county-level data on COVID-19 incidence and mortality during the first wave, smartphone-based average social distancing (0-5, where higher numbers indicate more social distancing), and census data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Using generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson distribution, we modeled associations between social distancing and COVID-19 incidence and mortality, and multiplicative interaction terms to assess effect modification. In multivariable models, each unit increase in social distancing was associated with a 26% decrease (p < 0.0001) in COVID-19 incidence and a 31% decrease (p < 0.0001) in COVID-19 mortality. Percent crowding, minority population, and median household income were all statistically significant effect modifiers. County-level increases in social distancing led to reductions in COVID-19 incidence and mortality but were most effective in counties with lower percentages of black residents, higher median household incomes, and with lower levels of household crowding.


Asunto(s)
Aglomeración , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Clase Social
16.
Global Health ; 17(1): 32, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted adversely upon the mental health of millions of people worldwide. Impacts on the mental health conditions and the associated predictors relating to adults in Pakistan, the fifth most populous country in the world, during the COVID-19 remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate distress, anxiety, and overall mental health and their associated predictors among Pakistani adults in this pandemic. We specifically examine mental health issues based on the distance from the epicenter, (a predictor that has revealed opposing evidence in other countries) based on the theories of typhoon eye effect and ripple effect. The sample consisted of 601 adults who were surveyed online about 2.5 months into the outbreak across Pakistan with varying distances from the epicenter of COVID-19 of Karachi. RESULTS: The results showed that 9.2 and 19.0% of the participants surpassed the cut-off criteria for distress and anxiety disorders, respectively. Overall, the distance from the epicenter positively predicted the mental health of adults in Pakistan, and family size negatively moderated this effect. The distance from the epicenter negatively predicted distress and anxiety disorders for adults in large families, which are quite common in Pakistan. CONCLUSION: The evidence of the study interestingly finds that the prediction of the mental health of people by their distance from the epicenter depends on family size. The evidence of this study can help to provide initial indicators for mental health care providers to screen vulnerable groups in Pakistan, a populous country that continues struggling to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Composición Familiar , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670155

RESUMEN

Although China is experiencing a transition from a relation-based society to a rule-based society, relationships among acquaintances still play an important role in resource allocation, such as the allocation of policy resources. This is particularly true in rural China, where targeted poverty alleviation is prevalent and a relation-based social structure still dominates. However, it is still unknown how relationships affect the livelihood strategy of households in rural China and how poverty alleviation policies plays a role between them. Therefore, this paper embeds poverty alleviation into the relation-based society and explores how households respond to the policy in this specific context. Using grounded theory research method and the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) framework, this paper contains in-depth interviews and field observations from three poverty-stricken villages in Northeast China. The results show that relationships have a significant impact on the households' livelihood strategy. In other words, the households' livelihood strategy is embedded in the relation-based society. The types of relationships induce households to choose maintained or developmental type livelihood strategies, while relationships influence how the poverty alleviation policies affect the livelihood strategy. This study is not only an extension of the SLA in the research context, but also provides a significant perspective for enriching the long-term mechanism of targeted poverty alleviation by building a theoretical model of the relationships between a relation-based society, targeted poverty alleviation and the livelihood strategies of households.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Pobreza , China , Humanos , Políticas , Población Rural
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671120

RESUMEN

Using a nationally representative dataset from rural areas in South Africa, the study examines vulnerability to food insecurity using the Vulnerability as Expected Poverty framework. The dataset used was large and comprehensive to develop robust profiles of vulnerable households. This is executed employing the sustainable livelihoods framework. The findings show that human and financial capital plays a critical role in making rural households resilient from vulnerability to food insecurity. The failure of natural resources to support agricultural livelihoods emerged as an important factor for rural household vulnerability to food insecurity. Gender-based imbalances still prevail, explaining most of the rural household vulnerability to food insecurity. Female-dominated households still endure most of the prevailing vulnerabilities to food insecurity, and this is even worse for households headed by younger females. Policies, strategies, and institutions in South Africa have not been able to address household vulnerability to food insecurity. The study identified Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal as the most vulnerable provinces where food policy has to be a top priority agenda.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Población Rural , Sudáfrica
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248072, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730055

RESUMEN

The spread of COVID-19 and resulting local and national lockdowns have a host of potential consequences for demographic trends. While impacts on mortality and, to some extent, short-term migration flows are beginning to be documented, it is too early to measure actual consequences for family demography. To gain insight into potential future consequences of the lockdown for family demography, we use cross-national Google Trends search data to explore whether trends in searches for words related to fertility, relationship formation, and relationship dissolution changed following lockdowns compared to average, pre-lockdown levels in Europe and the United States. Because lockdowns were not widely anticipated or simultaneous in timing or intensity, we exploit variability over time and between countries (and U.S. states). We use a panel event-study design and difference-in-differences methods, and account for seasonal trends and average country-level (or state-level) differences in searches. We find statistically significant impacts of lockdown timing on changes in searches for terms such as wedding and those related to condom use, emergency contraception, pregnancy tests, and abortion, but little evidence of changes in searches related to fertility. Impacts for union formation and dissolution tended to only be statistically significant at the start of a lockdown with a return to average-levels about 2 to 3 months after lockdown initiation, particularly in Europe. Compared to Europe, returns to average search levels were less evident for the U.S., even 2 to 3 months after lockdowns were introduced. This may be due to the fact, in the U.S., health and social policy responses were less demarcated than in Europe, such that economic uncertainty was likely of larger magnitude. Such pandemic-related economic uncertainty may therefore have the potential to slightly increase already existing polarization in family formation behaviours in the U.S. Alongside contributing to the wider literature on economic uncertainty and family behaviors, this paper also proposes strategies for efficient use of Google Trends data, such as making relative comparisons and testing sensitivity to outliers, and provides a template and cautions for their use in demographic research when actual demographic trends data are not yet available.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , Europa (Continente) , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Política Pública , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 502, 2021 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722207

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research investigating the confluence of risk factors in urban slums that may make them accelerators for respiratory, droplet infections like COVID-19. Our working hypothesis was that, even within slums, an inverse relationship existed between living density and access to shared or private WASH facilities. METHODS: In an exploratory, secondary analysis of World Bank, cross-sectional microdata from slums in Bangladesh we investigated the relationship between intra-household population density (crowding) and access to private or shared water sources and toilet facilities. RESULTS: The analysis showed that most households were single-room dwellings (80.4%). Median crowding ranged from 0.55 m2 per person up to 67.7 m2 per person. The majority of the dwellings (83.3%), shared both toilet facilities and the source of water, and there was a significant positive relationship between crowding and the use of shared facilities. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the practical constraints on implementing, in slums, the conventional COVID19 management approaches of social distancing, regular hand washing, and not sharing spaces. It has implications for the management of future respiratory epidemics.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Aglomeración , Composición Familiar/etnología , Áreas de Pobreza , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento/normas , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Población Urbana
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